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Osteoporosis is a progressive metabolic bone disease that causes a decrease in bone density and gives rise to weak, fragile bones that are prone to fracture. Most commonly, these fractures occur in the spine, wrist and hips when a person falls or bumps into something. If such an event triggers a visit to the doctor, a test of the bone mineral density called a DEXA scan may be performed and reveal osteoporosis.

The term osteoporosis refers to the porous (spongy) state of bone that eventually manifests as the bone’s ability to replenish itself declines over time. When individuals reach the age of around 40, the rate of bone breakdown starts to exceed the rate at which it is replaced, creating increasingly larger holes in the bone that make it less dense and more prone to fracture.

Some of the risk factors for osteoporosis such as gender, age and family history for the condition cannot be changed. However, factors such as diet and activity level can be improved to increase bone strength and individuals are advised to exercise regularly, eat a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium, and quit any smoking or drinking habits.

Osteoporosis is currently thought to be affecting more than 200 million people worldwide but is most common among older, post-menopausal women who have reduced levels of estrogen, an important contributor to bone health.
Cadmium exposure increases risk of osteoporosis and fractures

Cadmium exposure increases risk of osteoporosis and fractures

People who are exposed to higher levels of cadmium have an increased risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Cadmium also affects the kidneys. A doctoral thesis at Sahlgrenska Academy explored this issue in a study of over 900 older men. [More]
Reduced bone mass puts critically ill patients at greater risk for fractures

Reduced bone mass puts critically ill patients at greater risk for fractures

One year after being hospitalized in intensive care, patients have reduced bone mass that puts them at greater risk for fractures, according to a new study published online ahead of print in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. [More]
Men with prostate cancer get stronger bones from playing football

Men with prostate cancer get stronger bones from playing football

Men with prostate cancer run the risk of brittle bones as a side-effect of their treatment. But one hour's football training a few times a week counters many of the negative effects of the treatment, according to University of Copenhagen scientists. [More]
HSS researchers study outcomes of novel implant in patients undergoing wrist fracture surgery

HSS researchers study outcomes of novel implant in patients undergoing wrist fracture surgery

Researchers at Hospital for Special Surgery have launched a study to determine if a novel implant allowing for less invasive surgery for a broken wrist leads to a quicker recovery, less post-operative pain and fewer complications compared to conventional surgical treatment. [More]
Research shows how scientists altered stem cells, triggered bone growth

Research shows how scientists altered stem cells, triggered bone growth

Imagine you have a bone fracture or a hip replacement, and you need bone to form, but you heal slowly - a common fact of life for older people. Instead of forming bone, you could form fat. Researchers at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine may have found a way to tip the scale in favor of bone formation. They used cytochalasin D, a naturally occurring substance found in mold, as a proxy to alter gene expression in the nuclei of mesenchymal stem cells to force them to become osteoblasts (bone cells). [More]
Tocilizumab drug offers potential treatment for patients with polymyalgia rheumatics

Tocilizumab drug offers potential treatment for patients with polymyalgia rheumatics

A drug approved to treat rheumatoid arthritis, tocilizumab (Actemra, Genentech), is a potential new therapy for patients with polymyalgia rheumatica, according to an open-label, phase II study presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology/Association of Rheumatology Health Professionals on November 10. [More]
New protein supplement lowers cholesterol, prevents osteoporosis

New protein supplement lowers cholesterol, prevents osteoporosis

Scientists developed a supplement to maintain optimal health that contributes to the growth and development of children and adolescents. It also prevents osteoporosis and certain cancers such as breast and prostate. [More]
Doing exercise during puberty can improve bone health in adulthood, Spanish study confirms

Doing exercise during puberty can improve bone health in adulthood, Spanish study confirms

Osteoporosis is a serious health issue that mainly affects postmenopausal women. Now, a Spanish study has confirmed that doing exercise during puberty can improve bone health in adulthood. In this scope, sports such as football, handball and basketball are better than others such as swimming. [More]
Experts to gather at DOHaD congress to address challenges that impact health of children, adolescents

Experts to gather at DOHaD congress to address challenges that impact health of children, adolescents

Over 600 experts from around the world will meet to address the many challenges that currently impact the health of mothers, babies in the womb, infants, children and adolescents at the Society for the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease congress, which will be held in Africa for the first time. [More]
Research shows why osteoarthritis and hip changes are more frequent in athletes

Research shows why osteoarthritis and hip changes are more frequent in athletes

Osteoarthritis and reduced range of motion in the hip and groin are more common among athletes and other people who engage in strenuous physical activity. The cause may be microscopic injuries due to high load on the hips and subsequent joint changes. A PhD thesis at Sahlgrenska Academy studied elite soccer and hockey players. [More]
Elderly women should take more vitamin D supplementation during the wintertime, suggests researchers

Elderly women should take more vitamin D supplementation during the wintertime, suggests researchers

Osteoporosis is one of the chief reasons why the elderly often suffer broken bones from relatively minor injuries. Postmenopausal women in particular experience a relatively rapid loss in bone mass due to a reduced concentration of oestrogen, which is responsible for strong bone growth during youth. Maintaining bone mass requires physical exercise and vitamin D, which is mainly produced in the skin with the help of UVB radiation. This is why, especially in the wintertime, many elderly women are prescribed a vitamin D supplement by their doctor to maintain bone mass. [More]
Older people with age-related muscle loss face greater risk of falls, bone fractures

Older people with age-related muscle loss face greater risk of falls, bone fractures

Older people with an age-related loss of muscle mass and strength may be at greater risk of falling and bone fractures, according to new research led by the University of Southampton. [More]
Expert proposes new solution to current gridlock over regulation of dietary supplements

Expert proposes new solution to current gridlock over regulation of dietary supplements

A former principal deputy commissioner of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is proposing a solution to the current gridlock over the regulation of dietary supplements: Focus less on whether these vitamins, minerals and herbal extracts actually do what they claim and instead take important steps to improve their safety. [More]
Viking begins VK5211 Phase 2 trial in patients recovering from hip fracture

Viking begins VK5211 Phase 2 trial in patients recovering from hip fracture

Viking Therapeutics, Inc., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel, first-in-class or best-in-class therapies for metabolic and endocrine disorders, today announced the initiation of dosing in the company's Phase 2 clinical trial of VK5211 in patients who recently suffered a hip fracture. [More]
Diet rich in soy protein and isoflavones can protect menopausal women from osteoporosis

Diet rich in soy protein and isoflavones can protect menopausal women from osteoporosis

Eating a diet rich in both soy protein and isoflavones can protect menopausal women from bone weakening and osteoporosis, according to the results of a preliminary study presented today at the Society for Endocrinology annual conference in Edinburgh. [More]
World’s first mini synchrotron inaugurated at Technical University of Munich

World’s first mini synchrotron inaugurated at Technical University of Munich

For some years now it has been possible to generate high-brilliance X-rays using ring-shaped particle accelerators. However, such installations are several hundred meters in diameter and cost billions of euros. [More]
Oral formulation of insulin shows promise in management of blood glucose in diabetic rats

Oral formulation of insulin shows promise in management of blood glucose in diabetic rats

An intestinal patch device containing insulin that can be swallowed in the form of a capsule, in development by researchers at University of California Santa Barbara, has demonstrated efficacy of blood glucose management in diabetic rats. This work is being presented Oct. 27 at the 2015 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists Annual Meeting and Exposition, the world's largest pharmaceutical sciences meeting, in Orlando, Fla. Oct. 25-29. [More]
Patients with treatment-resistant autoimmune blood conditions may benefit from sirolimus

Patients with treatment-resistant autoimmune blood conditions may benefit from sirolimus

The immunosuppressant sirolimus is an effective and safe steroid-sparing therapy for children and young adults with highly treatment-resistant autoimmune blood conditions, according to a study published online today in Blood, the Journal of the American Society of Hematology. [More]
Low-weight, high-repetition resistance training increases bone density in adults

Low-weight, high-repetition resistance training increases bone density in adults

A new research study published in The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness finds that low-weight, high-repetition resistance training increases bone mineral density in adults, challenging assumptions that heavy weight-training is required to build bone mineral density. Participants who completed the study experienced up to 8 percent bone mineral density increases in the legs, pelvis, arms and spine. [More]
Viking successfully completes safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic study of VK5211 in elderly subjects

Viking successfully completes safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic study of VK5211 in elderly subjects

Viking Therapeutics, Inc., a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on the development of novel, first-in-class or best-in-class therapies for metabolic and endocrine disorders, today announced the successful completion of a short-term safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic study of VK5211 in healthy elderly subjects. VK5211, the company's lead program for muscle and bone disorders, is an orally available, non-steroidal selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) being developed for the treatment of patients recovering from non-elective hip fracture surgery. [More]
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