DNA replication, the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. This process is "semiconservative" in that each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.
The Universitat Jaume I, the Spanish Centre for Advanced Scientific Research and the University of Pavia have patented new compounds with potent anticancer activity in breast and colon tumour cell lines that have low toxicity in healthy cells, which can dramatically decrease side effects during chemotherapy treatment.
There are many different structures in our eyes that work in conjunction to allow us to see. These structures are strikingly similar between different species, from zebrafish to humans.
A new study shows how errors in a specific gene can cause growth defects associated with a rare type of dwarfism.
Life’s genetic code has only ever contained four natural bases. These bases pair up to form two “base pairs”—the rungs of the DNA ladder—and they have simply been rearranged to create bacteria and butterflies, penguins and people. Four bases make up all life as we know it.
Scientists at Korea's Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology scientists have compiled a comprehensive new public database of genetic information to enable the detection and identification of RNA viruses using the polymerase chain reaction assay.
Diamond Blackfan Anemia (DBA) is a condition that is characterized by a failure of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells, congenital abnormalities, and a predisposition to cancer.
Tufts University researchers have discovered a possible explanation for the occurrence of a genetic error that causes over a dozen neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, myotonic dystrophy and forms of spinocerebellar ataxia.
Cancer is a notoriously difficult disease to treat. Not only do a wide variety of cancers exist, requiring specialized treatments for each type, but cancer cells within an individual can morph and render previously potent therapeutics ineffective.
Genome-wide studies of fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) suggest that the evolutionary conserved enzyme Pfh1 helicase facilitates DNA synthesis by tracking along with the replication apparatus, promoting intact DNA synthesis at hard-to-replicate sites and consequently suppressing DNA damage. The findings are published in PLOS Genetics.
Scientists have revealed molecular differences between how the African and Asian strains of Zika virus infect neural progenitor cells.
A neurodevelopmental disorder for which there was no known cause has been linked to SON, a gene that is involved in essential mechanisms a cell uses to translate DNA into protein, as well as in DNA replication and cell division.
A laboratory study has revealed an entirely unexpected process for acquiring drug resistance that bypasses the need to re-establish DNA damage repair in breast cancers that have mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
A team of Israeli researchers has discovered that mutations in STN1, a gene that helps maintain the ends of chromosomes, cause the rare, inherited disorder Coats plus syndrome.
Chromatrap reports on 3 further customer papers published in different prestigious peer reviewed journals, which cite how its proprietary solid state Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) technology has enabled ground breaking research.
A molecule which, for the last 20 years has been believed to be an indicator of good prognosis in tumours has been shown to have a dark side by new research from The Universities of Manchester, Athens and collaborators, recently published in Nature Cell Biology.
Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world, mainly because it is usually diagnosed too late. Finding ways to identify those people who are at increased risk of developing colon cancer is therefore crucial, a researcher will tell the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics today.
Cancer development is a complex process involving both genetic and epigenetic changes. Genetic changes in oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are generally considered as primary causes, since these genes may directly regulate cellular growth. In addition, it has been found that changes in epigenetic factors, through mutation or altered gene expression, may contribute to cancer development.
A research group discovered a new function of the chromosomal terminus, which may lead to the clarification of the mechanism for developing abnormal telomere structure such as multiple malformation and mental retardation.
UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have discovered a mutation that causes a rare systemic disorder known as X-linked reticulate pigmentary disorder (XLPDR) and, significantly, the unexpected cellular mechanism by which the mutation causes the disease.
Scientists from MIPT (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology), MSU (Moscow State University), and National University of Science and Technology “MISIS” provided an overview of the most promising compounds which can be used as medications for prostate cancer.