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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Male hormone testosterone may increase risk of colon cancer

Male hormone testosterone may increase risk of colon cancer

Previous cancer research has revealed that women are less likely than men to suffer from non-sex specific cancers such as cancer of the colon, pancreas and stomach. Scientists theorized that perhaps this trend was due to a protecting effect created by female hormones, such as estrogen, that help prevent tumors from forming. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have found evidence suggesting that the male hormone testosterone may actually be a contributing factor in the formation of colon cancer tumors. [More]
Use of HF-WBI for patients with early-stage breast cancer increases 17.4%, study finds

Use of HF-WBI for patients with early-stage breast cancer increases 17.4%, study finds

The use of hypofractionated whole-breast irradiation (HF-WBI) for patients with early-stage breast cancer increased 17.4 percent from 2004 to 2011, and patients are more likely to receive HF-WBI compared to conventionally fractionated whole-breast irradiation (CF-WBI) when they are treated at an academic center or live ≥50 miles away from a cancer center, according to a study published in the December 1, 2014 issue of the International Journal of Radiation Oncology • Biology • Physics (Red Journal), the official scientific journal of the American Society for Radiation Oncology. [More]
Heat-shock protein 90 enables ER+ breast cancers to develop resistance to hormonal therapy

Heat-shock protein 90 enables ER+ breast cancers to develop resistance to hormonal therapy

Long known for its ability to help organisms successfully adapt to environmentally stressful conditions, the highly conserved molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) also enables estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancers to develop resistance to hormonal therapy. [More]
Researchers identify possible prognostic biomarker in triple-negative breast cancer

Researchers identify possible prognostic biomarker in triple-negative breast cancer

"Triple-negative" breast cancer (TNBC) occurs in patients whose cells do not express receptors for estrogen, progesterone, and/or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ER-/PR-/HER2-). [More]
Novartis to highlight advances in blood, breast cancer research at ASH and SABCS 2014

Novartis to highlight advances in blood, breast cancer research at ASH and SABCS 2014

Novartis will highlight more than 250 abstracts demonstrating advances in blood and breast cancer research at the upcoming American Society of Hematology (ASH) annual meeting December 6-9, and CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium (SABCS) December 9-13. [More]
Mayo Clinic recommends genetic screening for patients with triple-negative breast cancer

Mayo Clinic recommends genetic screening for patients with triple-negative breast cancer

Most patients with triple-negative breast cancer should undergo genetic testing for mutations in known breast cancer predisposition genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, a Mayo Clinic-led study has found. [More]
Ligand indazole chloride improves motor function, study shows

Ligand indazole chloride improves motor function, study shows

Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the brain and spinal cord, affects about 2.3 million people worldwide (400,000 in the United States). Affecting more women than men, it can be seen at any age, although it is most commonly diagnosed between the ages of 20 and 40. [More]
Surprise WHI finding points to age, not menopause, as a risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse

Surprise WHI finding points to age, not menopause, as a risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse

Removing ovaries at hysterectomy does not increase a woman's risk of pelvic organ prolapse after menopause. In fact, removing ovaries lowers the risk of prolapse. This surprising finding from a Women's Health Initiative study was published online this week in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society. [More]
MACROD2 gene may explain why some breast cancers are resistant to tamoxifen

MACROD2 gene may explain why some breast cancers are resistant to tamoxifen

After mining the genetic records of thousands of breast cancer patients, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center have identified a gene whose presence may explain why some breast cancers are resistant to tamoxifen, a widely used hormone treatment generally used after surgery, radiation and other chemotherapy. [More]
VeraVia releases information to help men achieve better weight loss strategy

VeraVia releases information to help men achieve better weight loss strategy

A recent study published in the British Journal of General Practice found that physicians have difficulty visually diagnosing obesity in men. San Diego fitness retreat VeraVia has released information for men to help them understand how their own weight loss differs from women. VeraVia founder and CEO Wyatt Chapman says, "Achieving the best weight loss strategy for your body and lifestyle can be complicated. [More]
Two UH scientists named as fellows of AAAS

Two UH scientists named as fellows of AAAS

Two scientists from the University of Houston have been elected as fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. [More]
Cocaine disrupts woman's estrus cycle, may explain sex differences in cocaine addiction

Cocaine disrupts woman's estrus cycle, may explain sex differences in cocaine addiction

Women are more sensitive to the effects of cocaine and more susceptible to cocaine abuse than men. Cocaine's ability to disrupt a woman's estrus cycle may explain the sex differences in cocaine addiction, and new evidence that caffeine may be neuroprotective and able to block cocaine's direct effects on the estrus cycle reveals novel treatment possibilities, according to an article published in Journal of Caffeine Research: The International Multidisciplinary Journal of Caffeine Science, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. [More]
Estrogen plays key role in regulating blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels

Estrogen plays key role in regulating blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels

What makes some women more susceptible to heart disease than others? To help answer that question, researchers at Western University's Robarts Research Institute have identified that an estrogen receptor, previously shown to regulate blood pressure in women, also plays an important role in regulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. [More]
KU researchers find potential therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer

KU researchers find potential therapeutic target for triple-negative breast cancer

A team at the University of Kansas School of Medicine has identified a potential target for treating breast cancer, including a particularly deadly form of the disease. [More]
Aspirin can improve efficacy of schizophrenia treatments

Aspirin can improve efficacy of schizophrenia treatments

A new study shows that some anti-inflammatory medicines, such as aspirin, estrogen, and Fluimucil, can improve the efficacy of existing schizophrenia treatments. This work is being presented at the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology conference in Berlin. [More]
Researchers identify genetic variant in Latina women that protects against breast cancer

Researchers identify genetic variant in Latina women that protects against breast cancer

An international research collaboration led by UC San Francisco researchers has identified a genetic variant common in Latina women that protects against breast cancer. [More]
The Female Athlete Triad: A medical condition in active girls and women

The Female Athlete Triad: A medical condition in active girls and women

Sophie is a 15 year old cross country runner who has a history of a foot stress fracture and shin splints. Often she does not eat prior to her workouts. [More]
Females' natural resistance to bacterial pneumonia is linked to NOS3 enzyme

Females' natural resistance to bacterial pneumonia is linked to NOS3 enzyme

Researchers have linked increased resistance to bacterial pneumonia in female mice to an enzyme activated by the female sex hormone estrogen. [More]
Hormone loss may cause colon cancer, say Thomas Jefferson University researchers

Hormone loss may cause colon cancer, say Thomas Jefferson University researchers

Some cancers, like breast and prostate cancer, are driven by hormones such as estrogen and testosterone, but to date, there are none that are driven by the lack of a hormone. New evidence suggests that human colon cells may become cancerous when they lose the ability to produce a hormone that helps the cells maintain normal biology. If verified by further studies, it suggests that treating patients at high risk for colon cancer by replacing the hormone guanylin could prevent the development of cancer. [More]
Experiments show that 'unsung' cells are crucial to the process of bone loss caused by bone disorder

Experiments show that 'unsung' cells are crucial to the process of bone loss caused by bone disorder

Experiments in mice with a bone disorder similar to that in women after menopause show that a scientifically overlooked group of cells are likely crucial to the process of bone loss caused by the disorder, according to Johns Hopkins researchers. [More]