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Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early life and growth. In addition, in many tissues they serve as a sort of internal repair system, dividing essentially without limit to replenish other cells as long as the person or animal is still alive. When a stem cell divides, each new cell has the potential either to remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell.

Stem cells are distinguished from other cell types by two important characteristics. First, they are unspecialized cells capable of renewing themselves through cell division, sometimes after long periods of inactivity. Second, under certain physiologic or experimental conditions, they can be induced to become tissue- or organ-specific cells with special functions. In some organs, such as the gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues. In other organs, however, such as the pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions.
Captisol-enabled Melphalan meets primary end points in phase 2 pivotal trial

Captisol-enabled Melphalan meets primary end points in phase 2 pivotal trial

Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, a biotechnology company with fully integrated commercial and drug development operations with a primary focus in Hematology and Oncology, today announced that its pivotal trial of Captisol-enabled (propylene glycol-free) Melphalan met its primary end points. [More]
Research grants could improve patients' recovery from athletic and nonathletic injuries

Research grants could improve patients' recovery from athletic and nonathletic injuries

Two orthopedic organizations have presented Beaumont Health System with prestigious, competitive research grants that could improve patients' recovery from both athletic and nonathletic injuries. [More]

Study suggests that variant of cell surface protein is ideal target to treat gastric cancer

New study by the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore and National University Hospital Singapore suggests that a variant of a cell surface protein is an ideal target for developing drugs to treat gastric cancer [More]
Men's health conditions may be influenced by exposure to testosterone in womb, says study

Men's health conditions may be influenced by exposure to testosterone in womb, says study

Men's susceptibility to serious health conditions may be influenced by low exposure to testosterone in the womb, new research suggests. [More]

AMSBIO opens new North American headquarters

AMSBIO has announced the opening of a new North American headquarters with executive management facilities in Cambridge, MA for its US subsidiary - AMSBIO LLC. [More]
SIRT1 protein necessary for telomere elongation and genome integrity during cell reprogramming

SIRT1 protein necessary for telomere elongation and genome integrity during cell reprogramming

Cell reprogramming converts specialised cells such as nerve cells or skin cells towards an embryonic stem cell state. This reversal in the evolutionary development of cells also requires a reversal in the biology of telomeres, the structures that protect the ends of chromosomes; whilst under normal conditions telomeres shorten over time, during cell reprogramming they follow the opposite strategy and increase in length. [More]

Study sheds light on tiny environments that stem cells occupy in animal bodies

Johns Hopkins researchers have discovered an unexpected phenomenon in the organs that produce sperm in fruit flies: When a certain kind of stem cell is killed off experimentally, another group of non-stem cells can come out of retirement to replace them. [More]
Research: Drugs used to treat lung, breast and pancreatic cancers promote drug-resistance, spur tumor growth

Research: Drugs used to treat lung, breast and pancreatic cancers promote drug-resistance, spur tumor growth

Most drugs used to treat lung, breast and pancreatic cancers also promote drug-resistance and ultimately spur tumor growth. Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered a molecule, or biomarker, called CD61 on the surface of drug-resistant tumors that appears responsible for inducing tumor metastasis by enhancing the stem cell-like properties of cancer cells. [More]
Stanford researchers identify normal cell type that gives rise to most invasive bladder cancers

Stanford researchers identify normal cell type that gives rise to most invasive bladder cancers

A single type of cell in the lining of the bladder is responsible for most cases of invasive bladder cancer, according to researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine. [More]
Researchers reveal connection between Down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Researchers reveal connection between Down syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Although doctors have long known that people with Down syndrome have a heightened risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during childhood, they haven't been able to explain why. Now, a team of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute investigators has uncovered a connection between the two conditions. [More]
Harvard neuroscientists present new view of myelin

Harvard neuroscientists present new view of myelin

Harvard neuroscientists have made a discovery that turns 160 years of neuroanatomy on its head. [More]
Researchers discover new marker derived from human umbilical cord blood

Researchers discover new marker derived from human umbilical cord blood

The development of stem cell therapies to cure a variety of diseases depends on the ability to characterize stem cell populations based on cell surface markers. [More]
Hydrogen sulfide regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, shows study

Hydrogen sulfide regulates bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, shows study

Stem cells in bone marrow need to produce hydrogen sulfide in order to properly multiply and form bone tissue, according to a new study from the Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology at the Herman Ostrow School of Dentistry of USC. [More]
Researchers develop class of drugs to lessen impact of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

Researchers develop class of drugs to lessen impact of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's

​A class of drugs developed to treat immune-related conditions and cancer - including one currently in clinical trials for glioblastoma and other tumors - eliminates neural inflammation associated with dementia-linked diseases and brain injuries, according to UC Irvine researchers. [More]
Researchers coax human embryonic stem cells to turn into working spinal cord cells

Researchers coax human embryonic stem cells to turn into working spinal cord cells

The sponginess of the environment where human embryonic stem cells are growing affects the type of specialized cells they eventually become, a University of Michigan study shows. [More]
MD Anderson honors America's future cancer leaders

MD Anderson honors America's future cancer leaders

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center this week honored 16 junior faculty members who are expected to become some of America's future cancer leaders. The faculty members are the first R. Lee Clark Fellow award winners. The new award was established to recognize outstanding work by junior faculty members and to help support their future efforts. [More]
Genetically modified neural stem cells offer potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease

Genetically modified neural stem cells offer potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease

UC Irvine neurobiologists have found that genetically modified neural stem cells show positive results when transplanted into the brains of mice with the symptoms and pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The pre-clinical trial is published in the journal Stem Cells Research and Therapy, and the approach has been shown to work in two different mouse models. [More]
Lin28 gene may hold clues to regeneration of damaged kidneys in adults

Lin28 gene may hold clues to regeneration of damaged kidneys in adults

​Nearly one-third of cases of Wilms tumor, a pediatric cancer of the kidney, are linked to a gene called Lin28, according to research from Boston Children's Hospital. Mice engineered to express Lin28 in their kidneys developed Wilms tumor, which regressed when Lin28 was withdrawn, indicating that strategies aimed at blocking or deactivating the gene hold therapeutic promise for children with Wilms. [More]

Researchers develop novel assay to identify genes controlling pharynx regeneration in flatworms

As multicellular creatures go, planaria worms are hardly glamorous. To say they appear rudimentary is more like it. These tiny aquatic flatworms that troll ponds and standing water resemble brown tubes equipped with just the basics: a pair of beady light-sensing "eyespots" on their head and a feeding tube called the pharynx (which doubles as the excretory tract) that protrudes from a belly sac to suck up food. [More]

Researchers to develop cell-based approaches to minimize scarring in adult wounds

In early fetal development, skin wounds undergo regeneration and healing without scar formation. This mechanism of wound healing later disappears, but by studying the fetal stem cells capable of this scarless wound healing, researchers may be able to apply these mechanisms to develop cell-based approaches able to minimize scarring in adult wounds, as described in a Critical Review article published in Advances in Wound Care, a monthly publication from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers and an Official Journal of the Wound Healing Society. [More]