Chromosome News and Research RSS Feed - Chromosome News and Research

In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Gene ZSCAN4 may help treat Down syndrome

Gene ZSCAN4 may help treat Down syndrome

For people with Down syndrome, news from Elixirgen, LLC may brighten their day. The biotechnology company, located in the Science + Technology Park at Johns Hopkins, has outlined one of the best potential therapies yet for people with Down syndrome and other chromosome disorders in a paper entitled, "Correction of Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome aneuploidies in human cell cultures," published in the journal DNA Research. [More]
Researchers identify drugs that may enhance ability of TKI dasatinib to kill human cancer cells

Researchers identify drugs that may enhance ability of TKI dasatinib to kill human cancer cells

Researchers have discovered how a common mutation in a high-risk leukemia subtype drives the cancer's aggressiveness and have identified drugs that may work with existing precision medicines to improve survival. St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists led the study, which was published online today in the journal Cancer Cell. [More]
New review article reveals Y chromosome’s role in cardiovascular and immune function, cancer

New review article reveals Y chromosome’s role in cardiovascular and immune function, cancer

The role of sex in human disease is a growing area of research. Although estrogen (in females) and androgens (in males) are often seen as possible causes for such differences, sex chromosomes, including the male-specific Y chromosome, may also play a role. However, it has been difficult to understand how the Y chromosome could contribute to disease in men, in part because it is much more difficult to sequence than all other chromosomes. [More]
Common gene mutation may cause brain damage associated with ALS and FTD

Common gene mutation may cause brain damage associated with ALS and FTD

Johns Hopkins researchers say they have discovered some of the first steps in how a very common gene mutation causes the brain damage associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [More]
Study of genetic risk factors of IBD in African-Americans published in Gastroenterology journal

Study of genetic risk factors of IBD in African-Americans published in Gastroenterology journal

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, along with colleagues at Emory University and Cedars-Sinai, have published in the journal Gastroenterology the first major, in-depth analysis of genetic risk factors of inflammatory bowel disease in African-Americans. [More]
New assessment tool under development can help detect physical traits of Klinefelter syndrome

New assessment tool under development can help detect physical traits of Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome is the most common disorder of the male sex chromosomes, yet is rarely diagnosed in children. A new assessment tool is being developed by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) to help pediatricians detect the physical traits of the syndrome. The tool could pave the way for early interventions that prevent and treat a range of physical, psychological, social, and cognitive impairments. [More]
UC Davis researchers reveal how four proteins come together to help assemble tubulin

UC Davis researchers reveal how four proteins come together to help assemble tubulin

When they think about how cells put together the molecules that make life work, biologists have tended to think of assembly lines: Add A to B, tack on C, and so on. But the reality might be more like a molecular version of a 3-D printer, where a single mechanism assembles the molecule in one go. [More]
Complete removal of visible tumor improves outcomes in children with high-grade glioma

Complete removal of visible tumor improves outcomes in children with high-grade glioma

For children with aggressive brain cancers called high-grade gliomas (HGG), the chances of survival are improved when surgery is successful in eliminating all visible cancer, reports a study in the September issue of Neurosurgery, official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. [More]
Low birth weight, preterm birth increase schizophrenia risk in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

Low birth weight, preterm birth increase schizophrenia risk in individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome

Low birth weight and preterm birth appear to increase the risk of schizophrenia among individuals with a genetic condition called the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a new study from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH) shows. [More]
AbbVie's venetoclax Phase 2 trial meets primary endpoint in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL with 17P deletion

AbbVie's venetoclax Phase 2 trial meets primary endpoint in patients with relapsed/refractory CLL with 17P deletion

AbbVie, a global biopharmaceutical company, today announced that a Phase 2 trial of its investigational medicine venetoclax met its primary endpoint of achieving overall response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory or previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with 17p deletion, according to an independent review analysis. [More]
Researchers identify first gene that causes common form of mitral valve prolapse

Researchers identify first gene that causes common form of mitral valve prolapse

An international research collaboration led by Massachusetts General Hospital investigators has identified the first gene in which mutations cause the common form of mitral valve prolapse (MVP), a heart valve disorder that affects almost 2.5 percent of the population. [More]
UNC researchers show how a genetic mutation disables molecular switch and causes autism

UNC researchers show how a genetic mutation disables molecular switch and causes autism

Last December, researchers identified more than 1,000 gene mutations in individuals with autism, but how these mutations increased risk for autism was unclear. Now, UNC School of Medicine researchers are the first to show how one of these mutations disables a molecular switch in one of these genes and causes autism. [More]
Researchers develop new technology to track DNA-protein binding in live cells

Researchers develop new technology to track DNA-protein binding in live cells

Researchers have developed a new technology that precisely marks where groups of regulatory proteins called transcription factors bind DNA in the nuclei of live cells. [More]
WPI awarded NIH grant to explore ways to turn genetic tables against cancer

WPI awarded NIH grant to explore ways to turn genetic tables against cancer

Taking aim at the fundamental biology of cancer cells, the National Institutes of Health has awarded $747,000 to Worcester Polytechnic Institute for a three-year research project to explore the molecular mechanisms associated with the genetic mutations and chromosome instability observed in all cancer cells. [More]
HHMI scientists identify stem cells that give rise to functional liver cells

HHMI scientists identify stem cells that give rise to functional liver cells

Howard Hughes Medical Institute scientists have identified stem cells in the liver that give rise to functional liver cells. The work solves a long-standing mystery about the origin of new cells in the liver, which must constantly be replenished as cells die off, even in a healthy organ. [More]
FAU pre-medical student and surgeon work together on revolutionary procedure alternative to radical mastectomy

FAU pre-medical student and surgeon work together on revolutionary procedure alternative to radical mastectomy

Elizabeth Hopkins, an aspiring physician and pre-medical student in the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science at Florida Atlantic University, has spent more than 640 hours shadowing Hilton Becker, M.D., a local plastic and reconstructive surgeon, and an affiliate professor in FAU's Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine. Together, with Jeffrey Lind II, M.D., they authored a publication in the current issue of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Journal, which describes a revolutionary procedure developed by Becker that is an alternative to radical mastectomy. [More]
Balancing cellular aging and cancer risk through biotechnology

Balancing cellular aging and cancer risk through biotechnology

In a way, trying to repair age-related heart damage and trying to fight cancer are opposite problems. Your heart cells' ability to regenerate themselves and proliferate into new, young cells degrades as you get older. [More]
Understanding the workings of error correction mechanism in cell division

Understanding the workings of error correction mechanism in cell division

Cell biologists led by Thomas Maresca at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with collaborators elsewhere, report an advance in understanding the workings of an error correction mechanism that helps cells detect and correct mistakes in cell division early enough to prevent chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy, that is, having too many or too few chromosomes. [More]
PDL BioPharma signs revenue interest assignment agreement with ARIAD Pharmaceuticals

PDL BioPharma signs revenue interest assignment agreement with ARIAD Pharmaceuticals

PDL BioPharma, Inc. today announced that it has entered into a revenue interest assignment agreement (the "Agreement") in which it has agreed to provide ARIAD Pharmaceuticals, Inc. with up to $200 million in revenue interest financing in exchange for royalties on the net revenues of Iclusig (ponatinib). [More]
Oxford Gene Technology expands portfolio of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes

Oxford Gene Technology expands portfolio of fluorescence in situ hybridisation probes

Oxford Gene Technology (OGT), The Molecular Genetics Company, is extending its portfolio of Cytocell® Pathology FISH probes with the addition of eight new probes. OGT offers the widest range of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) probes on the market, delivering a cost-effective and reliable solution for anyone engaged in FISH. [More]
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