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In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Implication of microRNAs in cancer development greater than previously thought

Implication of microRNAs in cancer development greater than previously thought

Small, non-coding molecules called microRNAs are known to play an important role in cancer development. Researchers now have shown their significance is greater than previously thought, a finding that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the most common and deadly form of ovarian cancer. [More]
Total cessation of GnRH production by hypothalamic neurons can lead to infertility

Total cessation of GnRH production by hypothalamic neurons can lead to infertility

Individual small RNAs are responsible for controlling the expression of gonadoliberin or GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone), a neurohormone that controls sexual maturation, the appearance of puberty, and fertility in adults. [More]
Particle Metrix reports on use of Zetaview particle characterization system at University Hospital of Erlangen

Particle Metrix reports on use of Zetaview particle characterization system at University Hospital of Erlangen

Particle Metrix, developers of versatile particle characterization solutions for the life sciences, report on the work of the Baur Laboratory in the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital of Erlangen. The Group, which is part of the Translational Research Center at the University, is working to quantify extracellular vesicles in plasma of patients. [More]
Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

A group including scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has been awarded a grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health to study the role of microRNAs in a range of physiological activities, including memory, sleep, synapse function and movement. [More]
Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Brown fat cells can burn fat to generate heat. University of Bonn researchers have discovered a new method to measure the activity of brown fat cells in humans and mice. The researchers showed that microRNA-92a can be used as an indirect measure for the activity of energy consuming brown fat cells. They showed that a small blood sample was sufficient. Results were published in "Nature Communications," a well-known scientific journal. [More]
Study describes precise mechanisms that enable TB bacteria to persist in the body

Study describes precise mechanisms that enable TB bacteria to persist in the body

Bacteria that cause tuberculosis trick immune cells meant to destroy them into hiding and feeding them instead. This is the result of a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center and published online April 18 in Nature Immunology. [More]
MicroRNA controls tumor cell proliferation in most aggressive large B-cell lymphoma

MicroRNA controls tumor cell proliferation in most aggressive large B-cell lymphoma

A recent study by researchers at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine showed that a microRNA called miR-181a dampens signals from the cancer-driving NFκB protein pathway in the most aggressive large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). By reducing NFκB signaling, miR-181a controls tumor cell proliferation and survival and could be the target of novel therapies. The study was published in the journal Blood. [More]
Qlucore’s Omics Explorer enables researchers to study genetic influences behind Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

Qlucore’s Omics Explorer enables researchers to study genetic influences behind Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

While childhood cancer is rare (adult malignancies after 20 years are 20-30 times more common in general) it remains a major cause of death by disease in children. 15,700 children are diagnosed with cancer each year in the USA. [More]
Deleting microRNA-155 prevents diet-induced obesity in female mice

Deleting microRNA-155 prevents diet-induced obesity in female mice

Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center seeking a way to combat the growing epidemic of obesity have found that deleting microRNA-155 in female mice prevents diet-induced obesity. [More]
Novel plasmid-based microRNA inhibitor system effectively prevents microRNA activity in cells

Novel plasmid-based microRNA inhibitor system effectively prevents microRNA activity in cells

Today at the 45th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research, researcher Brad Amendt, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA, will present a study titled "New Biotechnology to Inhibit MicroRNA Activity and Novel Applications for Craniofacial and Dental Research." [More]
MicroRNA can help combat obesity and diabetes

MicroRNA can help combat obesity and diabetes

Obesity, which is associated with low-grade inflammation, is an important contributor in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While the role of several organs including adipose tissue have been implicated in this process, the cell types and factors driving this process have not been clear. [More]
ROBO1 protein may delay progression of breast cancer

ROBO1 protein may delay progression of breast cancer

A protein called ROBO1 may delay the progression of breast cancer, according to a paper published in The Journal of Cell Biology. The study, "Loss of miR-203 regulates cell shape and matrix adhesion through ROBO1/Rac/FAK in response to stiffness" by Lily Thao-Nhi Le and colleagues, identifies a signaling pathway that may protect breast cells from the tumorigenic effects of stiff extracellular matrices. [More]
Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

microRNAs (miRs) are small endogenous noncoding RNA molecules (20–23 nucleotides) derived from imperfectly paired hairpin RNA structures naturally encoded in the genome that act specifically as triggering molecules to control translational repression or mRNA degradation. [More]
MDI Biological Laboratory discover mechanisms underlying regeneration of heart tissue

MDI Biological Laboratory discover mechanisms underlying regeneration of heart tissue

The MDI Biological Laboratory has announced new discoveries about the mechanisms underlying the regeneration of heart tissue by Assistant Professor Voot P. Yin, Ph.D., which raise hope that drugs can be identified to help the body grow muscle cells and remove scar tissue, important steps in the regeneration of heart tissue. [More]
Research findings may provide highly effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of Alzheimer's, AMD

Research findings may provide highly effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of Alzheimer's, AMD

For the first time, researchers at LSU Health New Orleans have shown that a protein critical to the body's ability to remove waste products from the brain and retina is diminished in age-related macular degeneration, after first making the discovery in an Alzheimer's disease brain. The research team, led by Walter Lukiw, PhD, Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience and Ophthalmology at LSU Health New Orleans Neuroscience Center, also discovered a key reason, identifying a new treatment target. [More]
Inhibitors that activate brown fat may help treat diabetes, metabolic disorders

Inhibitors that activate brown fat may help treat diabetes, metabolic disorders

In recent decades, obesity has become a global problem. The disease goes hand in hand with a dramatic increase in the proportion of body fat. Researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Metabolism Research and the Cologne Cluster of Excellence in Cellular Stress Responses in Aging-associated Diseases at the University of Cologne have now succeeded in inhibiting a protein in mice that hampers activation of the useful "brown fat" in obese mice. When treated with inhibitors against this protein, obese mice exhibited a notable improvement of their glucose metabolism. [More]
New TAU study suggests potential therapeutic pathway to keep osteosarcoma lesions dormant

New TAU study suggests potential therapeutic pathway to keep osteosarcoma lesions dormant

Osteosarcoma is a cancer that develops in the bones of children and adolescents. It is one of the most aggressive cancers, with only a 15 per cent, five-year survival rate when diagnosed in an advanced metastatic stage. There are approximately 800 new cases diagnosed each year in the US, and no viable treatments. [More]
Regulus reports net loss of $7.2 million for fourth quarter 2015

Regulus reports net loss of $7.2 million for fourth quarter 2015

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, today reported financial results for the fourth quarter and full-year ended December 31, 2015 and provided a summary of recent corporate highlights. [More]
Researchers reveal how brain-specific microRNA plays key role in causing abnormal brain development

Researchers reveal how brain-specific microRNA plays key role in causing abnormal brain development

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are a group of highly inheritable behavioural disorders that pose major personal and public health concerns. Patients with ASDs have mild to severe communication difficulties, repetitive behaviour and social challenges. Such disorders significantly challenge an individual's ability to conduct daily activities and function normally in society. Currently there are very few medication options that effectively treat ASDs. [More]
Study reveals another clue to workings of trachoma

Study reveals another clue to workings of trachoma

Another clue to the workings of trachoma - the world's leading infectious cause of blindness - has been revealed in a new study published in BMC Infectious Diseases. Researchers identified markers of genetic regulation present in the early stages of infection that could predispose children to developing the condition in its long-term, severe form. [More]
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