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Tetanus is a severe, frequently fatal disease caused by an exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, a bacterium that is found in the environment. Tetanus is not transmitted from person to person. Rather, Clostridium tetani enters the body through an open wound, including lacerations, abrasions and puncture wounds. The toxin causes neuromuscular dysfunction, with rigidity and spasms of skeletal muscles. The muscle spasms usually start in the jaw (which is why the disease is sometimes called "lockjaw") and neck and may spread to many other muscles, leading to generalized paralysis.
Tips to prevent back-to-school illnesses in children

Tips to prevent back-to-school illnesses in children

The backpacks are packed, lunchboxes are filled and the little ones are back in school. Kids have returned to their classrooms with stories of their summer vacations, and, unfortunately, with a host of germs ready to spread quickly in a close environment. [More]
People in Europe are most skeptical about vaccines

People in Europe are most skeptical about vaccines

The largest ever global survey of attitudes towards vaccines reported today that public confidence in vaccines varies widely between different regions of the world, with European respondents being most sceptical. [More]
New collaborative initiative seeks to develop interventions for optimizing adult vaccination rates

New collaborative initiative seeks to develop interventions for optimizing adult vaccination rates

A new quality improvement initiative that aims to create effective solutions in optimizing adult vaccination rates was announced today. [More]
Pre-travel consultation can help international travelers to prepare for trip

Pre-travel consultation can help international travelers to prepare for trip

International tourism exceeds 1.2 billion persons each year, with more than 20 percent of travelers reporting some type of illness. [More]
New collaborative initiative aims to improve adult immunization rates

New collaborative initiative aims to improve adult immunization rates

A new quality improvement initiative that aims to create effective solutions in optimizing adult vaccination rates was announced today. [More]
Many parents support HPV vaccine school-entry requirements with opt-out provisions

Many parents support HPV vaccine school-entry requirements with opt-out provisions

Requiring students to get vaccinated against the human papillomavirus, or HPV, to enter school could prevent many cancers linked to the virus, but University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill researchers found that many parents only support such requirements with opt-out provisions that could make the laws less effective. [More]
Industrial chemicals exceed safety levels in public drinking water supplies for 6 million Americans

Industrial chemicals exceed safety levels in public drinking water supplies for 6 million Americans

Levels of a widely used class of industrial chemicals linked with cancer and other health problems--polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)--exceed federally recommended safety levels in public drinking water supplies for six million people in the U.S., according to a new study led by researchers from Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health and the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. [More]
Researchers develop new hybrid method to study HIV protein involved in disease progression

Researchers develop new hybrid method to study HIV protein involved in disease progression

More than 36 million people worldwide, including 1.2 million in the U.S., are living with an HIV infection. Today's anti-retroviral cocktails block how HIV replicates, matures and gets into uninfected cells, but they can't eradicate the virus. [More]
Unmanned drones could be economical to deliver vaccines quickly in developing countries

Unmanned drones could be economical to deliver vaccines quickly in developing countries

Using unmanned drones to deliver vaccines in low- and middle-income countries may save money and improve vaccination rates, new research led by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center suggests. [More]
New vaccine found safe, effective against Toxic Shock Syndrome

New vaccine found safe, effective against Toxic Shock Syndrome

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS) is a severe circulatory and organ failure caused by bacterial toxins, usually triggered by bacteria from the Staphylococcus group. Researchers from MedUni Vienna's Department of Clinical Pharmacology, in collaboration with the company Biomedizinische Forschungsgesellschaft mbH in Vienna, have now developed the world's first safe and effective vaccine against this disease and successfully tested it in a Phase I trial. [More]
Maternal vaccination against influenza can reduce flu risk in newborns

Maternal vaccination against influenza can reduce flu risk in newborns

Each year, influenza causes between 250,000 and half a million deaths around the world. Pregnant women and young infants have a higher risk of complications related to influenza; these complications can easily lead to death. [More]
Tdap vaccine safe for mothers and infants

Tdap vaccine safe for mothers and infants

Tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women in the U.S. as the key medical intervention to protect newborn infants from pertussis (whooping cough). [More]
Doctor’s access to vaccination data can improve pediatric immunization coverage

Doctor’s access to vaccination data can improve pediatric immunization coverage

Exchange of immunization data between a centralized city immunization registry and provider electronic health records led to significant improvements in pediatric immunization coverage, a reduction in over-immunization for adolescents, and increased completeness of immunization records, according to a study conducted at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Medical Center, NewYork-Presbyterian, and the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's Citywide Immunization Registry. [More]
WHO outlines steps to close immunization gap across countries during World Immunization Week 2016

WHO outlines steps to close immunization gap across countries during World Immunization Week 2016

During World Immunization Week 2016, held 24-30 April, the World Health Organization highlights recent gains in immunization coverage, and outlines further steps countries can take to “Close the Immunization Gap” and meet global vaccination targets by 2020. [More]
Alternatives exist to eliminate nonmedical exemptions for childhood vaccination

Alternatives exist to eliminate nonmedical exemptions for childhood vaccination

For more than 30 years, Mississippi and West Virginia were the only states in the country that disallowed nonmedical exemptions to mandatory school vaccination laws for religious or philosophical reasons, until they were joined by California last year. These exemption laws have provoked debate over the rights of parents versus the responsibility of government to protect public health. [More]
ACP awarded $1,002,884 Cooperative Agreement to increase adult immunization rates in US

ACP awarded $1,002,884 Cooperative Agreement to increase adult immunization rates in US

The American College of Physicians (ACP) was awarded a $1,002,884 Cooperative Agreement from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to increase immunization rates in the United States. [More]
Global 'Call to Action Summit 2015' adopts DELHI DECLARATION to end preventable maternal and child deaths

Global 'Call to Action Summit 2015' adopts DELHI DECLARATION to end preventable maternal and child deaths

The two-day global 'Call to Action Summit 2015' concluded today with Health Ministers and heads of country delegations from 22 countries adopting the DELHI DECLARATION on 'ending preventable maternal and child deaths'. The declaration was developed as an outcome of the high-level ministerial conclave held yesterday during the summit. [More]
VA study examines use of medicinal maggots to heal diabetic foot ulcers

VA study examines use of medicinal maggots to heal diabetic foot ulcers

Maggot, or larval, therapy has been around since ancient times as a way to heal wounds. Now, the method has gone high-tech--in some ways--and it's being tested in a rigorous clinical trial at the Malcom Randall Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Gainesville, Fla. Recruitment is now underway. [More]
New combination vaccine may reduce number of injections for young children

New combination vaccine may reduce number of injections for young children

A new combination vaccine may reduce the number of injections required to keep infants and toddlers up to date with the United States infant immunization schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In a phase III trial reported in the August 2015 issue of Pediatrics, the vaccine was determined to be effective, safe and well-tolerated. Gary S. Marshall, M.D., professor of pediatrics at the University of Louisville, was the principal investigator of the multi-center trial and first author of the report. [More]
Pennsylvania physicians examine back-to-school health, offer tips for parents and students

Pennsylvania physicians examine back-to-school health, offer tips for parents and students

As students start heading back to classes for the upcoming academic year, Pennsylvania physicians take a close look at back-to-school health and offer some tips for parents and students who strive to stay in class and not home in bed sick. [More]
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