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DNA replication, the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. This process is "semiconservative" in that each strand of the original double-stranded DNA molecule serves as template for the reproduction of the complementary strand. Hence, following DNA replication, two identical DNA molecules have been produced from a single double-stranded DNA molecule. Cellular proofreading and error-checking mechanisms ensure near perfect fidelity for DNA replication.
FSU investigator solves cell division mystery

FSU investigator solves cell division mystery

In the second part of his lab's recent one-two punch, Florida State University researcher Daniel Kaplan said he has solved a cell division mystery in a way that will intrigue the makers of cancer-fighting drugs. [More]
USC researchers develop yeast model to study gene mutation that disrupts DNA duplication

USC researchers develop yeast model to study gene mutation that disrupts DNA duplication

Researchers at USC have developed a yeast model to study a gene mutation that disrupts the duplication of DNA, causing massive damage to a cell's chromosomes, while somehow allowing the cell to continue dividing. [More]
Study stresses importance of investigating telomeres to improve diagnoses, develop treatments for many diseases

Study stresses importance of investigating telomeres to improve diagnoses, develop treatments for many diseases

Studying telomeres, the structures that protect the ends of chromosomes, has become a key issue in biology. In recent years, not only has their relation to ageing been confirmed; defective telomeres seem to be linked to more and more illnesses, including many types of cancer. [More]
Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has direct impact on cellular health

Living in disadvantaged neighborhoods has direct impact on cellular health

Regardless of chronological age, people who live in neighborhoods with high crime, noise and vandalism are biologically more than a decade older than those who do not, according to a study led by researchers from the University of Pittsburgh. [More]
Cell fusion triggers multiple genetic changes that convert normal cells to cancer cells

Cell fusion triggers multiple genetic changes that convert normal cells to cancer cells

Although there is no one established universal cause of cancer, genetic changes are central to its development. The accumulation of spontaneous genetic changes, or mutations, that occur when cells divide can be hastened by exposure to carcinogens such as cigarette smoke (lung cancer) and infectious agents such as the papillomavirus (cervical cancer). [More]
Scientists identify new agent to combat tuberculosis

Scientists identify new agent to combat tuberculosis

According to figures of the World Health Organization, some 8.7 million people contracted tuberculosis in 2012 and this disease is fatal for approximately 1.3 million people throughout the world each year. One of the main problems is that the tuberculosis pathogens have become resistant to the antibiotics used to fight them. [More]
Genetically-programmed probiotics could help detect liver cancer metastases early-on

Genetically-programmed probiotics could help detect liver cancer metastases early-on

Scientists at the University of California, San Diego and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have described a new method for detecting liver cancer metastases in mice. The approach uses over-the-counter probiotics genetically programmed to produce signals easily detectable in urine when liver cancer metastases are present. [More]
miR-181b potential biomarker of replication, progression in chronic HBV

miR-181b potential biomarker of replication, progression in chronic HBV

A Chinese team reports a correlation between serum levels of microRNA-181b and hepatitis B virus replication and disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection. [More]
Mistakes in mismatch repair genes may accurately predict response to certain immunotherapy drugs

Mistakes in mismatch repair genes may accurately predict response to certain immunotherapy drugs

In a report of a proof-of-principle study of patients with colon and other cancers for whom standard therapies failed, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center say that mistakes in so-called mismatch repair genes, first identified by Johns Hopkins and other scientists two decades ago, may accurately predict who will respond to certain immunotherapy drugs known as PD-1 inhibitors. Such drugs aim to disarm systems developed by cancer cells to evade detection and destruction by immune system cells. [More]
Study reveals new molecular mechanism that helps protect genome from harmful effect of UV radiations

Study reveals new molecular mechanism that helps protect genome from harmful effect of UV radiations

Researchers have uncovered a new molecular mechanism whereby human cells protect their genome from the detrimental effect of UV radiation and govern DNA replication in cellular mitosis, which, when it malfunctions, leads to harmful results. [More]
Scientists uncover role of HTRA3 protease in Cockayne syndrome

Scientists uncover role of HTRA3 protease in Cockayne syndrome

Scientists from the Institut Pasteur and CNRS, in collaboration with scientists from the Institut Gustave Roussy and CEA, have succeeded in restoring normal activity in cells isolated from patients with the premature aging disease Cockayne syndrome. They have uncovered the role played in these cells by an enzyme, the HTRA3 protease. [More]
Researchers discover how and where chromosome fragile sites occur in human DNA

Researchers discover how and where chromosome fragile sites occur in human DNA

Using a novel method they developed to map chromosome breaks in a model organism, the budding yeast, Wenyi Feng, Ph.D., of Upstate Medical University and her colleagues have discovered new information as to how and where chromosome fragile sites can occur in human DNA. These sites are frequently observed in cancer cells and are responsible for causing genomic rearrangements. [More]
CNIO researchers identify new strategy to combat cancer

CNIO researchers identify new strategy to combat cancer

Scientists from the Spanish National Cancer Research Centre have discovered a new strategy to fight cancer, which is very different from those described to date. Their work shows for the first time that telomeres -- the structures protecting the ends of the chromosomes -- may represent an effective anti-cancer target: by blocking the TRF1 gene, which is essential for the telomeres, they have shown dramatic improvements in mice with lung cancer. [More]
Overexpression of cyclin E protein could lead to breast cancer, leukemia

Overexpression of cyclin E protein could lead to breast cancer, leukemia

A new study led by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute sheds light on the cause of some cancers, including breast cancer and leukemia. [More]
Max Planck Institute researchers find protein profiles of DNA repair

Max Planck Institute researchers find protein profiles of DNA repair

During each cell division, more than 3.3 billion base pairs of genomic DNA have to be duplicated and segregated accurately to daughter cells. But what happens when the DNA template is damaged in such a way that the replication machinery gets stuck? To answer this question, scientists in the team of Matthias Mann at the Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry in Martinsried near Munich, with colleagues in Copenhagen and at Harvard, have analyzed how the protein composition of the DNA replication machinery changes upon encountering damaged DNA. [More]

Clearer understanding of ORC offers new insight into fundamental DNA replication initiation mechanisms

A clearer understanding of the origin recognition complex (ORC) - a protein complex that directs DNA replication - through its crystal structure offers new insight into fundamental mechanisms of DNA replication initiation. This will also provide insight into how ORC may be compromised in a subset of patients with Meier-Gorlin syndrome, a form of dwarfism in humans. [More]
One round of adenosine triphosphate turnover sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly

One round of adenosine triphosphate turnover sufficient for SNARE complex disassembly

In 2013, James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman, and Thomas C. Südhof won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries of molecular machineries for vesicle trafficking, a major transport system in cells for maintaining cellular processes. Vesicle traffic acts as a kind of "home-delivery service" in cells. [More]

Scientists use x-ray vision to probe early stages of DNA 'photocopying'

Scientists at Johns Hopkins have created a 3-D model of a complex protein machine, ORC, which helps prepare DNA to be duplicated. [More]
Researchers show importance of DNA damage in fine tuning of innate immune system

Researchers show importance of DNA damage in fine tuning of innate immune system

For the first time scientists from Umeå University show the importance of DNA damage in fine tuning of our innate immune system and hence the ability to mount the optimal inflammatory response to infections and other biological dangers. [More]
Researchers reveal why many African-American women are diagnosed with deadly forms of breast cancer

Researchers reveal why many African-American women are diagnosed with deadly forms of breast cancer

Researchers have uncovered new information that may begin to explain why many African-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with aggressive, often deadly forms of breast cancer, which strengthens the evidence that increased dietary folate intake may prove to be an effective strategy for reducing risk for the disease in African-American women. [More]
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