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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Research findings may lead to new treatment strategies for Ewing sarcoma

Research findings may lead to new treatment strategies for Ewing sarcoma

The genetic abnormality that drives the bone cancer Ewing sarcoma operates through two distinct processes - both activating genes that stimulate tumor growth and suppressing those that should keep cancer from developing. These findings by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators, published in the November issue of Cancer Cell, may lead to new therapies targeting these aberrant mechanisms. [More]
Tel Aviv University study throws spotlight on gene mutation responsible for premature ovarian failure

Tel Aviv University study throws spotlight on gene mutation responsible for premature ovarian failure

Premature ovarian failure, also known as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), affects 1% of all women worldwide. In most cases, the exact cause of the condition, which is often associated with infertility, is difficult to determine. [More]
Experts expose fundamental role of chaos and complexity in biological information processing

Experts expose fundamental role of chaos and complexity in biological information processing

The interdisciplinary approach to problems that till recently were addressed in the hermetic framework of distinct disciplines such as physics, informatics, biology or sociology constitutes today one of the most active and innovative areas of science, where fundamental issues meet problems of everyday concern. [More]
TGen uncovers way to track cause of neurological disorder in a young girl

TGen uncovers way to track cause of neurological disorder in a young girl

Using a basic genetic difference between men and women, the Translational Genomics Research Institute has uncovered a way to track down the source of a neurological disorder in a young girl. [More]
Pharmacyclics receives BayBio's 2014 Pantheon DiNA Award for Outstanding Company

Pharmacyclics receives BayBio's 2014 Pantheon DiNA Award for Outstanding Company

Pharmacyclics, Inc. today announced that it has been awarded BayBio's 2014 Pantheon DiNA Award for Outstanding Company for its rapid development and commercialization of IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib). The award was presented at BayBio's 11th Annual Pantheon DiNA Awards ceremony in San Francisco. [More]
IMBRUVICA-rituximab combination well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory MCL

IMBRUVICA-rituximab combination well tolerated in patients with relapsed or refractory MCL

New IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) Phase II data announced by Pharmacyclics, Inc. today demonstrates its potential utility as a combination therapy when used with rituximab. Data suggest that the overall efficacy and safety profile of IMBRUVICA is well tolerated when combined with rituximab in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). [More]
Amgen announces new data from BLINCYTO Phase 2 study for treatment of patients with ALL

Amgen announces new data from BLINCYTO Phase 2 study for treatment of patients with ALL

Amgen today announced that new data from a pivotal Phase 2 study evaluating BLINCYTO (blinatumomab) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was presented at the 56th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition. [More]
Phase 2 RESONATE-17 study: IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) improves survival in CLL patients with del 17p

Phase 2 RESONATE-17 study: IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) improves survival in CLL patients with del 17p

Results from the Phase 2 RESONATE-17 (PCYC-1117) study show IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) was associated with an 82.6 percent investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR; the primary endpoint) and a 79 percent progression-free survival (PFS) rate at 12 months in people living with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) who have a genetic mutation known as deletion 17p (del 17p). [More]
Novel targeted therapies and treatment combinations for leukemia

Novel targeted therapies and treatment combinations for leukemia

Recognizing that leukemia cannot be conquered with a "one-size-fits-all" approach, researchers are pursuing novel targeted therapies and combinations of existing treatment regimens with new agents for patient populations with historically poor prognoses, according to data presented today during the 56th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting and Exposition. [More]
Breakthrough therapy shows promise in resistant forms of Hodgkin lymphoma

Breakthrough therapy shows promise in resistant forms of Hodgkin lymphoma

A therapy that liberates the immune system to attack cancer cells drove Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) into complete or partial remission in fully 87 percent of patients with resistant forms of the disease who participated in an early-phase clinical trial, investigators at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and partnering institutions report in a study published today in the New England Journal of Medicine and simultaneously presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Hematology in San Francisco. [More]
Study provides insights into genetic underpinnings of childhood epilepsies

Study provides insights into genetic underpinnings of childhood epilepsies

Technological advances in genetic analysis have uncovered changes in single genes that account for a surprising number of infantile and early-childhood epilepsies. Though some of the affected genes have been identified, the physical manifestations of these alterations remain largely uncharacterized. [More]
MorphoSys, Xencor announce final results from MOR208 Phase 1/2a trial in patients with CLL/SLL

MorphoSys, Xencor announce final results from MOR208 Phase 1/2a trial in patients with CLL/SLL

MorphoSys AG and Xencor Inc. today announced the publication of final results of a Phase 1/2a trial evaluating MOR208 (formerly XmAb5574) in patients with relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic leukemia (CLL/SLL). [More]
IMBRUVICA demonstrates anti-tumor activity against multiple myeloma in Phase II study

IMBRUVICA demonstrates anti-tumor activity against multiple myeloma in Phase II study

New IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) Phase II data announced here today by Pharmacyclics, Inc) during the 56th American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting suggests that IMBRUVICA demonstrates anti-tumor activity both as a single-agent and as combination therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). [More]
Pharmacyclics launches informCLL registry to explore natural history of CLL patients

Pharmacyclics launches informCLL registry to explore natural history of CLL patients

Pharmacyclics, Inc. today announced the launch of informCLL, a large, observational, prospective registry that will explore the natural history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), examine how IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) and other approved targeted therapies are being used to treat patients with CLL, and provide a comparison to treatments using conventional chemoimmunotherapy (CIT). [More]
Pharmacyclics wins 2014 Society for Medicines Research Award for Drug Discovery

Pharmacyclics wins 2014 Society for Medicines Research Award for Drug Discovery

Pharmacyclics, Inc. today announced that it has won the prestigious 2014 Society for Medicines Research Award for Drug Discovery for its discovery of ibrutinib (IMBRUVICA). The award was presented by The Society of Medicines Research at its biennial award lecture in Kensington, London. [More]
Maternal age and successful egg freezing with PGS: an interview with Dr. Santiago Munné

Maternal age and successful egg freezing with PGS: an interview with Dr. Santiago Munné

The leading cause of of pregnancy loss or infertility is chromosomal abnormality or imbalance, where extra genetic material is present or some is missing - what’s called aneuploidy. This imbalance leads to the inability to produce viable embryos or pregnancy. [More]
Researchers explore how to turn on the activity of paternal gene

Researchers explore how to turn on the activity of paternal gene

Most genes are inherited as two working copies, one from the mother and one from the father. However, in a few instances, a gene is imprinted, which means that one copy is silenced. This is called genomic imprinting. If the active copy is mutated, then disease results, even though the silenced gene copy may be normal. [More]
Alport syndrome: an interview with Dr Paul Grint, CMO, Regulus

Alport syndrome: an interview with Dr Paul Grint, CMO, Regulus

Alport Syndrome was first described by a physician called Cecil Alport, back in the late 1920s. It's a genetic disease that affects a certain type of collagen involved in the functioning of the kidney, the ear, and the eye. [More]
EMA accepts new IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) application for treatment of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia

EMA accepts new IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) application for treatment of Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia

Pharmacyclics, Inc.today announced the acceptance of a Type II variation application for IMBRUVICA (ibrutinib) by the European Medicines Agency. [More]
New active substance effectively combats Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemia

New active substance effectively combats Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemia

Haematologists from Goethe University Frankfurt, working with a Russian pharmaceutical company, have developed a new active substance that effectively combats the most aggressive forms of Philadelphia chromosome-positive leukaemia. [More]