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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Mount Sinai researchers reprogram blood cells into iPSCs to study genetic origins of MDS

Mount Sinai researchers reprogram blood cells into iPSCs to study genetic origins of MDS

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) -- adult cells reprogrammed back to an embryonic stem cell-like state--may better model the genetic contributions to each patient's particular disease. In a process called cellular reprogramming, researchers at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have taken mature blood cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and reprogrammed them back into iPSCs to study the genetic origins of this rare blood cancer. [More]
Fourth-line bosutinib ‘appropriate’ after prior CML treatment failure, intolerance

Fourth-line bosutinib ‘appropriate’ after prior CML treatment failure, intolerance

A Spanish study suggests that bosutinib can help improve or maintain response in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia after treatment failure of three previous tyrosine kinase inhibitors. [More]
Male genetic diversity declined due to wealth, power rather than `survival of fittest`

Male genetic diversity declined due to wealth, power rather than `survival of fittest`

The DNA you inherit from your parents contributes to the physical make-up of your body -- whether you have blue eyes or brown, black hair or red, or are male or female. [More]
New pre-clinical, clinical data for IMBRUVICA to be highlighted at AACR Annual Meeting

New pre-clinical, clinical data for IMBRUVICA to be highlighted at AACR Annual Meeting

Pharmacyclics, Inc. today announced that new pre-clinical and clinical data for ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA) will be highlighted at the 2015 American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting to be held April 18 – 22, 2015, in Philadelphia, PA. [More]
RMANJ acquires IVF New Jersey

RMANJ acquires IVF New Jersey

Reproductive Medicine Associates of New Jersey, a world-renowned leader in the field of infertility, today announced the strategic acquisition of IVF New Jersey Fertility and Gynecology Center, one of the largest fertility centers in New Jersey. [More]
Genetic markers may help decide who benefits from aspirin, NSAIDs in lowering risk of colorectal cancer

Genetic markers may help decide who benefits from aspirin, NSAIDs in lowering risk of colorectal cancer

An Indiana University cancer researcher and her colleagues have identified genetic markers that may help determine who benefits from regular use of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for lowering one's risk of developing colorectal cancer. [More]
Researchers discover gene associated with congenital anomaly of urinary tract

Researchers discover gene associated with congenital anomaly of urinary tract

An interdisciplinary team of researchers under the direction of the University of Bonn Hospital have discovered a gene which is associated with a rare congenital anomaly of the urinary tract called classic bladder exstrophy. [More]
Understanding genetic machinery that drives malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors

Understanding genetic machinery that drives malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors

In an advance that could lead to better identification of malignant pediatric adrenocortical tumors, and ultimately to better treatment, researchers have mapped the "genomic landscape" of these rare childhood tumors. Their genomic mapping has revealed unprecedented details, not only of the aberrant genetic and chromosomal changes that drive the cancer, but the sequence of those changes that trigger it. [More]
Rare, aggressive subtype of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia has surprisingly few mutations

Rare, aggressive subtype of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia has surprisingly few mutations

The St. Jude Children's Research Hospital--Washington University Pediatric Cancer Genome Project reports that a highly aggressive form of leukemia in infants has surprisingly few mutations beyond the chromosomal rearrangement that affects the MLL gene. The findings suggest that targeting the alteration is likely the key to improved survival. [More]
USF researchers uncover how malaria-related parasites spread at explosive rates

USF researchers uncover how malaria-related parasites spread at explosive rates

A University of South Florida College of Public Health professor and his team of researchers have become the first to uncover part of the mysterious process by which malaria-related parasites spread at explosive and deadly rates inside humans and other animals. [More]
Genomics researchers discover novel gene variants in childhood CVID

Genomics researchers discover novel gene variants in childhood CVID

Genomics researchers analyzing a rare, serious immunodeficiency disease in children have discovered links to a gene crucial to the body's defense against infections. The finding may represent an inviting target for drugs to treat common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). [More]
New study identifies genetic link to peanut allergy

New study identifies genetic link to peanut allergy

Researchers have pinpointed a region in the human genome associated with peanut allergy in U.S. children, offering strong evidence that genes can play a role in the development of food allergies. [More]
Changes to DNA sequence associated with peanut allergy

Changes to DNA sequence associated with peanut allergy

Research funded by the National Institutes of Health suggests that changes in a small region of chromosome 6 are risk factors for peanut allergy in U.S. children of European descent. The genetic risk area is located among two tightly linked genes that regulate the presentation of allergens and microbial products to the immune system. This study is the first to use a genome-wide screening approach in patients with well-defined food allergy to identify risks for peanut allergy. [More]
New NCCN Guidelines for treating Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

New NCCN Guidelines for treating Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

According to the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL), the treatment approach to ALL is one of the most complex and intensive programs in cancer therapy. [More]
Study: Growth hormone can improve social impairment in patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome

Study: Growth hormone can improve social impairment in patients with Phelan-McDermid syndrome

A growth hormone can significantly improve the social impairment associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in patients with a related genetic syndrome, according to a pilot study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published yesterday on Pub Med, a public database of biomedical topics maintained by the National Institutes of Health (study originally published in the December 12 issue of the journal Molecular Autism). [More]
Einstein researchers find possible clue to why older mothers have babies born with Down syndrome

Einstein researchers find possible clue to why older mothers have babies born with Down syndrome

Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have found a possible clue to why older mothers face a higher risk for having babies born with conditions such as Down syndrome that are characterized by abnormal chromosome numbers. [More]
Duke researchers demonstrate genetic therapeutic technique to treat DMD patients

Duke researchers demonstrate genetic therapeutic technique to treat DMD patients

Duke researchers have demonstrated a genetic therapeutic technique that has the potential to treat more than half of the patients suffering from Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). [More]
Scientists map autism genetic pathway that regulates brain development

Scientists map autism genetic pathway that regulates brain development

Scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have found that mutations that cause autism in children are connected to a pathway that regulates brain development. The research, led by Lilia Iakoucheva, PhD, assistant professor in the Department of Psychiatry, is published in the February 18 issue of Neuron. [More]
New facts provide baseline for future studies of epigenome's role in human development, diseases

New facts provide baseline for future studies of epigenome's role in human development, diseases

While genomics is the study of all of the genes in a cell or organism, epigenomics is the study of all the genomic add-ons and changes that influence gene expression but aren't encoded in the DNA sequence. A variety of new epigenomic information is now available in a collection of studies published Feb. 19 in Nature by the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Epigenomics Program. [More]
UT Southwestern scientists identify new biomarker that could optimize chemotherapy response

UT Southwestern scientists identify new biomarker that could optimize chemotherapy response

UT Southwestern Medical Center scientists have identified a new biomarker that could help identify patients who are more likely to respond to certain chemotherapies. [More]
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