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Osteoporosis is a progressive metabolic bone disease that causes a decrease in bone density and gives rise to weak, fragile bones that are prone to fracture. Most commonly, these fractures occur in the spine, wrist and hips when a person falls or bumps into something. If such an event triggers a visit to the doctor, a test of the bone mineral density called a DEXA scan may be performed and reveal osteoporosis.

The term osteoporosis refers to the porous (spongy) state of bone that eventually manifests as the bone’s ability to replenish itself declines over time. When individuals reach the age of around 40, the rate of bone breakdown starts to exceed the rate at which it is replaced, creating increasingly larger holes in the bone that make it less dense and more prone to fracture.

Some of the risk factors for osteoporosis such as gender, age and family history for the condition cannot be changed. However, factors such as diet and activity level can be improved to increase bone strength and individuals are advised to exercise regularly, eat a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium, and quit any smoking or drinking habits.

Osteoporosis is currently thought to be affecting more than 200 million people worldwide but is most common among older, post-menopausal women who have reduced levels of estrogen, an important contributor to bone health.
Benefits of consuming dried fruits and nuts

Benefits of consuming dried fruits and nuts

A 2015 study observed that tree nut intake was associated with a decrease in total cholesterol, LDL, "bad", cholesterol and triglycerides. [More]
Biologic drugs may help prevent progressive bone loss in patients with RA

Biologic drugs may help prevent progressive bone loss in patients with RA

A new review by the International Osteoporosis Foundation Chronic Inflammation and Bone Structure Working Group concludes that early and aggressive treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) with biologic drugs, specifically biological disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), may be most effective in halting progressive bone loss in patients with RA. [More]
Suppressing bone specific protein can alleviate radiotherapy-induced osteoporosis

Suppressing bone specific protein can alleviate radiotherapy-induced osteoporosis

Radiotherapy destroys cancer cells using high-energy ionizing radiation to damage DNA and induce cell death. About two million patients per year in the United States - more than 50 percent of all cancer patients -- receive radiotherapy at some stage during their illness, either alone or in combination with chemotherapy, surgery, and targeted medicines. [More]
Risk of fracture still higher among women experiencing early menopause

Risk of fracture still higher among women experiencing early menopause

If you're in menopause before the age of 40, you have a higher fracture risk. That fact has already been proven by the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials. Now a new study evaluating the same WHI data further concludes that, even with calcium and vitamin D supplements, your risk of fracture is still higher. [More]
Study shows promise for successful ovarian transplantation in future

Study shows promise for successful ovarian transplantation in future

Approximately 11% of women worldwide suffer from premature ovarian failure. This can have many different causes: chemotherapy administered for a malignant disease might irreversibly damage the ovaries and, because of the advances in modern cancer therapy, the number of young women surviving cancer is on the increase. [More]
HSS conducts survey to assess musculoskeletal health needs of surrounding communities

HSS conducts survey to assess musculoskeletal health needs of surrounding communities

Hospital for Special Surgery, which has an Outpatient Center in Stamford, plans to increase outreach and educational programs to meet the needs of surrounding communities. [More]
Individualized vitamin D supplementation may benefit women during pregnancy

Individualized vitamin D supplementation may benefit women during pregnancy

Individualized supplement doses help protect pregnant women from vitamin D deficiency, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
New minimally invasive approach to diagnose hyperparathyroidism

New minimally invasive approach to diagnose hyperparathyroidism

Almost all of us have four parathyroid glands, located next to the thyroid gland in the neck. They are an organ only the size of a grain of rice, but critical for controlling our body's calcium levels. [More]
Simple treatment can help relieve majority of back pain

Simple treatment can help relieve majority of back pain

During their lifetime, as many as eight out of ten people experience back pain that lasts more than three days. However, for a vast majority of these people, the pain goes away with simple treatment. [More]
Molecular signaling pathway could be basis of potential new treatment for osteoporosis

Molecular signaling pathway could be basis of potential new treatment for osteoporosis

A molecular signaling pathway identified by an international research team could be the basis of improved treatment for osteoporosis. [More]
Study finds adequate levels of vitamin D among adolescents in the UK

Study finds adequate levels of vitamin D among adolescents in the UK

A study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, has shown high levels of vitamin D inadequacy in UK adolescents, and - for the first time - identified the intake needed by adolescents in order to maintain adequate serum vitamin D levels during the winter time. [More]
New review looks at complexity of fracture epidemiology in diabetes

New review looks at complexity of fracture epidemiology in diabetes

Due to the ageing of populations as well as increasing obesity and adverse lifestyle factors, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is reaching epidemic proportions in many parts of the world. [More]
New ultrasound method offers increasingly personalised and earlier assessment of fracture risk

New ultrasound method offers increasingly personalised and earlier assessment of fracture risk

In people over 50 years of age, fractures are so common that for example one in three women will suffer a wrist, ankle or hip fracture during their life. Low-energy fractures caused by bone weakening are one manifestation of osteoporosis. [More]
Moderate calcium intake not linked to coronary artery calcification, says UAB cardiologist

Moderate calcium intake not linked to coronary artery calcification, says UAB cardiologist

A study recently published in the Journal of the American Heart Association is prompting headlines like "Calcium supplements might hurt your heart." [More]
Heavy cannabis users have large reduction in bone density, increased risk of bone fractures

Heavy cannabis users have large reduction in bone density, increased risk of bone fractures

People who regularly smoke large amounts of cannabis have reduced bone density and are more prone to fractures, research has found. [More]
Calcium supplements may raise risk of plaque buildup in arteries and heart damage

Calcium supplements may raise risk of plaque buildup in arteries and heart damage

After analyzing 10 years of medical tests on more than 2,700 people in a federally funded heart disease study, researchers at Johns Hopkins Medicine and elsewhere conclude that taking calcium in the form of supplements may raise the risk of plaque buildup in arteries and heart damage, although a diet high in calcium-rich foods appears be protective. [More]
New casting technique could help avoid surgery in elderly patients with unstable ankle fractures

New casting technique could help avoid surgery in elderly patients with unstable ankle fractures

Elderly patients with unstable ankle fractures could avoid surgery, according to research by a UK team led by Oxford University. [More]
Watching fat-derived stem cells transform offers clues to combating osteoporosis in older women

Watching fat-derived stem cells transform offers clues to combating osteoporosis in older women

For years, scientists have studied how stem cells might be used to treat many diseases, including osteoporosis. [More]
New review shows both types of diabetes increase risk of fragility fractures

New review shows both types of diabetes increase risk of fragility fractures

Recent research has shown that bone health is compromised in people with diabetes, resulting in a significantly higher risk of fragility fracture. [More]
Study suggests ovary removal to prevent ovarian cancer should be discontinued in premenopausal women

Study suggests ovary removal to prevent ovarian cancer should be discontinued in premenopausal women

A Mayo Clinic research team has found evidence suggesting that the controversial practice of ovary removal in premenopausal women to prevent ovarian cancer should be discontinued in women who are not at high risk of cancer. [More]
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