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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Combination of existing chemotherapy drugs can reduce breast cancer stem cells, improve survival

Combination of existing chemotherapy drugs can reduce breast cancer stem cells, improve survival

Two existing chemotherapy drugs appear to be a powerful pair in targeting errant stem cells that are making breast cancer and enabling its spread and recurrence, scientists report. [More]
UW-Madison researchers develop quick, saliva-based test for measuring fertility hormone levels

UW-Madison researchers develop quick, saliva-based test for measuring fertility hormone levels

Doubts about their ability to become pregnant affect as many as 25 percent of American women, and solving that problem is the basic business plan for BluDiagnostics. Although the startup company was born in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Biochemistry Department, co-founder Katie Brenner says the idea came directly from her own difficulty with conception. [More]
Predictive statistical approach opens door to development of more effective therapies for breast cancer

Predictive statistical approach opens door to development of more effective therapies for breast cancer

Designing effective new drugs, especially drugs to fight cancer, demands that you know as much as you can about the molecular workings of cancer growth. Without that, it's like planning to fight a war against an enemy you've never seen. [More]
Effects of BPA on embryos in females undergoing IVF

Effects of BPA on embryos in females undergoing IVF

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical that is used in a variety of consumer products, such as water bottles, metal food and beverage containers, and thermal paper cash register receipts. [More]
New class of cancer-driver gene may serve as unique therapeutic targets, biomarkers in TNBC

New class of cancer-driver gene may serve as unique therapeutic targets, biomarkers in TNBC

The discovery of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has dramatically changed the understanding of the biology of diseases such as cancer. The human genome contains about 20,000 protein-coding genes - less than 2 percent of the total - but 70 percent of the genome is made into non-gene-encoding RNA. [More]
Probiotic supplements may help treat post-menopausal osteoporosis

Probiotic supplements may help treat post-menopausal osteoporosis

Probiotic supplements protected female mice from the loss of bone density that occurs after having their ovaries removed, researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and Georgia State University have shown. [More]
Derivatives of female sex hormones can influence natural melanin production, study suggests

Derivatives of female sex hormones can influence natural melanin production, study suggests

When skin cells responsible for pigmentation are exposed to estrogen or progesterone, the cells respond by adjusting their melanin production, resulting in either skin darkening or lightening. Although pregnant women often experience alterations in skin pigmentation, the reason for the changes has long puzzled physicians. [More]
Researchers gain new insights into female pelvis development

Researchers gain new insights into female pelvis development

Women have wider hips than men because their pelves must allow for the birth of large-brained babies. Nevertheless, many female pelves are still not wide enough, which can result in difficult births. Traditionally, the human pelvis has been considered an evolutionary compromise between birthing and walking upright; a wider pelvis would compromise efficient bipedal locomotion. But this hypothesis has now been called into question: According to new studies, wide hips do not reduce locomotor efficiency. [More]
Modulation of estrobolome may help lower breast cancer risk

Modulation of estrobolome may help lower breast cancer risk

Investigating disparities in the composition of the estrobolome, the gut bacterial genes capable of metabolizing estrogens in both healthy individuals and in women diagnosed with estrogen-driven breast cancer may lead to the development of microbiome-based biomarkers that could help mitigate the risk of certain cancers, according to a review paper published April 22 in the JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. [More]
Hormonal contraception may increase susceptibility of women to genital infection

Hormonal contraception may increase susceptibility of women to genital infection

Women account for approximately half of all individuals living with HIV worldwide, and researchers wanted to identify the risk factors that increase susceptibility of women to genital infection. [More]
Study shows women may face decreased kidney damage from ischemia reperfusion injury

Study shows women may face decreased kidney damage from ischemia reperfusion injury

After a kidney transplant, women may experience decreased kidney damage from ischemia reperfusion injury compared to men due to the impact of gender-specific hormones, suggests a new preclinical study and an analysis of patient data published online in the Journal of Clinical Investigation from researchers at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. [More]

Animal study links female resilience to renal ischemia with protective effects of estrogen

Kidney transplantation outcomes are adversely affected by ischemia-reperfusion injury, which occurs as a result of blood flow restrictions during the reperfusion stage of transplant surgery. [More]
Breast cancer medication letrozole could increase ovulation in women with PCOS

Breast cancer medication letrozole could increase ovulation in women with PCOS

A medicine used in breast cancer treatment is now considered the best option for treating the most common cause of infertility. [More]
Surgery better than widely used drugs for treating hyperparathyroidism

Surgery better than widely used drugs for treating hyperparathyroidism

While most cases of osteoporosis are caused by normal aging, another leading cause of the bone-loss disease is a condition called hyperparathyroidism, in which the parathyroid glands release an excessive amount of a hormone that regulates the body's calcium levels. [More]
Combining aromatase inhibitors with growth hormone may help short adolescent boys grow taller

Combining aromatase inhibitors with growth hormone may help short adolescent boys grow taller

Aromatase inhibitors, when used for up to three years in combination with growth hormone, may effectively and safely help very short adolescent boys grow taller, new research suggests. The study results will be presented Sunday, April 3, at ENDO 2016, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Boston. [More]
Study finds correlation between male sex hormones and oral health

Study finds correlation between male sex hormones and oral health

More than 20 species of macaques, the most widely distributed nonhuman primates in the world, socialize in lively troops and make frequent appearances on National Geographic documentaries. But, what can we learn from one of our closest primate relatives about our own oral health? [More]
Swedish population study helps answer lingering questions about hormone therapy safety

Swedish population study helps answer lingering questions about hormone therapy safety

A Swedish population study is helping answer lingering questions about hormone therapy safety. Published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society, the study shows that estrogen-only therapy carries a lower risk of blood clots than combined estrogen-progestogen therapy, but there is no significantly increased risk of clots with combination therapy when the estrogen is transdermal, and vaginal estrogen doesn't raise the risk at all. [More]
Low-oxygen conditions spur growth of breast cancer stem cells

Low-oxygen conditions spur growth of breast cancer stem cells

Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, scientists at The Johns Hopkins University say new experiments explain how certain cancer stem cells thrive in low oxygen conditions. Proliferation of such cells, which tend to resist chemotherapy and help tumors spread, are considered a major roadblock to successful cancer treatment. [More]
Osteoporosis drugs market in the US estimated to cross US$ 4 billion by 2021

Osteoporosis drugs market in the US estimated to cross US$ 4 billion by 2021

According to Pharmaion report, "United States Osteoporosis Drugs Market Opportunities, 2011 - 2021", the osteoporosis drugs market in the US is projected to cross US$ 4 billion by 2021. [More]
Higher levels of BPA in pregnant mother's blood may contribute to preterm births

Higher levels of BPA in pregnant mother's blood may contribute to preterm births

Higher concentrations of the common plastics chemical and environmental pollutant Bisphenol A, or BPA, in a pregnant mother's blood may be a contributing factor in preterm births, according to a new study from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. [More]
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