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Sleep hormone melatonin may be responsible for type 2 diabetes risk among overnight workers

Sleep hormone melatonin may be responsible for type 2 diabetes risk among overnight workers

A new experimental and clinical study from Lund University in Sweden shows that the sleep hormone melatonin impairs insulin secretion in people with a common gene variant. [More]
McGill researchers discover brain cells that play key role in leptin sensing, weight gain

McGill researchers discover brain cells that play key role in leptin sensing, weight gain

It's rare for scientists to get what they describe as "clean" results without spending a lot of time repeating the same experiment over and over again. But when researchers saw the mice they were working with doubling their weight within a month or two, they knew they were on to something. [More]
Study helps discover new treatments for type 2 diabetes in men with low testosterone

Study helps discover new treatments for type 2 diabetes in men with low testosterone

Doctors have long known that men with low testosterone are at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes. For the first time, researchers have identified how testosterone helps men regulate blood sugar by triggering key signaling mechanisms in islets, clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce insulin. The findings, co-authored by Tulane University researchers, are published in the journal [More]
Understanding how individuals respond to aspirin

Understanding how individuals respond to aspirin

Researchers have learned new information about how different people respond to aspirin, a globally prescribed drug in cardioprotection. The research team, led by scientists at Cardiff University in the United Kingdom and including representatives from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and the University of Colorado, identified more than 5,600 lipids — or fats — in blood platelets and gained new insights into how these cells respond to aspirin. [More]
Study links age-related changes in human pancreas to diabetes development

Study links age-related changes in human pancreas to diabetes development

A Stanford-led national collaboration to procure and analyze human pancreatic tissue from deceased donors illustrates how the organ's function changes as we age, and could point the way toward new diabetes treatments. [More]
Improving body clock could protect against metabolic syndrome

Improving body clock could protect against metabolic syndrome

Essential biological processes are managed by an internal timer or body clock. When the body clock gets out of whack, conditions such as metabolic syndrome can occur. [More]
High levels of COMP protein may lead to worse breast cancer prognosis

High levels of COMP protein may lead to worse breast cancer prognosis

Research from Lund University in Sweden shows that the protein COMP, which mainly exists in cartilage, can also be found in breast cancer tumours in patients with a poor prognosis. Studies on mice also showed that COMP contributed to the development and metastasis of the breast cancer. [More]
Mouse-based study shows exercise decreases cancer incidence, slows tumor growth

Mouse-based study shows exercise decreases cancer incidence, slows tumor growth

When you're pounding along an icy pavement or sweating through a gym workout, you try to remind yourself of the many health benefits of exercise. Between gasps, you can say that a healthy, fit lifestyle helps prevents obesity, a worldwide problem of increasing magnitude that has been linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. [More]
Joslin scientists identify new mechanism in development of obesity-induced insulin resistance

Joslin scientists identify new mechanism in development of obesity-induced insulin resistance

In obesity, the body's immune system can treat tissues as if they are suffering from a low-grade chronic infection. This obesity-induced inflammation is an important contributor to insulin resistance, a condition that can progress into type 2 diabetes. [More]
Neutralizing acidic tumor environment increases efficacy of immune-targeting cancer therapies

Neutralizing acidic tumor environment increases efficacy of immune-targeting cancer therapies

Cancer cells have the ability to grow in an acidic tumor environment that is detrimental to other cells, including immune cells. In a Cancer Research cover article published this week, Moffitt Cancer Center reported that neutralizing the acidic tumor environment increases the efficacy of several immune-targeting cancer therapies. [More]
Inhibiting cholesterol esterification can potentiate antitumor activity of killer T cells

Inhibiting cholesterol esterification can potentiate antitumor activity of killer T cells

As key players in the immune system, T cells provide tumor surveillance and have direct antitumor effects. However, tumors can escape T-cell attack through various mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment. Reactivating the antitumor effects of T cells has shown great clinical benefits in treating various cancers. [More]
Brown fat may help to keep blood sugar steady in adults

Brown fat may help to keep blood sugar steady in adults

Australian scientists have shown that brown fat - a special type of fat that burns energy to produce heat - may also help to keep blood sugar steady in adults. [More]
Research findings offer new way to look at cancer cell metabolism

Research findings offer new way to look at cancer cell metabolism

Cancer cells are notorious for their ability to divide uncontrollably and generate hordes of new tumor cells. Most of the fuel consumed by these rapidly proliferating cells is glucose, a type of sugar. [More]
Inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uptake specifically toxic to cancer cells

Inhibition of mitochondrial calcium uptake specifically toxic to cancer cells

Inhibiting the transfer of calcium ions into the cell's powerhouse is specifically toxic to cancer cells, according to an article published this week in Cell Reports by researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. [More]
Rockefeller research reveals vital new component of system responsible for regulating food intake

Rockefeller research reveals vital new component of system responsible for regulating food intake

The molecular intricacies of hunger and satiety, pivotal for understanding metabolic disorders and the problem of obesity, are not yet fully understood by scientists. However, new research from The Rockefeller University reveals an important new component of the system responsible for regulating food intake: a hormone called amylin, which acts in the brain to help control consumption. [More]
Losing just 5% of weight has significant health benefits for patients with obesity

Losing just 5% of weight has significant health benefits for patients with obesity

For patients with obesity trying to lose weight, the greatest health benefits come from losing just 5 percent of their body weight, according to a new study at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. [More]
Intestinal microbiota necessary for optimum postnatal growth

Intestinal microbiota necessary for optimum postnatal growth

The intestinal microbiota is necessary to ensure optimum postnatal growth and contributes to determining the size of adult individuals, notably in the event of undernutrition. [More]
Kellogg investigators develop new nanotechnology that has potential to kill tumor cells in the eye

Kellogg investigators develop new nanotechnology that has potential to kill tumor cells in the eye

Researchers at the University of Michigan Kellogg Eye Center have developed a new nanoparticle that uses a tumor cell's protective mechanism against itself -- short-circuiting tumor cell metabolism and killing tumor cells. [More]
KU Leuven scientists improve survival of implanted bone cells

KU Leuven scientists improve survival of implanted bone cells

To treat a complicated, non-healing bone defect, surgeons often use an implant with living cells to promote bone repair, but the implanted cells have a small chance of surviving because they are not prepared for a lack of oxygen and nutrients at the fracture site. [More]
Pioglitazone drug may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks

Pioglitazone drug may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks

Pioglitazone, a drug used for type 2 diabetes, may prevent recurrent stroke and heart attacks in people with insulin resistance but without diabetes. [More]
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