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Estrogens are a family of related molecules that stimulate the development and maintenance of female characteristics and sexual reproduction.

The natural estrogens produced by women are steroid molecules, which means that they are derived from a particular type of molecular skeleton containing four rings of carbon atoms, giving the shape shown here. The most prevalent forms of human estrogen are estradiol and estrone. Both are produced and secreted by the ovaries, although estrone is also made in the adrenal glands and other organs.
Animal study links female resilience to renal ischemia with protective effects of estrogen

Animal study links female resilience to renal ischemia with protective effects of estrogen

Kidney transplantation outcomes are adversely affected by ischemia-reperfusion injury, which occurs as a result of blood flow restrictions during the reperfusion stage of transplant surgery. [More]
Breast cancer medication letrozole could increase ovulation in women with PCOS

Breast cancer medication letrozole could increase ovulation in women with PCOS

A medicine used in breast cancer treatment is now considered the best option for treating the most common cause of infertility. [More]
Surgery better than widely used drugs for treating hyperparathyroidism

Surgery better than widely used drugs for treating hyperparathyroidism

While most cases of osteoporosis are caused by normal aging, another leading cause of the bone-loss disease is a condition called hyperparathyroidism, in which the parathyroid glands release an excessive amount of a hormone that regulates the body's calcium levels. [More]
Combining aromatase inhibitors with growth hormone may help short adolescent boys grow taller

Combining aromatase inhibitors with growth hormone may help short adolescent boys grow taller

Aromatase inhibitors, when used for up to three years in combination with growth hormone, may effectively and safely help very short adolescent boys grow taller, new research suggests. The study results will be presented Sunday, April 3, at ENDO 2016, the annual meeting of the Endocrine Society in Boston. [More]
Study finds correlation between male sex hormones and oral health

Study finds correlation between male sex hormones and oral health

More than 20 species of macaques, the most widely distributed nonhuman primates in the world, socialize in lively troops and make frequent appearances on National Geographic documentaries. But, what can we learn from one of our closest primate relatives about our own oral health? [More]
Swedish population study helps answer lingering questions about hormone therapy safety

Swedish population study helps answer lingering questions about hormone therapy safety

A Swedish population study is helping answer lingering questions about hormone therapy safety. Published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society, the study shows that estrogen-only therapy carries a lower risk of blood clots than combined estrogen-progestogen therapy, but there is no significantly increased risk of clots with combination therapy when the estrogen is transdermal, and vaginal estrogen doesn't raise the risk at all. [More]
Low-oxygen conditions spur growth of breast cancer stem cells

Low-oxygen conditions spur growth of breast cancer stem cells

Working with human breast cancer cells and mice, scientists at The Johns Hopkins University say new experiments explain how certain cancer stem cells thrive in low oxygen conditions. Proliferation of such cells, which tend to resist chemotherapy and help tumors spread, are considered a major roadblock to successful cancer treatment. [More]
Osteoporosis drugs market in the US estimated to cross US$ 4 billion by 2021

Osteoporosis drugs market in the US estimated to cross US$ 4 billion by 2021

According to Pharmaion report, "United States Osteoporosis Drugs Market Opportunities, 2011 - 2021", the osteoporosis drugs market in the US is projected to cross US$ 4 billion by 2021. [More]
Higher levels of BPA in pregnant mother's blood may contribute to preterm births

Higher levels of BPA in pregnant mother's blood may contribute to preterm births

Higher concentrations of the common plastics chemical and environmental pollutant Bisphenol A, or BPA, in a pregnant mother's blood may be a contributing factor in preterm births, according to a new study from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. [More]
Women with Alzheimer’s disease have poorer cognitive abilities than men

Women with Alzheimer’s disease have poorer cognitive abilities than men

Women with Alzheimer’s have poorer cognitive abilities than men at the same stage of the disease, reveal academics from the University of Hertfordshire in a paper published in World Journal of Psychiatry today. [More]
Women taking birth control pill less likely to suffer serious knee injuries

Women taking birth control pill less likely to suffer serious knee injuries

Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston have found that women who take the birth control pill, which lessen and stabilize estrogen levels, were less likely to suffer serious knee injuries. The findings are currently available in Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, the official journal of the American College of Sports Medicine. [More]
Mutated gene GT198 has strong potential in early diagnosis of breast cancer

Mutated gene GT198 has strong potential in early diagnosis of breast cancer

When mutated, a gene known for its ability to repair DNA, appears to instead cause breast cancer, scientists report. [More]
Neo-Bioscore staging system adds HER2 status for precise prognostic stratification of breast cancer subtypes

Neo-Bioscore staging system adds HER2 status for precise prognostic stratification of breast cancer subtypes

A new breast cancer staging system developed by researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center finds that incorporating tumor biology is a critical prognostic indicator for women who undergo neoadjuvant, or pre-surgical, therapy for breast cancer. [More]
MU researchers discover microbiome that may be linked to male reproductive disorders

MU researchers discover microbiome that may be linked to male reproductive disorders

Research shows that bacteria can be beneficial to body processes such as digestion; however, some bacteria housed in the human body may cause disease. These specialized communities of bacteria in the body are known as microbiomes. [More]
Alcohol consumption may increase risk for breast cancer

Alcohol consumption may increase risk for breast cancer

A University of Houston researcher and his team have discovered an important link between alcohol and breast cancer by identifying a cancer-causing gene triggered by alcohol [More]
Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

microRNAs (miRs) are small endogenous noncoding RNA molecules (20–23 nucleotides) derived from imperfectly paired hairpin RNA structures naturally encoded in the genome that act specifically as triggering molecules to control translational repression or mRNA degradation. [More]
Low bone mass higher in HIV-infected males than in females

Low bone mass higher in HIV-infected males than in females

Accumulating evidence suggests that rates of low bone mass are greater in HIV-infected males than in females. Researchers led by Grace Aldrovandi, MD, chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, studied 11 biomarkers associated with inflammation, bone loss and/or bone formation in about 450 individuals - assessed by sex and HIV status - to try to determine causes of this differential bone loss. [More]
Changes in gut bacteria strongly associated with PCOS-related obesity

Changes in gut bacteria strongly associated with PCOS-related obesity

Modifying gut bacteria could be a treatment option for some of the symptoms associated with the widespread disease polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), according to a recent study by San Diego State University researchers in collaboration with investigators from the University of California, San Diego. [More]
Latinas who eat processed meats at increased risk for breast cancer

Latinas who eat processed meats at increased risk for breast cancer

Latinas who eat processed meats such as bacon and sausage may have an increased risk for breast cancer, according to a new study that did not find the same association among white women. [More]
New way to analyze MRI data may offer treatment guidance for breast cancer patients

New way to analyze MRI data may offer treatment guidance for breast cancer patients

For women with the most common type of breast cancer, a new way to analyze magnetic resonance images (MRI) data appears to reliably distinguish between patients who would need only hormonal treatment and those who also need chemotherapy, researchers from Case Western Reserve University report. [More]
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