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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Researchers explore key factors to improve astronauts’ nutrition needs during space missions

Researchers explore key factors to improve astronauts’ nutrition needs during space missions

Centuries ago, ships often sailed with crews numbering in the hundreds returning with tens. Cause of death: Scurvy - a severe depletion of Vitamin C. [More]
Study provides mechanism for EDNRB gene's role in adaptation to life at high altitudes

Study provides mechanism for EDNRB gene's role in adaptation to life at high altitudes

Ethiopians have lived at high altitudes for thousands of years, providing a natural experiment for studying human adaptations to low oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia. One factor that may enable Ethiopians to tolerate high altitudes and hypoxia is the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. [More]
Commonly prescribed drug also lowers blood pressure when combined with diuretic

Commonly prescribed drug also lowers blood pressure when combined with diuretic

With the growth of electronic medical records, research utilizing data from a large number of patients, known as big data studies, can provide important information which may be unattainable via clinical trials which tend to be costly, time-consuming and involve fewer patients. [More]
RGS2 protein plays significant role in healthy egg-sperm union in mice

RGS2 protein plays significant role in healthy egg-sperm union in mice

Researchers at the National Institutes of Health have discovered a protein that plays a vital role in healthy egg-sperm union in mice. The protein RGS2 can delay an egg's development into an embryo in order to allow time for sperm to arrive and merge with the egg in a healthy fertilization process. The embryo cannot survive without the male chromosomes. [More]
New paper describes positive effects of CRAC channel inhibitors in animal models of acute pancreatitis

New paper describes positive effects of CRAC channel inhibitors in animal models of acute pancreatitis

Researchers from CalciMedica, Inc. and the University of Liverpool today announced the publication of a paper describing positive effects of calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors in animal models of acute pancreatitis. The paper, titled "Inhibitors of ORAI1 prevent cytosolic calcium-associated injury of human pancreatic acinar cells and acute pancreatitis in 3 mouse models" appears in the August edition of the journal Gastroenterology. [More]
New book provides overview of treatment options for paediatric calcium and bone disorders

New book provides overview of treatment options for paediatric calcium and bone disorders

Knowledge about paediatric calcium and bone disorders has increased rapidly over the past twenty years. Great advances have been made in the underlying genetic basis for many conditions, in bone density and geometry imaging and in the development of new treatment options, calling for a new edition of 'Calcium and Bone Disorders in Children and Adolescents' which was first published in 2009. [More]
3SBio purchases entire equity interest in Zhejiang Wansheng

3SBio purchases entire equity interest in Zhejiang Wansheng

3SBio Inc., a leading China-based biotechnology company focused on researching, developing, manufacturing and marketing biopharmaceutical products, today announced that it has acquired the entire equity interest in Zhejiang Wansheng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd a limited liability company incorporated in the PRC for an aggregate consideration of RMB 528 million. [More]
Endocrine Society selects 18 endocrinologists as winners of 2016 Laureate Awards

Endocrine Society selects 18 endocrinologists as winners of 2016 Laureate Awards

The Endocrine Society today announced it has chosen 18 accomplished endocrinologists as winners of the organization's prestigious 2016 Laureate Awards. [More]
Mild cognitive impairment occurs more often in people diagnosed with lower ankle brachial index

Mild cognitive impairment occurs more often in people diagnosed with lower ankle brachial index

In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurred significantly more often in individuals diagnosed with a lower ankle brachial index (ABI), which is a marker of generalized atherosclerosis and thus cumulative exposure to cardiovascular risk factors during lifetime. [More]
PolyU researchers create comprehensive breast milk nutrient database in Hong Kong

PolyU researchers create comprehensive breast milk nutrient database in Hong Kong

Breastfeeding has become more common all across the world in recent years, however, breastfeeding rate has remained low in Hong Kong. One of the main reasons is that Hong Kong mothers worry about the nutrient adequacy of their breast milk to meet the growing needs of the infant. [More]
Dietary phosphate appears to cause spikes in blood phosphorus levels

Dietary phosphate appears to cause spikes in blood phosphorus levels

Phosphates artificially added to dairy and cereal products appear to cause bigger spikes in blood phosphorus levels than naturally occurring phosphates, potentially putting harmful stress on kidneys. Too much dietary phosphate stiffens blood vessels, enlarges the heart and is bad for bones, but a new study by Houston Methodist researchers suggests it matters where the phosphates come from. [More]
Aging may trigger adaptive response to offset effects of oxidative stress on blood vessels

Aging may trigger adaptive response to offset effects of oxidative stress on blood vessels

Although the causes of many age-related diseases remain unknown, oxidative stress is thought to be the main culprit. Oxidative stress has been linked to cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases including diabetes, hypertension and age-related cancers. However, researchers at the University of Missouri recently found that aging actually offered significant protection against oxidative stress. [More]
New project aims to revolutionize application of optogenetics in neuroscience

New project aims to revolutionize application of optogenetics in neuroscience

The revolution that optogenetics technology has brought to biology -- neuroscience in particular -- could be transformed all over again if a new project getting underway at Brown University and Central Michigan University is successful. [More]
Following restrictive sun exposure advice may be harmful to health

Following restrictive sun exposure advice may be harmful to health

Following restrictive sun exposure advice in countries with low solar intensity like Canada might in fact be harmful to your health, says the co-author of a new study on sunlight and vitamin D. [More]
Postmenopausal women with kidney, bladder stones not at increased risk for osteoporosis

Postmenopausal women with kidney, bladder stones not at increased risk for osteoporosis

Postmenopausal women with kidney or bladder stones are not at increased risk for osteoporosis, but they do have about a 15 percent increased risk of another painful stone, physician-scientists report. [More]
Imaging technique could help in diagnosis of atherosclerosis in at-risk patients

Imaging technique could help in diagnosis of atherosclerosis in at-risk patients

Researchers at the University of Cambridge, in collaboration with the University of Edinburgh, have shown how a radioactive agent developed in the 1960s to detect bone cancer can be re-purposed to highlight the build-up of unstable calcium deposits in arteries, a process that can cause heart attack and stroke. [More]
Study looks at effects of three levels of vitamin D supplementation in overweight, obese blacks

Study looks at effects of three levels of vitamin D supplementation in overweight, obese blacks

The current recommended minimum daily dose of vitamin D is not sufficient to restore healthy vitamin D levels in overweight or obese blacks, researchers report. [More]
Coronary artery calcification scans can help identify patients at risk for early death

Coronary artery calcification scans can help identify patients at risk for early death

A study in the online edition of Annals of Internal Medicine suggests that coronary artery calcification (CAC) scans could help physicians identify patients at risk for premature death. [More]
New portable system can produce life-saving NO from air by means of electrical spark

New portable system can produce life-saving NO from air by means of electrical spark

Treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (NO) has proven to be life saving in newborns, children and adults with several dangerous conditions, but the availability of the treatment has been limited by the size, weight and complexity of equipment needed to administer the gas and the therapy's high price. [More]
UCLA cardiologists use less invasive approach to replace heart valve

UCLA cardiologists use less invasive approach to replace heart valve

Last summer, after a long career as a successful entrepreneur and a brief retirement, Richard Whitaker was helping to start another new company. Unfortunately, a serious health concern caused a couple of interruptions in his work on the new venture. One of Whitaker's heart valves wasn't working properly, which caused congestive heart failure and led to two hospitalizations within several months. [More]
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