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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Study uncovers new pathway for treating high blood pressure, heart failure

Study uncovers new pathway for treating high blood pressure, heart failure

New research by scientists at the University of Maryland School of Medicine and the Ottawa Heart Institute has uncovered a new pathway by which the brain uses an unusual steroid to control blood pressure. [More]
Recommendations for nutritional rickets announced

Recommendations for nutritional rickets announced

New consensus recommendations for the management of nutritional rickets include universal vitamin D supplementation during the first year of life. [More]
NIH announces winners of BRAIN Initiative awards

NIH announces winners of BRAIN Initiative awards

Today the National Institutes of Health (NIH) announced their first round of BRAIN Initiative awards, and six teams from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are among the recipients. [More]
Research performed in anemic mice shows acetate stimulates the formation of red blood cells

Research performed in anemic mice shows acetate stimulates the formation of red blood cells

UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers seeking novel treatments for anemia found that giving acetate, the major component of household vinegar, to anemic mice stimulated the formation of new red blood cells. [More]
Researchers explain how molecular structure of the heart muscle changes in heart failure

Researchers explain how molecular structure of the heart muscle changes in heart failure

In a new study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, researchers at the University of Alberta's Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry have explained how the function of a key protein in the heart changes in heart failure. [More]
Scientists discover mechanism that resists cancer drugs in estrogen-positive breast cancer

Scientists discover mechanism that resists cancer drugs in estrogen-positive breast cancer

Scientists have discovered a previously unknown mechanism by which estrogen prepares cells to divide, grow and, in the case of estrogen-positive breast cancers, resist cancer drugs. The researchers say the work reveals new targets for breast cancer therapy and will help doctors predict which patients need the most aggressive treatment. [More]
Study: Simple blood test could identify people with hypercalcaemia

Study: Simple blood test could identify people with hypercalcaemia

High levels of calcium in blood, a condition known as hypercalcaemia, can be used by GPs as an early indication of certain types of cancer, according to a study by researchers from the universities of Bristol and Exeter. [More]
Study on widespread vitamin D deficiency among patients who undergo thyroidectomy

Study on widespread vitamin D deficiency among patients who undergo thyroidectomy

A new study from researchers at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit finds widespread vitamin D deficiency among patients who undergo a thyroidectomy, potentially putting them at greater risk for developing dangerously low blood calcium levels after surgery. [More]
Mfn2 protein: A future therapeutic target for neuronal death reduction in ischemic stroke

Mfn2 protein: A future therapeutic target for neuronal death reduction in ischemic stroke

A new study published in the prestigious publication The EMBO Journal shows that the mitochondrial protein Mfn2 may be a future therapeutic target for neuronal death reduction in the late phases of an ischemic stroke. [More]
New study sheds light on longstanding question about role of mitochondria in motor neuron diseases

New study sheds light on longstanding question about role of mitochondria in motor neuron diseases

A new study by researchers at the University of Utah School of Medicine sheds light on a longstanding question about the role of mitochondria in debilitating and fatal motor neuron diseases and resulted in a new mouse model to study such illnesses. [More]
Researchers discover new molecular mechanism that plays crucial role in age-dependent diabetes

Researchers discover new molecular mechanism that plays crucial role in age-dependent diabetes

Ageing of insulin-secreting cells is coupled to a progressive decline in signal transduction and insulin release, according to a recent study by researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden. [More]
Dairy products contribute to overall metabolic health

Dairy products contribute to overall metabolic health

Dairy is considered part of a healthy diet and dietary guidelines recommend the daily consumption of 2-4 portions of milk-based products such as milk, yogurt, cheese, cream and butter. [More]
Study to understand how brain detects errors caused by unexpected sensory events

Study to understand how brain detects errors caused by unexpected sensory events

University of Pennsylvania researchers have made another advance in understanding how the brain detects errors caused by unexpected sensory events. [More]
Ortho-oncology team successfully adapts shoulder surgical aid

Ortho-oncology team successfully adapts shoulder surgical aid

An ortho-oncology team at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center successfully adapted a shoulder surgical aid (the Spider Limb Positioner) to conduct a left hip disarticulation on a melanoma patient as described in a case report published online in Medical Devices. [More]
Endo International introduces topical testosterone gel, FORTESTA Gel

Endo International introduces topical testosterone gel, FORTESTA Gel

Endo International plc announced today that it has introduced the first and only generic 2% topical testosterone gel, an authorized generic of FORTESTA® Gel (testosterone gel) CIII. [More]
Liver injury caused by herbals and dietary supplements increases 20% in U.S. study group

Liver injury caused by herbals and dietary supplements increases 20% in U.S. study group

New research shows that liver injury caused by herbals and dietary supplements increased from 7% to 20% in a U.S. study group over a ten-year period. [More]
Neuroscientist discovers new mechanism that can reverse chronic pain

Neuroscientist discovers new mechanism that can reverse chronic pain

It's in the brain where we perceive the unpleasant sensations of pain, and researchers have long been examining how calcium channels in the brain and peripheral nervous system contribute to the development of chronic pain conditions. [More]
Researchers examine risk of MCI and diabetes mellitus type 2 in middle-aged people

Researchers examine risk of MCI and diabetes mellitus type 2 in middle-aged people

In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurred twice more often in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2. [More]
Hyperproteic diets could be beneficial for bones

Hyperproteic diets could be beneficial for bones

This research, conducted at the University of Granada, also reveals that soy protein supplements are better than those with whey, since they improve calcium content in bones by as much as seven per cent. This research has been published in the journal Food & Function [More]
Flow through pain-sensing molecule helps worms adapt to pain

Flow through pain-sensing molecule helps worms adapt to pain

When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away. Although scientists know the basic neural circuits involved in sensing and responding to such painful stimuli, they are still sorting out the molecular players. [More]