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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Adjuvant chemotherapy not beneficial for patients with luminal A subtype of breast cancer

Adjuvant chemotherapy not beneficial for patients with luminal A subtype of breast cancer

Premenopausal women whose invasive breast cancers were of the luminal A subtype had comparable 10-year disease-free survival rates regardless of whether or not they received adjuvant chemotherapy, according to data from the phase III DBCG77B clinical trial presented at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, held Dec. 8-12. [More]
Study reveals why anti-hormone therapy tamoxifen works better in some women than others

Study reveals why anti-hormone therapy tamoxifen works better in some women than others

The anti-hormone therapy tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer recurrence by about half in women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. But it works better in some women than others. Researchers are not sure why. [More]
Apigenin improves neuron formation, strengthens connections between brain cells

Apigenin improves neuron formation, strengthens connections between brain cells

Brazilian researchers from D'Or Institute for Research and Education, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Federal University of Bahia have demonstrated in laboratory that apigenin, a substance found in parsley, thyme, chamomile and red pepper, improves neuron formation and strengthens the connections between brain cells. [More]
More than half of women may have vulvovaginal symptoms after menopause

More than half of women may have vulvovaginal symptoms after menopause

After menopause, more than half of women may have vulvovaginal symptoms that have a big impact on their lifestyle, emotions, and sex life. What's more, the symptoms tend to travel with other pelvic troubles, such as prolapse and urinary and bowel problems. But many women aren't getting help, shows a study published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society. [More]
Aspirin does not improve survival among breast cancer patients with aggressive disease

Aspirin does not improve survival among breast cancer patients with aggressive disease

Whether aspirin may help prevent or reduce the risk of breast cancer remains a hotly debated research question. While past studies have indicated a potential benefit, most recently in hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, one new study from Penn Medicine suggests otherwise. [More]
Palbociclib and paclitaxel combination shrinks tumors in patient with ER positive breast cancer

Palbociclib and paclitaxel combination shrinks tumors in patient with ER positive breast cancer

Combining the new breast cancer drug palbociclib with paclitaxel (Taxol) shrank tumors in nearly half of patient with estrogen-receptor (ER) positive breast cancer, according to new research from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. [More]
Expression of particular estrogen receptor can reinstate lost memory function

Expression of particular estrogen receptor can reinstate lost memory function

The hormone estrogen helps protect memory and promote a healthy brain, but this effect wanes as women age, and even estrogen replacement therapy stops working in humans after age 65. Now researchers at University of Florida Health have used gene therapy in a rat model to show that the expression of a particular receptor can reinstate lost memory function. [More]
Researchers reveal potential for exploring new treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer

Researchers reveal potential for exploring new treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer

Researchers from Caris Life Sciences and Fox Chase Cancer Center – Temple Health announced the presentation of two studies revealing the potential for exploring new therapeutic options for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) at the 2015 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium. [More]
Combination therapy increases estrogen receptor positive breast cancer risk in African American women

Combination therapy increases estrogen receptor positive breast cancer risk in African American women

Postmenopausal African American women who use female hormone supplements containing estrogen and progestin ("combination" therapy) are at an increased risk for estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. [More]
New sensor can detect estrogen levels in liquids

New sensor can detect estrogen levels in liquids

Estrogen is a tiny molecule, but it can have big effects on humans and other animals. Estrogen is one of the main hormones that regulates the female reproductive system - it can be monitored to track human fertility and is sometimes administered to livestock like cows and sheep to control the reproductive cycle. [More]
Finding may lead to better understanding of male genital birth defects

Finding may lead to better understanding of male genital birth defects

University of Florida Health researchers have identified genes that are disrupted by abnormal hormone signaling at crucial points during development, a finding that may lead to a better understanding of how the most common male genital birth defects arise in humans. [More]
Uninsured, low-income breast cancer patients less likely to continue hormonal therapy

Uninsured, low-income breast cancer patients less likely to continue hormonal therapy

A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published in the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment shows that breast cancer patients whose health insurance plans included prescription drug benefits were 10 percent more likely to start important hormonal therapy than patients who did not have prescription drug coverage. [More]
IU researchers discover hormonal mechanism that links short winter days with increased aggression in females

IU researchers discover hormonal mechanism that links short winter days with increased aggression in females

Indiana University researchers have discovered a hormonal mechanism in hamsters that connects short winter days with increased aggression in females, and that it differs from the mechanism that controls this same response in males. [More]
Reproductive history associated with cognitive impairment risk in postmenopausal women

Reproductive history associated with cognitive impairment risk in postmenopausal women

Researchers led by Professor Jun-Fen Lin at Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention have found that reproductive history, an important modifier of estrogen exposure across women's lifetime, is associated with risk of cognitive impairment in postmenopausal women. [More]
City of Hope awarded NIH grant to study potential link between environmental factors and breast cancer

City of Hope awarded NIH grant to study potential link between environmental factors and breast cancer

The National Institutes of Health has awarded City of Hope a five-year, $4.8 million grant to study the possible role of chemicals in the environment in the development of breast cancer during the menopausal transition in women. [More]
Multicenter trial compares popular treatments for menopause-related vaginal symptoms

Multicenter trial compares popular treatments for menopause-related vaginal symptoms

Hot flashes. Night sweats. These are the most common - or at least the most commonly talked about - symptoms of menopause. But one reality of The Change for many women is less discussed yet no less important: problems with vaginal health and sexual function. [More]
Estrogen-like drug may not be beneficial to women with Alzheimer's dementia

Estrogen-like drug may not be beneficial to women with Alzheimer's dementia

An estrogen-like drug, raloxifene, has no demonstrated benefit on memory and thinking skills for women with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the November 4, 2015, online issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. [More]
CK5 protein marks ovarian cancer likely to be resistant to cisplatin

CK5 protein marks ovarian cancer likely to be resistant to cisplatin

A University of Colorado Cancer Center study recently published in the International Journal of Gynecological Cancer shows that protein cytokeratin 5 (CK5), known to be a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer, also marks ovarian cancers likely to be resistant to the common chemotherapy cisplatin. [More]
Estradiol fluctuation may enhance emotional sensitivity to psychosocial stress during menopausal transition

Estradiol fluctuation may enhance emotional sensitivity to psychosocial stress during menopausal transition

If you're feeling a little blue during the transition to menopause, there's good reason, according to a new study being reported online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). The study from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill suggests that the estradiol (a form of estrogen) fluctuation that is common during the menopausal transition may enhance emotional sensitivity to psychosocial stress. [More]
Women with elevated breast cancer risk can benefit from regular physical activity

Women with elevated breast cancer risk can benefit from regular physical activity

Regular physical activity could play a role in helping women at high-risk of breast cancer delay the need for drastic preventive measures such as prophylactic mastectomy, according to new research led by the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. [More]
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