Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
Review shows lipid nanoparticles as highly promising delivery systems in gene therapy

Review shows lipid nanoparticles as highly promising delivery systems in gene therapy

Parenting practices linked to development of children with Fragile X syndrome

Parenting practices linked to development of children with Fragile X syndrome

Research shows how protein component of Epstein-Barr virus promotes development of cancer

Research shows how protein component of Epstein-Barr virus promotes development of cancer

Scientists use brain organoids to identify root causes of Miller-Dieker syndrome

Scientists use brain organoids to identify root causes of Miller-Dieker syndrome

Scientists identify structure of androgenic receptor essential to fight against prostate cancer

Scientists identify structure of androgenic receptor essential to fight against prostate cancer

Study supports clinical utility of DNA-based prenatal blood test in all pregnant women

Study supports clinical utility of DNA-based prenatal blood test in all pregnant women

TSRI study offers first look at early stages of brain development in patients with Fragile X syndrome

TSRI study offers first look at early stages of brain development in patients with Fragile X syndrome

Researchers discover genes that could serve as therapeutic targets to reverse Rett syndrome

Researchers discover genes that could serve as therapeutic targets to reverse Rett syndrome

Researchers discover earliest-acting protein in C-elegans that plays key role in cell division

Researchers discover earliest-acting protein in C-elegans that plays key role in cell division

Scientists decode genetic profile of rare inherited disorder that can cause genital ambiguity

Scientists decode genetic profile of rare inherited disorder that can cause genital ambiguity

Johns Hopkins scientists reveal extra centrosomes can promote tumor formation in mice

Johns Hopkins scientists reveal extra centrosomes can promote tumor formation in mice

Missing gene may cause kidney and urinary tract defects in people with DiGeorge syndrome

Missing gene may cause kidney and urinary tract defects in people with DiGeorge syndrome

Shorter chromosome 'caps' linked to higher burden of disease later in life

Shorter chromosome 'caps' linked to higher burden of disease later in life

Caspase-2 enzyme deficiency linked to higher cancer risk

Caspase-2 enzyme deficiency linked to higher cancer risk

UI biologists discover protein that appears to regulate chromosome movement

UI biologists discover protein that appears to regulate chromosome movement

Researchers reveal central role of new key players in meiosis

Researchers reveal central role of new key players in meiosis

Popularity of non-invasive prenatal testing increasing among pregnant women

Popularity of non-invasive prenatal testing increasing among pregnant women

Researchers show how adult learning is impaired in females using mouse models of Rett syndrome

Researchers show how adult learning is impaired in females using mouse models of Rett syndrome

Natural pre-pregnancy progesterone benefits women with history of unexplained miscarriages

Natural pre-pregnancy progesterone benefits women with history of unexplained miscarriages

Roswell Park study provides new insights into gene mutations that can lead to cancer

Roswell Park study provides new insights into gene mutations that can lead to cancer