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Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in the joints. Usually it affects one joint which is most commonly the big toe. However, it can affect any joint in the body such as the ankles, knees, wrists, elbows and any joints in the hands or finger.

Symptoms of gout usually develop rapidly and usually start at night. The joint may then start to feel normal again with any pain or discomfort eventually disappearing . However, most people who get gout will have further attacks in the future.

The symptoms of gout are caused by an above normal level of urate in the bloodstream, which builds up and forms crystals, mainly in and around joints and especially in the finger and toe joints. This can lead to intensely pain and inflammation.

There are several factors that can increase the level of blood urate. These include a diet rich in purines (which form urate when broken down) such as red meat, seafood and some other foods; excess alcohol consumption; the use of certain medicines such as diuretics; a family history of gout; kidney disease; and overweight or obesity.

Gout affects about 1% of the population and is more common in men, particularly those aged 30 to 60, and in women who have already experienced the menopause.
Duke researchers modify popular drug-delivery technology to evade immune responses

Duke researchers modify popular drug-delivery technology to evade immune responses

Biomedical engineers at Duke University have reconfigured a popular drug-delivery technology to evade immune responses that have halted some clinical trials. [More]
Elevated urate levels linked to musculo-skeletal pain

Elevated urate levels linked to musculo-skeletal pain

Episodes of diffuse musculo-skeletal pain appearing in and around a joint region without a clear diagnosis, etiology and therapy are still a major problem in general medical practice. [More]
TUM scientists uncover novel mechanisms of action for skin disease medication

TUM scientists uncover novel mechanisms of action for skin disease medication

Imiquimod is a medication successfully used in the treatment of skin diseases. In addition to its known mechanism of action, it also triggers other processes in the body. [More]
DASH diet could be effective, non-pharmacologic approach to prevent gout flares

DASH diet could be effective, non-pharmacologic approach to prevent gout flares

New research indicates that a healthy diet can effectively lower blood levels of uric acid, a known trigger of gout. The findings are published in Arthritis & Rheumatology, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology . [More]
Preclinical data on Selecta’s novel immune tolerance platform published in Nature Nanotechnology

Preclinical data on Selecta’s novel immune tolerance platform published in Nature Nanotechnology

Selecta Biosciences, Inc., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing targeted antigen-specific immune therapies for rare and serious diseases, announced today that Nature Nanotechnology has published an article that presents preclinical results from Selecta’s research which demonstrate the broad potential applicability of Selecta’s novel immune tolerance platform. [More]
Study finds differences in hospitalization trends for gout and rheumatoid arthritis

Study finds differences in hospitalization trends for gout and rheumatoid arthritis

While hospitalizations related to rheumatoid arthritis have dropped considerably over the past two decades, hospitalizations primarily associated with gout have increased dramatically. [More]
Drinking tart Montmorency cherry juice can reduce early signs of hypertension

Drinking tart Montmorency cherry juice can reduce early signs of hypertension

Drinking tart Montmorency cherry juice significantly reduces high blood pressure at a level comparable to that achieved by medication, according to new research from Northumbria University, Newcastle. [More]
High-fructose diet during pregnancy may affect fetal growth

High-fructose diet during pregnancy may affect fetal growth

Consuming a high-fructose diet during pregnancy may cause defects in the placenta and restrict fetal growth, potentially increasing a baby's risk for metabolic health problems later in life, according to research in mice and people by a team at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. [More]
Study supports screening for HLA-B*5801 gene variant in Asian, black patients with gout

Study supports screening for HLA-B*5801 gene variant in Asian, black patients with gout

A multi-institutional study led by a Massachusetts General Hospital investigator finds significant racial disparities in the risk that patients being treated for gout will develop a serious, sometimes life-threatening adverse reaction to the most commonly prescribed medication. The increased risk closely correlates with the frequency of a gene variant previously associated with that adverse reaction, supporting recommendations to screen for that variant in patients from those populations. [More]
LMU-led researchers define previously unknown signaling pathway that triggers inflammation

LMU-led researchers define previously unknown signaling pathway that triggers inflammation

Using a combination of newly developed methods, researchers led by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich immunologist Veit Hornung have defined a previously unknown pathway that triggers inflammation. [More]
New thematic issue highlights link between hyperuricemia, gout and kidney disease

New thematic issue highlights link between hyperuricemia, gout and kidney disease

The increasing prevalence of both gout and chronic kidney disease has led to a growing interest in the association between hyperuricemia (an abnormally high level of uric acid in the blood) and kidney disease. [More]
Intense physical work helped Michelangelo combat arthritis

Intense physical work helped Michelangelo combat arthritis

Prolonged hammering and chiselling accelerated degenerative arthritis in the hands of Michelangelo Buonarroti, sculptor, painter and one of the greatest artists of all time. But the intense work probably helped him keep the use of his hands right up until he died. That is the conclusion of doctors writing in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine who analysed three portraits of the artist to reach their diagnosis. [More]
LMU researchers reveal how crystalline deposits induce cell death

LMU researchers reveal how crystalline deposits induce cell death

Crystal formation plays a defining role in the pathogenesis of a range of common diseases, such as gout and atherosclerosis. Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich researchers led by Hans-Joachim Anders have now elucidated how the insoluble deposits induce cell death. [More]
Study throws light on why gout not well managed in many patients

Study throws light on why gout not well managed in many patients

A study published online this month in the Arthritis Care and Research journal is shedding light on why gout, a painful and common form of arthritis, is not well managed in many patients. The journal is published by the American College of Rheumatology. [More]
Common painkiller diclofenac has significant anti-cancer properties

Common painkiller diclofenac has significant anti-cancer properties

Diclofenac, a common painkiller, has significant anti-cancer properties, according to researchers from the Repurposing Drugs in Oncology project. [More]
Study advances understanding of chronic and progressive nature of gout if treated inadequately

Study advances understanding of chronic and progressive nature of gout if treated inadequately

Emeritus professor of medicine, Elisio Pascual, at the Miguel Hernández Univeristy in Elche and former head of the Rheumatology Unit at Alicante University Hospital has published a research paper presenting previously unknown data that contribute to our understanding of gout as a crystal deposition disease. [More]
Positive interim results from TWIB's AC-201 CR Phase 2 study for hyperuricemia and gout

Positive interim results from TWIB's AC-201 CR Phase 2 study for hyperuricemia and gout

TWi Biotechnology Inc. today announced interim results from the ongoing Phase 2 proof of concept clinical study evaluating AC-201 CR as an oral uricosuric and anti-inflammatory agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia and prevention of gout flares combining with febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. [More]
Zurampic (lesinurad) approved to treat high levels of hyperuricemia associated with gout

Zurampic (lesinurad) approved to treat high levels of hyperuricemia associated with gout

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Zurampic (lesinurad) to treat high levels of uric acid in the blood (hyperuricemia) associated with gout, when used in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor (XOI), a type of drug approved to reduce the production of uric acid in the body. [More]
NEK7 enzyme acts as on-off switch in innate immune system

NEK7 enzyme acts as on-off switch in innate immune system

UT Southwestern Medical Center and California researchers today provide the first report that an enzyme previously known solely for its role in cell division also acts as an on-off switch in the innate immune system -- the body's first defense against infection. [More]
Presence of tophi in people with gout can increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease

Presence of tophi in people with gout can increase risk of developing cardiovascular disease

The presence of tophi - crystal deposits of uric acid found on the surface of the joints or in the skin and cartilage - in people with gout can increase their risk of developing cardiovascular disease, according to research presented this week at the American College of Rheumatology Annual Meeting in San Francisco. [More]
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