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E-cigarette use modifies gene expression important for upper airway immune defense

E-cigarette use modifies gene expression important for upper airway immune defense

When we smoke cigarettes, dozens of genes important for immune defense are altered in the epithelial cells that line the respiratory tract. Several of these changes likely increase the risk of bacterial infections, viruses, and inflammation. [More]
Delivery mode, exposure to antibiotics and feeding method linked to change in baby's microbial communities

Delivery mode, exposure to antibiotics and feeding method linked to change in baby's microbial communities

Birth by C-section, exposure to antibiotics and formula feeding slow the development and decrease the diversity of a baby's microbes through the first year of life. That is the finding of a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center and published June 15 in the journal Science Translational Medicine. [More]
New studies provide future treatment strategies for stomach ulcers, IBD and alcoholic liver disease

New studies provide future treatment strategies for stomach ulcers, IBD and alcoholic liver disease

Basic and translational research paves the way for breakthroughs that can ultimately change patient care. [More]
Researchers highlight gene loss as potential process of genetic change, evolutionary adaption

Researchers highlight gene loss as potential process of genetic change, evolutionary adaption

"Loss is nothing else but change and change is nature's delight" says the quote by the philosopher and emperor Marcus Aurelius, which opens the scientific article that analyses the gene loss phenomenon and its impact on the evolution of living beings. [More]
New superbug test developed by TGen-NAU receives Australian patent

New superbug test developed by TGen-NAU receives Australian patent

Antibiotic-resistant infections should be easier to detect, and hospitals could become safer, thanks to a technology developed by the Translational Genomics Research Institute and Northern Arizona University, and protected under a patent issued by Australia. [More]
New FcMBL-based pathogen-detecting assay could rapidly detect systemic infections

New FcMBL-based pathogen-detecting assay could rapidly detect systemic infections

To date, there are no methods that can quickly and accurately detect pathogens in blood to allow the diagnosis of systemic bloodstream infections that can lead to life-threatening sepsis. [More]
Liposome nanoencapsulation can increase efficacy of bacteriophages in oral phage therapy

Liposome nanoencapsulation can increase efficacy of bacteriophages in oral phage therapy

Scientists at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and the Catalan Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have developed a nanoencapsulation system with a liposome coating in order to increase the efficacy of bacteriophages in oral phage therapy. [More]
Researchers unravel species-function relationships in gut microbial genomes

Researchers unravel species-function relationships in gut microbial genomes

Despite recent progress, the organization and ecological properties of the intestinal microbial ecosystem remain under investigated. Using a manually curated metabolic module framework for (meta-)genomic data analysis, Sara Vieira-Silva, Gwen Falony and colleagues from the Jeroen Raes lab studied species-function relationships in gut microbial genomes and microbiomes. [More]
Study captures interactions of HIV-infected immune cells in living animal

Study captures interactions of HIV-infected immune cells in living animal

By watching brightly glowing HIV-infected immune cells move within mice, researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai have shown how infected immune cells latch onto an uninfected sister cell to directly transmit newly minted viral particles. [More]
Unique method opens door to development of simple diagnostic tests for myriad diseases

Unique method opens door to development of simple diagnostic tests for myriad diseases

Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have developed a unique method for detecting antibodies in the blood of patients in a proof-of-principle study that opens the door to development of simple diagnostic tests for diseases for which no microbial cause is known, including auto-immune diseases, cancers and other conditions. [More]
UCLA scientists develop statistical method for conducting survival analysis of cancer patients

UCLA scientists develop statistical method for conducting survival analysis of cancer patients

People with cancer are often told by their doctors approximately how long they have to live, and how well they will respond to treatments, but what if there were a way to improve the accuracy of doctors' predictions? [More]
Study provides insights into new pathways to generate universal vaccine against influenza viruses

Study provides insights into new pathways to generate universal vaccine against influenza viruses

Diverse antibodies induced in humans by vaccination with an avian influenza virus vaccine may offer broader, more durable protection against multiple strains of influenza than today's vaccines typically provide, according to a study led by Florian Krammer, PhD, Assistant Professor in the Department of Microbiology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, and Patrick Wilson, PhD, Associate Professor in the Department of Medicine at the University of Chicago. [More]
Mathematical approach can help achieve optimal dosing for various drugs

Mathematical approach can help achieve optimal dosing for various drugs

In treating diseases with drugs, dosing is critical; too little is ineffective, while too much can be lethal. Colorado State University's Brad Reisfeld takes a mathematical approach to achieving optimal dosing for various drugs. [More]
Researchers deploy mobile DNA sequencing laboratories to help combat Zika virus spread in Brazil

Researchers deploy mobile DNA sequencing laboratories to help combat Zika virus spread in Brazil

Researchers from the University of Birmingham are working with health partners in Brazil to combat the spread of Zika virus by deploying a pair of mobile DNA sequencing laboratories on a medical 'road trip' through the worst-hit areas of the country. [More]
New immunization approach may one day wipe out pneumonia, meningitis

New immunization approach may one day wipe out pneumonia, meningitis

A new vaccine allows pneumonia-causing bacteria to colonize inside the body, springing into action only if the bacteria pose a threat. [More]
New systems-based strategy may help accelerate TB drug discovery

New systems-based strategy may help accelerate TB drug discovery

The rise in multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extremely drug resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is becoming a major cause of global health concern for treating tuberculosis, which affects a third of the global population. [More]
New study identifies PDGFRα as key molecule for HCMV viral entry

New study identifies PDGFRα as key molecule for HCMV viral entry

A publication in the scientific journal Nature Microbiology identifies PDGFRα as the receptor for the trimeric gHgLgO complex of Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). [More]
Zika virus directly infects brain progenitor cells in newborns to cause neurological problems

Zika virus directly infects brain progenitor cells in newborns to cause neurological problems

The mosquito-borne Zika virus linked to microcephaly and other neurological problems in newborns of affected mothers directly infects the brain progenitor cells destined to become neurons, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report in a study published online today in Cell Reports. [More]
Bacteriophage combinations show therapeutic potential in reducing C. difficile infections

Bacteriophage combinations show therapeutic potential in reducing C. difficile infections

A new University of Leicester study has confirmed the therapeutic potential of bacteriophage combinations to treat highly infectious bacteria C. difficile infections (CDI) while retaining a healthy gut. [More]
Improved research tool may open door to effective HIV vaccine designs

Improved research tool may open door to effective HIV vaccine designs

Vaccines are usually medicine's best defense against the world's deadliest microbes. However, HIV is so mutable that it has so far effectively evaded both the human immune system and scientists' attempts to make an effective vaccine to protect against it. [More]
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