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Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in the joints. Usually it affects one joint which is most commonly the big toe. However, it can affect any joint in the body such as the ankles, knees, wrists, elbows and any joints in the hands or finger.

Symptoms of gout usually develop rapidly and usually start at night. The joint may then start to feel normal again with any pain or discomfort eventually disappearing . However, most people who get gout will have further attacks in the future.

The symptoms of gout are caused by an above normal level of urate in the bloodstream, which builds up and forms crystals, mainly in and around joints and especially in the finger and toe joints. This can lead to intensely pain and inflammation.

There are several factors that can increase the level of blood urate. These include a diet rich in purines (which form urate when broken down) such as red meat, seafood and some other foods; excess alcohol consumption; the use of certain medicines such as diuretics; a family history of gout; kidney disease; and overweight or obesity.

Gout affects about 1% of the population and is more common in men, particularly those aged 30 to 60, and in women who have already experienced the menopause.
Study finds differences in hospitalization trends for gout and rheumatoid arthritis

Study finds differences in hospitalization trends for gout and rheumatoid arthritis

While hospitalizations related to rheumatoid arthritis have dropped considerably over the past two decades, hospitalizations primarily associated with gout have increased dramatically. [More]
Drinking tart Montmorency cherry juice can reduce early signs of hypertension

Drinking tart Montmorency cherry juice can reduce early signs of hypertension

Drinking tart Montmorency cherry juice significantly reduces high blood pressure at a level comparable to that achieved by medication, according to new research from Northumbria University, Newcastle. [More]
High-fructose diet during pregnancy may affect fetal growth

High-fructose diet during pregnancy may affect fetal growth

Consuming a high-fructose diet during pregnancy may cause defects in the placenta and restrict fetal growth, potentially increasing a baby's risk for metabolic health problems later in life, according to research in mice and people by a team at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. [More]
Study supports screening for HLA-B*5801 gene variant in Asian, black patients with gout

Study supports screening for HLA-B*5801 gene variant in Asian, black patients with gout

A multi-institutional study led by a Massachusetts General Hospital investigator finds significant racial disparities in the risk that patients being treated for gout will develop a serious, sometimes life-threatening adverse reaction to the most commonly prescribed medication. The increased risk closely correlates with the frequency of a gene variant previously associated with that adverse reaction, supporting recommendations to screen for that variant in patients from those populations. [More]
LMU-led researchers define previously unknown signaling pathway that triggers inflammation

LMU-led researchers define previously unknown signaling pathway that triggers inflammation

Using a combination of newly developed methods, researchers led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich immunologist Veit Hornung have defined a previously unknown pathway that triggers inflammation. [More]
New thematic issue highlights link between hyperuricemia, gout and kidney disease

New thematic issue highlights link between hyperuricemia, gout and kidney disease

The increasing prevalence of both gout and chronic kidney disease has led to a growing interest in the association between hyperuricemia (an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood) and kidney disease. [More]
Intense physical work helped Michelangelo combat arthritis

Intense physical work helped Michelangelo combat arthritis

Prolonged hammering and chiselling accelerated degenerative arthritis in the hands of Michelangelo Buonarroti, sculptor, painter and one of the greatest artists of all time. But the intense work probably helped him keep the use of his hands right up until he died. That is the conclusion of doctors writing in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine who analysed three portraits of the artist to reach their diagnosis. [More]
LMU researchers reveal how crystalline deposits induce cell death

LMU researchers reveal how crystalline deposits induce cell death

Crystal formation plays a defining role in the pathogenesis of a range of common diseases, such as gout and atherosclerosis. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers led by Hans-Joachim Anders have now elucidated how the insoluble deposits induce cell death. [More]
Study throws light on why gout not well managed in many patients

Study throws light on why gout not well managed in many patients

A study published online this month in the Arthritis Care and Research journal is shedding light on why gout, a painful and common form of arthritis, is not well managed in many patients. The journal is published by the American College of Rheumatology. [More]
Common painkiller diclofenac has significant anti-cancer properties

Common painkiller diclofenac has significant anti-cancer properties

Diclofenac, a common painkiller, has significant anti-cancer properties, according to researchers from the Repurposing Drugs in Oncology project. [More]
Study advances understanding of chronic and progressive nature of gout if treated inadequately

Study advances understanding of chronic and progressive nature of gout if treated inadequately

Emeritus professor of medicine, Elisio Pascual, at the Miguel Hernández Univeristy in Elche and former head of the Rheumatology Unit at Alicante University Hospital has published a research paper presenting previously unknown data that contribute to our understanding of gout as a crystal deposition disease. [More]
Positive interim results from TWIB's AC-201 CR Phase 2 study for hyperuricemia and gout

Positive interim results from TWIB's AC-201 CR Phase 2 study for hyperuricemia and gout

TWi Biotechnology Inc. today announced interim results from the ongoing Phase 2 proof of concept clinical study evaluating AC-201 CR as an oral uricosuric and anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia and prevention of gout flares combining with febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. [More]
Zurampic (lesinurad) approved to treat high levels of hyperuricemia associated with gout

Zurampic (lesinurad) approved to treat high levels of hyperuricemia associated with gout

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Zurampic (lesinurad) to treat high levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia) associated with gout, when used in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI), a type of drug approved to reduce the production of uric acid in the body. [More]
NEK7 enzyme acts as on-off switch in innate immune system

NEK7 enzyme acts as on-off switch in innate immune system

UT Southwestern Medical Center and California researchers today provide the first report that an enzyme previously known solely for its role in cell division also acts as an on-off switch in the innate immune system -- the body's first defense against infection. [More]
Presence of tophi in people with gout can increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease

Presence of tophi in people with gout can increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease

The presence of tophi - crystal deposits of uric acid found on the surface of the joints or in the skin and cartilage - in people with gout can increase their risk of developing cardiovascular disease, according to research presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Francisco. [More]
Sleep apnea may increase gout risk

Sleep apnea may increase gout risk

Sleep apnea may increase the risk of developing gout, a new study shows. Among 9865 patients with newly-diagnosed sleep apnea and 43,598 comparators of similar weight, investigators identified 270 new cases of gout over one year of follow-up, resulting in incidence rates of 8.4/1000 and 4.8/1000 person-years, respectively. The increased risk of gout was 60% higher among patients with sleep apnea. [More]
Experts and researchers develop new classification criteria for gout

Experts and researchers develop new classification criteria for gout

A panel of experts and researchers have developed a new classification system for gout, the most common form of inflammatory arthritis. This new system standardizes the classification of this condition using a variety of evidence-based criteria. [More]
UT Southwestern evaluates allopurinol drug to prevent nephropathy in Type I diabetes patients

UT Southwestern evaluates allopurinol drug to prevent nephropathy in Type I diabetes patients

UT Southwestern Medical Center has joined an international clinical trial studying whether a drug traditionally used to treat gout can help prevent kidney damage in patients with Type 1 diabetes. [More]
ACR releases two new publications to improve treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica, gout

ACR releases two new publications to improve treatment of polymyalgia rheumatica, gout

The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) has released two new publications - recommendations aimed at improving the treatment of patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), and new classification criteria for gout. [More]
ESC publishes new guidelines on pericardial diseases

ESC publishes new guidelines on pericardial diseases

New ESC Guidelines on pericardial diseases are published today. Until now there was insufficient evidence for strong recommendations in this group of conditions which can severely restrict quality of life. [More]
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