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Insulin is a hormone that is needed to convert glucose, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life. Insulin allows cells to use glucose for fuel and is secreted by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans. The release of insulin from the pancreas is stimulated by increased blood glucose, vagal nerve stimulation, and other factors. Insulin is obtained from various animals and available in a variety of preparations. Commercial insulin preparations differ in a number of ways, including differences in the animal species from which they are obtained; their purity, concentration, and solubility; and the time of onset and duration of their biologic action. An oral hypoglycemic agent is not a form of insulin therapy.
New effort in biomedical engineering may improve heart repair

New effort in biomedical engineering may improve heart repair

Jianyi "Jay" Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., brought his biomedical engineering expertise to the University of Alabama at Birmingham to fix hearts. [More]
Automated OCL insulin feedback controller improves glucose control in diabetic children, adolescents

Automated OCL insulin feedback controller improves glucose control in diabetic children, adolescents

Using an automated insulin feedback controller as part of an overnight closed-loop (OCL) control system improved glucose control (increased time within target glucose range) and reduced episodes of nocturnal hypoglycemia in children and adolescents. [More]
Study shows subcutaneous fat tissue has internal clock that regulates insulin sensitivity

Study shows subcutaneous fat tissue has internal clock that regulates insulin sensitivity

Fat tissue shows a robust circadian rhythm in a dish.In humans, glucose tolerance varies with time of day, but the mechanism responsible for the variation in insulin sensitivity throughout the day is unclear. [More]
Rice study takes deeper look at how inflammation bridges stress and diabetes

Rice study takes deeper look at how inflammation bridges stress and diabetes

A Rice University study has found a link between emotional stress and diabetes, with roots in the brain's ability to control anxiety. [More]
Overtesting for HbA1C levels can increase risk of severe hypoglycemia

Overtesting for HbA1C levels can increase risk of severe hypoglycemia

With a more-is-better mindset common in society, frequent commercials encouraging checks of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels, and ads for new diabetes medications to lower HbA1C in adults with Type 2 diabetes, Mayo Clinic researchers were not too surprised to find overtesting occurring. [More]
Epigenomic alterations play key role in triggering obesity-induced diabetes

Epigenomic alterations play key role in triggering obesity-induced diabetes

Obesity is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes, yet not all obese humans develop the disease. In a new study, researchers from the Karolinska Institutet in Sweden and from the Institute of Health and Medical Research in France have identified epigenomic alterations that are associated with inflammation and type 2 diabetes [More]
Genes of healthy leanness could lead to new approach to treating obesity-related diabetes

Genes of healthy leanness could lead to new approach to treating obesity-related diabetes

People with type 2 diabetes could be helped by the discovery of a gene linked to leanness. [More]
Study finds no added benefit of empagliflozin alone or in combination for type 2 diabetes

Study finds no added benefit of empagliflozin alone or in combination for type 2 diabetes

Empagliflozin has been approved since May 2014 for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in whom diet and exercise alone do not provide adequate glycaemic control. [More]
Metformin along with chemotherapy/radiation improves outcomes in head and neck cancer patients

Metformin along with chemotherapy/radiation improves outcomes in head and neck cancer patients

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine have found that adding increasing doses of an approved Type 2 diabetes drug, metformin, to a chemotherapy and radiation treatment regimen in head and neck cancer patients is not well tolerated if escalated too quickly, but allowing slower escalation could be beneficial. [More]
Taking vitamin D with quetiapine can help avoid new-onset diabetes risk

Taking vitamin D with quetiapine can help avoid new-onset diabetes risk

Atypical antipsychotics, though effective for treating disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, gives patients a heightened risk of developing new-onset diabetes. [More]
New technique could help reduce chances of drug failure during later stages of clinical trials

New technique could help reduce chances of drug failure during later stages of clinical trials

An approach that could reduce the chances of drugs failing during the later stages of clinical trials has been demonstrated by a collaboration between the University of Cambridge and pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline. [More]
New IRAP inhibitors may hold promise for improving cognitive functions in animal models

New IRAP inhibitors may hold promise for improving cognitive functions in animal models

Researchers have discovered three new inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), compounds shown to improve cognitive functions in animal models of human disorders. [More]
Global study finds weight loss could be key for tackling pre-diabetes

Global study finds weight loss could be key for tackling pre-diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes is the world’s fastest growing chronic disease and is linked to the increasing number of overweight people. One in 16 people (3.9 million) in the UK are thought to have diabetes, both diagnosed and undiagnosed. [More]
Researchers develop new drugs for melanoma

Researchers develop new drugs for melanoma

Finding new, more effective and personalised treatments for cancer is the challenge of many researchers. A challenge that has been successfully met by a team from Inserm led by Stéphane Rocchi, which has just synthesised and developed new drugs for melanoma. [More]
NR supplements can reduce diabetes-related complications in mice

NR supplements can reduce diabetes-related complications in mice

A naturally occurring vitamin, nicotinamide riboside (NR), can lower blood sugar levels, reduce fatty liver, and prevent peripheral nerve damage in mouse models of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D), according to a new study by researchers at the University of Iowa and the Iowa City VA Health Care System. [More]
Smell or taste of food can shorten lifespan by affecting sensory neurons

Smell or taste of food can shorten lifespan by affecting sensory neurons

Animals can perceive changes in many environmental factors such as temperature and the taste or smell of foods. This is achieved by specialized nerve cells called sensory neurons. Interestingly, sensory neurons have been known to control the rate of aging in various animals, including the tiny free living roundworm C. elegans. [More]
Majority of young adults with abdominal obesity unaware of CKD risk

Majority of young adults with abdominal obesity unaware of CKD risk

Many young adults with abdominal obesity exhibit a readily detectable risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), yet the vast majority don't know they're at risk, according to a study of nationwide health data led by Albert Einstein College of Medicine researchers that was published online today in the journal PLOS ONE. [More]
WPI receives patent for novel method of reprogramming human skin cells

WPI receives patent for novel method of reprogramming human skin cells

Cell therapies for a range of serious conditions, including heart attacks, diabetes, and traumatic injuries, will be accelerated by research at Worcester Polytechnic Institute that yielded a newly patented method of converting human skin cells into engines of wound healing and tissue regeneration. [More]
Study finds gap in screening for lipid abnormalities among adults taking antipsychotic medications

Study finds gap in screening for lipid abnormalities among adults taking antipsychotic medications

Too few adults taking antipsychotic medications are being screened for abnormalities in lipids, which include cholesterol and triglycerides, new research from the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus finds. [More]
Study links low- and high-birthweight babies to increased cardiovascular disease risk

Study links low- and high-birthweight babies to increased cardiovascular disease risk

For reasons that remain unclear at least in the smaller babies, both birthweight extremes appear to increase the likelihood of early development of dangerous fat around major organs in the abdomen that significantly increases these risks, said Dr. Brian Stansfield, neonatologist at the Children's Hospital of Georgia and the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University. [More]
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