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DNA replication, the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. This process is "semiconservative" in that each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.
New technique allows better understanding of cellular stress reaction

New technique allows better understanding of cellular stress reaction

Stress in the body's cells is both the cause and consequence of inflammatory diseases or cancer. The cells react to stress to protect themselves. Researchers at the University of Zurich have now developed a new technique that allows studying a fundamental response to stress in much more detail than previously possible: the ADP-ribosylation of chromatin. [More]
UAB research explores neurofibromatosis type 1

UAB research explores neurofibromatosis type 1

It is easy to tell a medical research story that has a simple and dramatic moment. But disease is often much more complex, and the work to understand it can be painstaking. A vivid example of that is seen in the University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Genomics Laboratory, headed by Ludwine Messiaen, Ph.D., professor of genetics. This lab offers clinical genetic testing for a broad array of common and rare genetic disorders. [More]
Scientists find how APOBEC protein becomes dangerous when DNA replication process goes wrong

Scientists find how APOBEC protein becomes dangerous when DNA replication process goes wrong

Cancer is caused by the growth of an abnormal cell which harbours DNA mutations, "copy errors" occurring during the DNA replication process. If these errors do take place quite regularly without having any damaging effect on the organism, some of them affect a specific part of the genome and cause the proliferation of the mutant cell, which then invades the organism. [More]
TBK1 protein plays vital role in the process of cell division

TBK1 protein plays vital role in the process of cell division

Moffitt Cancer Center researchers have found that a protein called TBK1 plays an important role in the process of cell division, especially at a stage called mitosis. [More]
Textbook view of the human cell cycle needs to be revised, shows new Danish research

Textbook view of the human cell cycle needs to be revised, shows new Danish research

Ground-breaking new Danish research has shown that the current scientific description of the human cell cycle needs to be revised. These findings could also lead to the development of new therapeutic approaches to target an Achilles' heel in different types of cancers. [More]
Study could help mitigate effects of ageing on blood stem cells, promote new therapies for anaemia

Study could help mitigate effects of ageing on blood stem cells, promote new therapies for anaemia

A research conducted by Juan Méndez, Head of the DNA Replication Group of the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), sheds light on the molecular mechanisms of ageing of the stem cells responsible for regenerating blood cells and opens up a new avenue for reducing their progressive functional decline with age. [More]
Set of genes identified in human genome essential for survival, proliferation of human cell lines

Set of genes identified in human genome essential for survival, proliferation of human cell lines

Using two complementary analytical approaches, scientists at Whitehead Institute and Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard have for the first time identified the universe of genes in the human genome essential for the survival and proliferation of human cell lines or cultured human cells. [More]
Forces in external environmental and oxidation are greatest threats to DNA, study finds

Forces in external environmental and oxidation are greatest threats to DNA, study finds

A study led by Indiana University biologist Patricia Foster and colleagues has found that forces in the external environment and oxidation are the greatest threats to an organism's ability to repair damage to its own DNA. [More]
SMC5/6 protein complex plays vital role in cancer suppression and premature ageing

SMC5/6 protein complex plays vital role in cancer suppression and premature ageing

A study conducted by the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre´s Genomic Instability Group, led by Óscar Fernández-Capetillo, describes for the first time in mammals, the role played by the SMC5/6 protein complex in cancer suppression and premature ageing. Mutations in these complexes, which were sensitive to chemotherapeutic agents, had been previously described in yeast cells, but their exact relationship with cancer or other diseases in mammals was unknown. [More]
S. Lawrence Zipursky to receive 2015 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University

S. Lawrence Zipursky to receive 2015 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University

Columbia University will award the 2015 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize to S. Lawrence Zipursky, PhD, for discovering a molecular identification system that helps neurons to navigate and wire the brain. Zipursky is a professor of biological chemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. [More]
Research: Spindle matrix protein supports assembly of spindle matrix, microtubules in cell-division process

Research: Spindle matrix protein supports assembly of spindle matrix, microtubules in cell-division process

Every high school biology class learns about the tiny cells that comprise our bodies, as well as about many of the diverse actions that they perform. [More]
FSU investigator solves cell division mystery

FSU investigator solves cell division mystery

In the second part of his lab's recent one-two punch, Florida State University researcher Daniel Kaplan said he has solved a cell division mystery in a way that will intrigue the makers of cancer-fighting drugs. [More]
USC researchers develop yeast model to study gene mutation that disrupts DNA duplication

USC researchers develop yeast model to study gene mutation that disrupts DNA duplication

Researchers at USC have developed a yeast model to study a gene mutation that disrupts the duplication of DNA, causing massive damage to a cell's chromosomes, while somehow allowing the cell to continue dividing. [More]

Study stresses importance of investigating telomeres to improve diagnoses, develop treatments for many diseases

Studying telomeres, the structures that protect the ends of chromosomes, has become a key issue in biology. In recent years, not only has their relation to ageing been confirmed; defective telomeres seem to be linked to more and more illnesses, including many types of cancer. [More]
Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has direct impact on cellular health

Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has direct impact on cellular health

Regardless of chronological age, people who live in neighborhoods with high crime, noise and vandalism are biologically more than a decade older than those who do not, according to a study led by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh. [More]
Cell fusion triggers multiple genetic changes that convert normal cells to cancer cells

Cell fusion triggers multiple genetic changes that convert normal cells to cancer cells

Although there is no one established universal cause of cancer, genetic changes are central to its development. The accumulation of spontaneous genetic changes, or mutations, that occur when cells divide can be hastened by exposure to carcinogens such as cigarette smoke (lung cancer) and infectious agents such as the papillomavirus (cervical cancer). [More]
Scientists identify new agent to combat tuberculosis

Scientists identify new agent to combat tuberculosis

According to figures of the World Health Organization, some 8.7 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2012 and this disease is fatal for approximately 1.3 million people throughout the world each year. One of the main problems is that the tuberculosis pathogens have become resistant to the antibiotics used to fight them. [More]
Genetically-programmed probiotics could help detect liver cancer metastases early-on

Genetically-programmed probiotics could help detect liver cancer metastases early-on

Scientists at the University of California, San Diego and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have described a new method for detecting liver cancer metastases in mice. The approach uses over-the-counter probiotics genetically programmed to produce signals easily detectable in urine when liver cancer metastases are present. [More]
miR-181b potential biomarker of replication, progression in chronic HBV

miR-181b potential biomarker of replication, progression in chronic HBV

A Chinese team reports a correlation between serum levels of microRNA-181b and hepatitis B virus replication and disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection. [More]
Mistakes in mismatch repair genes may accurately predict response to certain immunotherapy drugs

Mistakes in mismatch repair genes may accurately predict response to certain immunotherapy drugs

In a report of a proof-of-principle study of patients with colon and other cancers for whom standard therapies failed, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say that mistakes in so-called mismatch repair genes, first identified by Johns Hopkins and other scientists two decades ago, may accurately predict who will respond to certain immunotherapy drugs known as PD-1 inhibitors. Such drugs aim to disarm systems developed by cancer cells to evade detection and destruction by immune system cells. [More]
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