Chromosome News and Research RSS Feed - Chromosome News and Research

In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
New imaging technique helps pinpoint significant event that leads to age-related chromosomal errors

New imaging technique helps pinpoint significant event that leads to age-related chromosomal errors

When egg cells form with an incorrect number of chromosomes--a problem that increases with age--the result is usually a miscarriage or a genetic disease such as Down syndrome. [More]
Latent CMV infection induces telomere shortening

Latent CMV infection induces telomere shortening

The telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences at each end of our chromosomes. Studies show that in every cell division, the telomere is shortened. As a result, the telomere limits the cell to a fixed number of divisions and a limited life span. An essential part of human cells they affect how our cells age - as people with longer telomeres live longer lives. Surprisingly, people who are infected with a latent virus, that is, an asymptomatic virus, have shorter telomeres. [More]
New research links mutations in TEX11 gene to some cases of male infertility

New research links mutations in TEX11 gene to some cases of male infertility

In the most severe form of male infertility, men do not make any measurable levels of sperm. This condition, called azoospermia, affects approximately 1 percent of the male population and is responsible for about a sixth of cases of male infertility. [More]
Blue-eyed individuals may have greater chance of becoming alcoholics

Blue-eyed individuals may have greater chance of becoming alcoholics

People with blue eyes might have a greater chance of becoming alcoholics, according to a unique new study by genetic researchers at the University of Vermont. [More]
Kay E. Davies named recipient of ASHG's 2015 William Allan Award

Kay E. Davies named recipient of ASHG's 2015 William Allan Award

The American Society of Human Genetics has named Kay E. Davies, DPhil, Dr. Lee's professor of anatomy, associate head of the medical sciences division; and director of the Medical Research Council Functional Genomics Unit in the department of physiology, anatomy and genetics at the University of Oxford, the 2015 recipient of the annual William Allan Award. [More]
Researchers discover gene locations affecting wrist bones in children

Researchers discover gene locations affecting wrist bones in children

Pediatric researchers have discovered gene locations affecting bone strength in wrist bones, the most common site for fractures in children. Children who have those genetic variants may be at higher-than-average risk of wrist fractures, and could especially benefit from activities and diets that promote bone strength. [More]
Special protein in the brain's smallest blood vessels may affect stroke risk

Special protein in the brain's smallest blood vessels may affect stroke risk

Studies on mice reveal that a special protein in the brain's tiniest blood vessels may affect the risk of stroke. Peter Carlsson, professor in genetics at the University of Gothenburg, and his research team are publishing new research findings in the journal Developmental Cell about how the blood-brain barrier develops and what makes the capillaries in the brain different from small blood vessels in other organs. [More]
Study reveals differences in the way brain inflammation is expressed in people with Down syndrome, AD

Study reveals differences in the way brain inflammation is expressed in people with Down syndrome, AD

Researchers at the University of Kentucky's Sanders-Brown Center on Aging have completed a study that revealed differences in the way brain inflammation -- considered a key component of AD-- is expressed in different subsets of patients, in particular people with Down syndrome (DS) and AD. [More]
Detroit-area patients contribute to national study that redefines diagnosis, treatment of glioma

Detroit-area patients contribute to national study that redefines diagnosis, treatment of glioma

Sixty-seven patients from the Hermelin Brain Tumor Center at Henry Ford Hospital and their families made important contributions to a national cancer study that proposes a change in how some brain tumors are classified - and ultimately treated. [More]
Melanoma patients with high levels of H2A.Z.2 protein less likely to survive

Melanoma patients with high levels of H2A.Z.2 protein less likely to survive

Melanoma patients with high levels of a protein that controls the expression of pro-growth genes are less likely to survive, according to a study led by researchers at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published online in the journal Molecular Cell. [More]
Simple test could help identify genetically inherited risk for prostate cancer

Simple test could help identify genetically inherited risk for prostate cancer

Men with an elevated, genetically inherited risk for prostate cancer could be routinely identified with a simple blood or urine test, scientists at UC San Francisco and Kaiser Permanente Northern California have concluded, potentially paving the way to better or earlier diagnosis. [More]
Molecular classifications of low-grade gliomas proposed

Molecular classifications of low-grade gliomas proposed

Two research teams have independently proposed molecular classification systems for grade II and III glioma based on three tumour markers, with each category displaying distinct clinical features and outcomes. [More]
Two fragile X proteins play crucial role in proper development of neurons

Two fragile X proteins play crucial role in proper development of neurons

Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited intellectual disability and the greatest single genetic contributor to autism. Unlocking the mechanisms behind fragile X could make important revelations about the brain. [More]
Study on how maternal proteins help regulate initial cell divisions during early development

Study on how maternal proteins help regulate initial cell divisions during early development

Researchers in the University of Georgia's Regenerative Bioscience Center are visually capturing the first process of chromosome alignment and separation at the beginning of mouse development. The findings could lead to answers to questions concerning the mechanisms leading to birth defects and chromosome instability in cancer cells. [More]
Ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) improves survival in treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) improves survival in treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Today, Pharmacyclics LLC, an AbbVie company, announced that ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) improved progression-free survival (PFS; primary endpoint) and multiple secondary endpoints including overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL, respectively) in the final analysis of the Phase III RESONATE™-2 (PCYC-1115) trial. [More]
Rhythm announces initiation of two setmelanotide Phase 2 trials for treatment of PWS, POMC-null obesity

Rhythm announces initiation of two setmelanotide Phase 2 trials for treatment of PWS, POMC-null obesity

Rhythm announced today the initiation of two Phase 2 clinical trials focused on evaluating the safety and effectiveness of setmelanotide (RM-493), the company's novel melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, for the treatment of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) and POMC-null obesity. [More]
Pharmacyclics's Phase III RESONATE™ trial shows adherence to 420mg dose of IMBRUVICA improves outcomes in CLL patients

Pharmacyclics's Phase III RESONATE™ trial shows adherence to 420mg dose of IMBRUVICA improves outcomes in CLL patients

Pharmacyclics LLC today highlighted results from a sub-analysis of the Phase III RESONATE™ (PCYC-1112) trial, which found that previously-treated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who adhered to the recommended 420 mg dose of IMBRUVICA® (ibrutinib) experienced improved progression-free survival (PFS; the primary endpoint) as assessed by an Independent Review Committee (IRC), compared to patients who took lower doses or missed doses, regardless of high-risk genetic factors. [More]
Pharmacyclics’ Ibrutinib Phase Ib/II data show ibrutinib may be safe and effective in patients with cGVHD

Pharmacyclics’ Ibrutinib Phase Ib/II data show ibrutinib may be safe and effective in patients with cGVHD

Pharmacyclics LLC today announced interim results from the ongoing Phase Ib/II PCYC-1129 study suggesting that ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) may be a safe and effective treatment for patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD) who were either refractory to steroid treatment or were steroid-dependent. [More]
Phase III HELIOS trial results show ibrutinib combination therapy improves outcomes  in CLL/SLL patients

Phase III HELIOS trial results show ibrutinib combination therapy improves outcomes in CLL/SLL patients

Today, Pharmacyclics LLC announced the results of the Phase III HELIOS trial (CLL3001), which found that patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who received ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) in combination with bendamustine and rituximab (BR) experienced an 80% reduction in the risk of progression or death compared to patients receiving placebo in combination with BR. [More]
Pharmacyclics initiates ibrutinib-MEDI4736 combination multi-center study for R/R DLBCL or FL

Pharmacyclics initiates ibrutinib-MEDI4736 combination multi-center study for R/R DLBCL or FL

Pharmacyclics, Inc. today announced the initiation of PCYC-1136-CA, a multi-center study that will investigate the use of ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA®) in combination with MEDI4736, an investigational anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor being developed by AstraZeneca. [More]
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