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Neurons derived from human iPSC and grafted into rats after spinal cord injury produce cells

Neurons derived from human iPSC and grafted into rats after spinal cord injury produce cells

Building upon previous research, scientists at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Veteran's Affairs San Diego Healthcare System report that neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) and grafted into rats after a spinal cord injury produced cells with tens of thousands of axons extending virtually the entire length of the animals' central nervous system. [More]
Molecule Notch involved in fear memory formation

Molecule Notch involved in fear memory formation

Nature is thrifty. The same signals that embryonic cells use to decide whether to become nerves, skin or bone come into play again when adult animals are learning whether to become afraid. [More]
Researchers take major step forward in developing real ALS treatments

Researchers take major step forward in developing real ALS treatments

A series of studies begun by Harvard Stem Cell Institute scientists eight years ago has lead to a report published today that may be a major step forward in the quest to develop real treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ALS, or Lou Gehrig's disease. [More]
Researchers at NIH-FEI Living Lab for Structural Biology achieve breakthrough biological results using FEI’s Titan Krios™ transmission electron microscope

Researchers at NIH-FEI Living Lab for Structural Biology achieve breakthrough biological results using FEI’s Titan Krios™ transmission electron microscope

FEI is pleased to announce that researchers at the NIH-FEI Living Lab for Structural Biology have achieved breakthrough biological results, using FEI’s Titan Krios™ transmission electron microscope (TEM), to elucidate the structural mechanism by which glutamate receptors participate in the transmission of signals between neurons in the brain. Their work is described in Nature, “Structural Mechanism of Glutamate Receptor Activation and Desensitization,” by Meyerson, et al., (DOI: 10.1038/nature13603), http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature13603.html . [More]
Findings shed light on why PPARγ activators have side effect of promoting weight gain

Findings shed light on why PPARγ activators have side effect of promoting weight gain

The brain plays a central role in regulating appetite and whole-body metabolism. A protein known as PPARγ is important in the brain's control of food intake and body weight, but the identity of the neurons regulating this process has been unclear. [More]
Researchers uncover 3D structure of neuroreceptor

Researchers uncover 3D structure of neuroreceptor

Neurons are the cells of our brain, spinal cord, and overall nervous system. They form complex networks to communicate with each other through electrical signals that are carried by chemicals. [More]
Scientists unravel neural circuit that could play important role in autism

Scientists unravel neural circuit that could play important role in autism

The insular cortex is an integral "hub", combining sensory, emotional and cognitive content. Not surprisingly, alterations in insular structure and function have been reported in many psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders, depression, addiction and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). [More]
Study provides platform for detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration

Study provides platform for detailed study of nerve injury and repair during Wallerian degeneration

Wallerian degeneration is a subject of major interest in neuroscience. A large number of genes are differentially regulated during the distinct stages of Wallerian degeneration: transcription factor activation, immune response, myelin cell differentiation and dedifferentiation. [More]
Neuroscientists shed new light on how the brain works

Neuroscientists shed new light on how the brain works

Neuroscientists in Bonn and Heidelberg have succeeded in providing new insights into how the brain works. Researchers at the DZNE and the German Cancer Research Center analyzed tissue samples from mice to identify how two specific proteins, ‘CKAMP44’ and ‘TARP Gamma-8’, act upon the brain’s memory center. [More]
XPro1595 drug can protect vulnerable neurons, reduce motor deficits in Parkinson's model

XPro1595 drug can protect vulnerable neurons, reduce motor deficits in Parkinson's model

An experimental anti-inflammatory drug can protect vulnerable neurons and reduce motor deficits in a rat model of Parkinson's disease, researchers at Emory University School of Medicine have shown. [More]
BU researchers find possible way to prevent Alzheimer's disease

BU researchers find possible way to prevent Alzheimer's disease

Boston University School of Medicine researchers may have found a way to delay or even prevent Alzheimer's disease (AD). They discovered that pre-treatment of neurons with the anti-aging protein Klotho can prevent neuron death in the presence of the toxic amyloid protein and glutamate. [More]
Protein once seen as promising anti-cancer compound helps to stabilize neural circuits

Protein once seen as promising anti-cancer compound helps to stabilize neural circuits

Researchers at UC San Francisco (UCSF) have discovered that endostatin, a protein that once aroused intense interest as a possible cancer treatment, plays a key role in the stable functioning of the nervous system. [More]
Astrocytes may be behind mental disorders, new research reveals

Astrocytes may be behind mental disorders, new research reveals

Astrocytes, the cells that make the background of the brain and support neurons, might be behind mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia, according to new research by a Portuguese team from the ICVS at the University of Minho. [More]
Study reveals novel epilepsy pathway linked to neurodegenerative diseases

Study reveals novel epilepsy pathway linked to neurodegenerative diseases

A recent scientific discovery showed that mutations in prickle genes cause epilepsy, which in humans is a brain disorder characterized by repeated seizures over time. However, the mechanism responsible for generating prickle-associated seizures was unknown. [More]
Researchers identify group of cells in brain that plays important role in Down syndrome

Researchers identify group of cells in brain that plays important role in Down syndrome

Researchers from UC Davis School of Medicine and Shriners Hospitals for Children - Northern California have identified a group of cells in the brain that they say plays an important role in the abnormal neuron development in Down syndrome. [More]
New study explores processes that establish connections between nerve cells in the brain

New study explores processes that establish connections between nerve cells in the brain

New research provides an intriguing glimpse into the processes that establish connections between nerve cells in the brain. These connections, or synapses, allow nerve cells to transmit and process information involved in thinking and moving the body. [More]

Impaired inhibition of medium spiny neurons linked to depression-like behavior in juvenile WKY rats

Accumulating evidence suggests that the nucleus accumbens, which is involved in mechanisms of reward and addiction, plays a role in the pathogenesis of depression and in the action of antidepressants. [More]
Research leads to better understanding of neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental diseases

Research leads to better understanding of neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental diseases

Throughout our lives, our brains adapt to what we learn and memorise. The brain is indeed made up of complex networks of neurons and synapses that are constantly re-configured. [More]
Study illustrates how domino effect of one genetic error can contribute to hydrocephalus

Study illustrates how domino effect of one genetic error can contribute to hydrocephalus

The mysterious condition once known as "water on the brain" became just a bit less murky this week thanks to a global research group led in part by a Case Western Reserve researcher. [More]
Findings fuel idea that processes of active movement and sensory processing are connected

Findings fuel idea that processes of active movement and sensory processing are connected

A new study by researchers at the University of Oregon published today in the journal Neuron describes a brainstem circuit in mice that may help explain how active movement impacts the way the brain processes sensory information. [More]