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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
First generic version of Crestor gets FDA approval

First generic version of Crestor gets FDA approval

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first generic version of Crestor (rosuvastatin calcium) tablets. [More]
Latest popular diets have nutrient gaps

Latest popular diets have nutrient gaps

Paleo, high-protein, low-carb, gluten-free, vegetarian and vegan eating lifestyles have all exploded in popularity in the last few years. Whether people adopt these diets in order to lose weight or maintain overall wellness, consumers that follow them may be missing out on some essential nutrients. In the April issue of Food Technology Magazine, Linda Mila Ohr writes about the nutrient gaps in these various diets and how consumers can make sure they get the nutrients they need. [More]
Study reveals new function for CACNA1C gene in psychiatric diseases

Study reveals new function for CACNA1C gene in psychiatric diseases

A new study shows the death of newborn brain cells may be linked to a genetic risk factor for five major psychiatric diseases, and at the same time shows a compound currently being developed for use in humans may have therapeutic value for these diseases by preventing the cells from dying. [More]
Zinc sparks help doctors choose best eggs to transfer during IVF

Zinc sparks help doctors choose best eggs to transfer during IVF

A stunning explosion of zinc fireworks occurs when a human egg is activated by a sperm enzyme, and the size of these "sparks" is a direct measure of the quality of the egg and its ability to develop into an embryo, according to new research from Northwestern Medicine. [More]
Newly identified molecular pathway could lead to new treatments for reflux, incontinence disorders

Newly identified molecular pathway could lead to new treatments for reflux, incontinence disorders

Researchers at UMass Medical School have identified a new molecular pathway critical for maintaining the smooth muscle tone that allows the passage of materials through the digestive system. [More]
Testosterone may lead to greater heart attack risk in men than women

Testosterone may lead to greater heart attack risk in men than women

Testosterone might be involved in explaining why men have a greater risk of heart attacks than women of similar age, according to a study funded by the British Heart Foundation and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. The findings, published in the journal Scientific Reports, could lead to new therapies to help reduce heart attack risk. [More]
Cyclodextrin offers potential new therapy for cardiovascular disease

Cyclodextrin offers potential new therapy for cardiovascular disease

An American mother's hunch might result in new treatments for patients who can't tolerate conventional cholesterol-lowering drugs. [More]
Scientists find way to control behaviour of cardiomyocytes using laser radiation

Scientists find way to control behaviour of cardiomyocytes using laser radiation

Scientists from MIPT's Laboratory of the Biophysics of Excitable Systems have discovered how to control the behaviour of heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes) using laser radiation; this study will help scientists to better understand the mechanisms of the heart and could ultimately provide a method of treating arrhythmia. The paper has been published in the journal PLOS ONE. [More]
Researchers investigate biochemical, physiological characteristics of facial and extraocular muscles

Researchers investigate biochemical, physiological characteristics of facial and extraocular muscles

In a new study, a research team at Basel University Hospital in Switzerland investigates the biochemical and physiological characteristics of orbicularis oculi, a group of facial muscles that control the eyelids and are selectively spared or involved in different neuromuscular disorders. What they found also helps to explain why another set of muscles—the extraocular muscles that control the movement of the eye—are not affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy, and aging. [More]
New BioMinF toothpaste ingredient helps prevent decay and treat sensitivity

New BioMinF toothpaste ingredient helps prevent decay and treat sensitivity

A new toothpaste ingredient which puts back the lost minerals from tooth enamel and helps prevent decay and treat sensitivity while you sleep is available online and from specialist dental distributors now. It is expected to be available through high street stores by the end of the year. [More]
Substances from tequila plant may help treat osteoporosis

Substances from tequila plant may help treat osteoporosis

Mexican scientist identified substances from the plant that enhance absorption of calcium in the body. [More]
Award-winning vitamin D oral spray could help improve heart function

Award-winning vitamin D oral spray could help improve heart function

Relief from low vitamin D levels could now be just a spray away thanks to an award-winning vitamin D oral spray that could help boost the vitamin D levels of those with chronic heart failure, resulting in improved heart function, according to a recent study. [More]
Two common approaches to post-operative AF equally safe, effective

Two common approaches to post-operative AF equally safe, effective

Cleveland Clinic researchers, as part of the Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network, have found that two common approaches to post-operative atrial fibrillation - rhythm control and rate control - are equally safe and effective. [More]
Surgery better than widely used drugs for treating hyperparathyroidism

Surgery better than widely used drugs for treating hyperparathyroidism

While most cases of osteoporosis are caused by normal aging, another leading cause of the bone-loss disease is a condition called hyperparathyroidism, in which the parathyroid glands release an excessive amount of a hormone that regulates the body's calcium levels. [More]
ADHD stimulant drugs may lower bone density in children and adolescents

ADHD stimulant drugs may lower bone density in children and adolescents

Children and teenagers who take stimulant drugs to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have lower bone density than their peers who do not take these medications, a new study finds. [More]
Higher aortic stiffness associated with reduced white matter volume among young adults

Higher aortic stiffness associated with reduced white matter volume among young adults

A large, multi-center study led by the UC Davis School of Medicine for the first time has shown that people as young as their 40s have stiffening of the arteries that is associated with subtle structural damage to the brain that is implicated in cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease later in life. [More]
Transient contractions could be new target for therapeutic intervention in urinary bladder dysfunction

Transient contractions could be new target for therapeutic intervention in urinary bladder dysfunction

Researchers at the University of Vermont College of Medicine have made a discovery that helps explain how we know when to empty our bladders and may lead to new therapeutic interventions for bladder dysfunction. [More]
UC Berkeley biologists discover potential target for unisex contraceptives

UC Berkeley biologists discover potential target for unisex contraceptives

UC Berkeley biologists have discovered the switch that triggers the power kick sperm use to penetrate and fertilize a human egg, uncovering a possible source of male infertility but also a potential target for contraceptives that work in both men and women. [More]
Neurons in hypothalamus help maintain blood glucose levels, study finds

Neurons in hypothalamus help maintain blood glucose levels, study finds

To learn what different cells do, scientists switch them on and off and observe what the effects are. There are many methods that do this, but they all have problems: too invasive, or too slow, or not precise enough. Now, a new method to control the activity of neurons in mice, devised by scientists at Rockefeller University and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, avoids these downfalls by using magnetic forces to remotely control the flow of ions into specifically targeted cells. [More]
Defective PTCHD1 gene in brain creates symptoms associated with autism and ADHD

Defective PTCHD1 gene in brain creates symptoms associated with autism and ADHD

Evidence is mounting that a gene called PTCHD1 helps the brain sort between important sights and sounds — and distractions. This gene is active in a brain region that attaches more attention to a conversation with your boss, for instance, than to an air conditioner buzzing in the background. [More]
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