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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Women taking birth control pill less likely to suffer serious knee injuries

Women taking birth control pill less likely to suffer serious knee injuries

Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have found that women who take the birth control pill, which lessen and stabilize estrogen levels, were less likely to suffer serious knee injuries. The findings are currently available in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, the official journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. [More]
Mutated gene GT198 has strong potential in early diagnosis of breast cancer

Mutated gene GT198 has strong potential in early diagnosis of breast cancer

When mutated, a gene known for its ability to repair DNA, appears to instead cause breast cancer, scientists report. [More]
Neo-Bioscore staging system adds HER2 status for precise prognostic stratification of breast cancer subtypes

Neo-Bioscore staging system adds HER2 status for precise prognostic stratification of breast cancer subtypes

A new breast cancer staging system developed by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center finds that incorporating tumor biology is a critical prognostic indicator for women who undergo neoadjuvant, or pre-surgical, therapy for breast cancer. [More]
MU researchers discover microbiome that may be linked to male reproductive disorders

MU researchers discover microbiome that may be linked to male reproductive disorders

Research shows that bacteria can be beneficial to body processes such as digestion; however, some bacteria housed in the human body may cause disease. These specialized communities of bacteria in the body are known as microbiomes. [More]
Alcohol consumption may increase risk for breast cancer

Alcohol consumption may increase risk for breast cancer

A University of Houston researcher and his team have discovered an important link between alcohol and breast cancer by identifying a cancer-causing gene triggered by alcohol [More]
Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

microRNAs (miRs) are small endogenous noncoding RNA molecules (20–23 nucleotides) derived from imperfectly paired hairpin RNA structures naturally encoded in the genome that act specifically as triggering molecules to control translational repression or mRNA degradation. [More]
Low bone mass higher in HIV-infected males than in females

Low bone mass higher in HIV-infected males than in females

Accumulating evidence suggests that rates of low bone mass are greater in HIV-infected males than in females. Researchers led by Grace Aldrovandi, MD, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, studied 11 biomarkers associated with inflammation, bone loss and/or bone formation in about 450 individuals - assessed by sex and HIV status - to try to determine causes of this differential bone loss. [More]
Changes in gut bacteria strongly associated with PCOS-related obesity

Changes in gut bacteria strongly associated with PCOS-related obesity

Modifying gut bacteria could be a treatment option for some of the symptoms associated with the widespread disease polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to a recent study by San Diego State University researchers in collaboration with investigators from the University of California, San Diego. [More]
Latinas who eat processed meats at increased risk for breast cancer

Latinas who eat processed meats at increased risk for breast cancer

Latinas who eat processed meats such as bacon and sausage may have an increased risk for breast cancer, according to a new study that did not find the same association among white women. [More]
New way to analyze MRI data may offer treatment guidance for breast cancer patients

New way to analyze MRI data may offer treatment guidance for breast cancer patients

For women with the most common type of breast cancer, a new way to analyze magnetic resonance images (MRI) data appears to reliably distinguish between patients who would need only hormonal treatment and those who also need chemotherapy, researchers from Case Western Reserve University report. [More]
Studies explore causative factor of hypertension in younger, obese men and women

Studies explore causative factor of hypertension in younger, obese men and women

There's no doubt estrogen plays a big role in the differences between males and females, and now researchers want to know if it also helps explain emerging sex differences in what makes younger, obese men and women hypertensive. [More]
Researchers reveal direct link between Wbp2 gene and progressive hearing loss

Researchers reveal direct link between Wbp2 gene and progressive hearing loss

Researchers at King's College London and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in the United Kingdom have for the first time demonstrated a direct link between the Wbp2 gene and progressive hearing loss. The scientists report that the loss of Wbp2 expression leads to progressive high-frequency hearing loss in mouse as well as in two clinical cases of children with deafness with no other obvious features. [More]
Incidence and severity emerging CVD risk factors may differ between genders

Incidence and severity emerging CVD risk factors may differ between genders

The incidence and severity of both traditional and emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as the response to treatment may differ between genders. In this narrative review, several emerging CVD risk factors (i.e. inflammatory and haemostatic markers, endothelial dysfunction, homocysteine, lipid disorders, microalbuminuria/proteinuria, coronary artery calcium score, arterial stiffness, periodontitis, inflammatory bowel syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, impaired glucose metabolism, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) are discussed in the context of gender differences. [More]
Women who eat more high-fiber foods during young adulthood may have lower breast cancer risk

Women who eat more high-fiber foods during young adulthood may have lower breast cancer risk

Women who eat more high-fiber foods during adolescence and young adulthood--especially lots of fruits and vegetables--may have significantly lower breast cancer risk than those who eat less dietary fiber when young, according to a new large-scale study led by researchers at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. [More]
Early puberty may increase risk of developing gestational diabetes

Early puberty may increase risk of developing gestational diabetes

Women who began having menstrual cycles at a younger age are at greater risk of developing gestational diabetes, a disease affecting up to 7 percent of pregnant women that can cause babies to develop type 2 diabetes and other complications, new research shows. [More]
Nutrition and breast cancer; starving triple negative breast cancer cells to death: an interview with Associate Professor Jeff Holst

Nutrition and breast cancer; starving triple negative breast cancer cells to death: an interview with Associate Professor Jeff Holst

While there are a range of reports that different foods and food groups can increase or decrease your risk of cancer, these associations are very difficult to scientifically verify. [More]
Oestrogen supplements could reduce dementia risk in women

Oestrogen supplements could reduce dementia risk in women

Women who take oestrogen supplements from before or at the start of menopause and continue with them for a few years have better preserved brain structure, which may reduce the risk of dementia. [More]
Migraines heat up as women near menopause

Migraines heat up as women near menopause

Migraine headaches heat up as women approach menopause, according to a new study from researchers at the University of Cincinnati, Montefiore Headache Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Vedanta Research. [More]
Study findings may help explain why risk of stroke changes after menopause

Study findings may help explain why risk of stroke changes after menopause

Risk of stroke in women may come down to a compound the body produces from estrogen known as 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME). Furthermore, the compound's therapeutic potential may extend beyond treating stroke in women to healing brain injuries in men, a new study in American Journal of Physiology—Endocrinology and Metabolism reports. [More]
Estrogen helps women fight flu virus better than men

Estrogen helps women fight flu virus better than men

Estrogen dramatically reduced the amount of flu virus that replicated in infected cells from women but not from men, a new study by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health shows. [More]
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