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The human brain is the center of the human nervous system and is a highly complex organ. Enclosed in the cranium, it has the same general structure as the brains of other mammals, but is over three times as large as the brain of a typical mammal with an equivalent body size.
Patients with impaired consciousness show uncontrolled communication between resting-state networks

Patients with impaired consciousness show uncontrolled communication between resting-state networks

An international research team has investigated interactions in different states of consciousness and has discovered that patients with severely impaired consciousness show a pathological or uncontrolled communication between resting-state networks. [More]
Group of gamma-protocadherins linked with neurons help regulate growth of dendrites

Group of gamma-protocadherins linked with neurons help regulate growth of dendrites

When you think of a neuron, imagine a tree. A healthy brain cell indeed looks like a tree with a full canopy. There's a trunk, which is the cell's nucleus; there's a root system, embodied in a single axon; and there are the branches, called dendrites. [More]
Researchers develop new quantitative assessment of motor control in kids with cerebral palsy

Researchers develop new quantitative assessment of motor control in kids with cerebral palsy

Children with cerebral palsy frequently undergo invasive surgeries -- lengthening tendons, rotating bones, transferring muscles to new locations -- in hopes of improving their physical ability to walk or move. [More]
Study reveals surprising results that may impair future therapeutic approaches in TGF-beta pathway

Study reveals surprising results that may impair future therapeutic approaches in TGF-beta pathway

Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München describe how breast cancer cells challenged with a small-molecule inhibitor targeting specific invasive properties switch to an alternative mode-of-action, rendering them even more aggressive. The results may impair future therapeutic approaches in the TGF-beta pathway and are published in the journal 'Oncotarget'. [More]
Clinical study to evaluate safety of investigational cell therapy to treat chronic motor deficits after stroke

Clinical study to evaluate safety of investigational cell therapy to treat chronic motor deficits after stroke

University Hospitals Case Medical Center is the first surgical site for a Phase 2b clinical trial study to further evaluate the safety and efficacy of an investigational cell therapy for the treatment of chronic motor deficit following an ischemic stroke. [More]
TSRI study reveals important traits in LCMV, Lassa virus

TSRI study reveals important traits in LCMV, Lassa virus

For the first time, scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have solved the structure of the biological machinery used by a common virus to recognize and attack human host cells. [More]
New rat study shows specific genetic factors may contribute to differences in addiction among humans

New rat study shows specific genetic factors may contribute to differences in addiction among humans

Why does one person who tries cocaine get addicted, while another might use it and then leave it alone? Why do some people who kick a drug habit manage to stay clean, while others relapse? And why do some families seem more prone to addiction than others? [More]
Rapamycin drug could target neural damage linked to Leigh syndrome

Rapamycin drug could target neural damage linked to Leigh syndrome

Salk Institute scientists showed how an FDA-approved drug boosts the health of brain cells by limiting their energy use. Like removing unnecessary lighting from a financially strapped household to save on electricity bills, the drug--called rapamycin--prolongs the survival of diseased neurons by forcing them to reduce protein production to conserve cellular energy. [More]
UNC-Chapel Hill researchers identify functional brain circuit that controls alcohol binge drinking

UNC-Chapel Hill researchers identify functional brain circuit that controls alcohol binge drinking

Researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have identified a circuit between two brain regions that controls alcohol binge drinking, offering a more complete picture on what drives a behavior that costs the United States more than $170 billion annually and how it can be treated. [More]
Study reveals new function for CACNA1C gene in psychiatric diseases

Study reveals new function for CACNA1C gene in psychiatric diseases

A new study shows the death of newborn brain cells may be linked to a genetic risk factor for five major psychiatric diseases, and at the same time shows a compound currently being developed for use in humans may have therapeutic value for these diseases by preventing the cells from dying. [More]
New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetically inherited cause of intellectual disability in humans. New research shows how the hormone insulin -- usually associated with diabetes -- is involved in the daily activity patterns and cognitive deficits in the fruitfly model of FXS, according to a new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania published online this month in Molecular Psychiatry in advance of the print issue. [More]
Scientists unravel mystery of disrupted communication between brain cells in Parkinson's patients

Scientists unravel mystery of disrupted communication between brain cells in Parkinson's patients

A possible cause has been found for the disrupted communication between brain cells exhibited by Parkinson's patients. Bettina Schwab, a researcher at the University of Twente in The Netherlands, discovered that this group of patients have increased concentrations of a certain type of protein. Ms Schwab defended her doctoral dissertation on Friday 22 April. [More]
Researchers test potential positive effects of micro-injury in mice modeled with AD

Researchers test potential positive effects of micro-injury in mice modeled with AD

Researchers testing the potential positive effects of "micro-injury" by brief insertion of a small needle into the hippocampal region of mice modeled with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have found that the procedure not only stimulated the hippocampus into regenerative activity, but also reduced β-amyloid plaques, a hallmark of AD. [More]
OSMR gene plays key role in driving growth of glioblastoma tumors

OSMR gene plays key role in driving growth of glioblastoma tumors

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive type of brain tumor in adults. Unfortunately, there are no effective treatments for the disease. On average, patients succumb just 16 months after diagnosis. [More]
Innovations in pre-clinical MRI: an interview with Priv. Doz. Dr. Dominik von Elverfeldt

Innovations in pre-clinical MRI: an interview with Priv. Doz. Dr. Dominik von Elverfeldt

To me the most exciting aspect of pre-clinical imaging is its broad range, from very basic science up to applied science. You deal with a range of disciplines including biology, chemistry, physics, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology and of course medicine, as the aim is the translation of research to humans. [More]
UAB receives $2.86 million NIH grant to study effectiveness of cognitive training in older adults with HAND

UAB receives $2.86 million NIH grant to study effectiveness of cognitive training in older adults with HAND

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Nursing Professor David Vance, Ph.D., has received a five-year, $2.86 million R01 grant from the National Institute of Mental Health for a study to determine whether quality of life of middle-aged and older adults with HIV can be improved by enhancing cognitive functioning through speed of processing training. [More]
Acute liver failure after massive hepatectomy improves with liver cell transplantation

Acute liver failure after massive hepatectomy improves with liver cell transplantation

Liver failure often occurs after an extensive hepatectomy, which is the surgical resection of the liver. While liver cell transplantation is a useful therapy for acute liver failure after massive hepatectomy, when cells are transplanted through liver portal veins raises the risk of embolization, such as the formation and movement of a blood clot, often with fatal consequences. [More]
Salk scientists reveal how cellular fuel gauge plays unexpected role in development

Salk scientists reveal how cellular fuel gauge plays unexpected role in development

Salk scientists have revealed how a cellular "fuel gauge" responsible for monitoring and managing cells' energy processes also has an unexpected role in development. This critical link could help researchers better understand cancer and diabetes pathways. [More]
Innovative strategy can reverse symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

Innovative strategy can reverse symptoms in neurodegenerative diseases

Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are the two most common neurodegenerative disorders worldwide and cause untold suffering to millions of patients and their families. Treatments for these diseases are limited, and no cures exist. Now, a new study describes an innovative strategy that reverses symptoms in these neurodegenerative diseases - at least in fruit flies which had been genetically altered to model the diseases. [More]

Post-mortem toxicology screening has many phases

Prince's autopsy was conducted by A. Quinn Strobl, MD, FCAP, a member of the College of American Pathologists. The results are expected to take at least two weeks, perhaps as many as six full weeks. This tragedy has people asking again "Why do toxicology results take so long?" [More]
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