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In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Mice study shows influence of dad's obesity on daughter’s body weight and breast cancer risk

Mice study shows influence of dad's obesity on daughter’s body weight and breast cancer risk

Obese male mice and normal weight female mice produce female pups that are overweight at birth through childhood, and have delayed development of their breast tissue as well as increased rates of breast cancer. [More]
Review sheds light on current therapeutic targets of miRNA-associated chemoresistance in EOC

Review sheds light on current therapeutic targets of miRNA-associated chemoresistance in EOC

Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most lethal disease among gynecologic malignancies. Patients with an advanced disease often relapse due to the development of chemoresistance. Chemotherapy failure is a consequence of acquired drug resistance which may potentially be due to multiple mechanisms including miRNA-mediated gene regulation. [More]
MicroRNA plays role in blocking development of arterial thrombosis

MicroRNA plays role in blocking development of arterial thrombosis

The dangers of arterial thrombosis - the formation of blood clots that can block arteries and cause illness or death - can escalate through a vicious cycle of coagulation and inflammation. [More]
EPFL researchers reprogram TAMs to prevent tumor metastasis

EPFL researchers reprogram TAMs to prevent tumor metastasis

One of the major obstacles with treating cancer is that tumors can conscript the body's immune cells and make them work for them. Researchers at EPFL have now found a way to reclaim the corrupted immune cells, turn them into signals for the immune system to attack the tumor, and even prevent metastasis. [More]
RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 may play role in regeneration of leukemia stem cells

RNA editing enzyme ADAR1 may play role in regeneration of leukemia stem cells

Cancer stem cells are like zombies — even after a tumor is destroyed, they can keep coming back. These cells have an unlimited capacity to regenerate themselves, making more cancer stem cells and more tumors. [More]
Panel of microRNAs can predict patients at risk for developing HBV-driven liver cancer

Panel of microRNAs can predict patients at risk for developing HBV-driven liver cancer

Hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of liver cancer, is increasing in incidence in the United States, and infection with the Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes about 50 percent of cases. [More]
New research pinpoints specific lncRNA that regulates neural development

New research pinpoints specific lncRNA that regulates neural development

Compared to other mammals, humans have the largest cerebral cortex. A sheet of brain cells that folds in on itself multiple times in order to fit inside the skull, the cortex is the seat of higher functions. It is what enables us to process everything we see and hear and think. [More]
Researchers explore use of miR-192 as clinical marker for pancreatic cancer

Researchers explore use of miR-192 as clinical marker for pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer is regarded as the cancer type with the lowest survival rates. Fewer than seven in 100 patients survive the first five years after diagnosis. Clinicians attribute this devastating prognosis to two circumstances: Pancreatic cancers often do not cause any signs or symptoms and by the time they are detected they have already reached a very advanced stage in most cases. [More]
New CRISPR-EZ method makes genome editing much easier in mice

New CRISPR-EZ method makes genome editing much easier in mice

University of California, Berkeley scientists have developed a quicker and more efficient method to alter the genes of mice with CRISPR-Cas9, simplifying a procedure growing in popularity because of the ease of using the new gene-editing tool. [More]
Increasing specific microRNA levels can restore chemotherapy sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells

Increasing specific microRNA levels can restore chemotherapy sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells

By increasing the level of a specific microRNA (miRNA) molecule, researchers have for the first time restored chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro to a line of human pancreatic cancer cells that had developed resistance to a common treatment drug. [More]
Gene expression patterns of normal tissue may predict survival rates of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

Gene expression patterns of normal tissue may predict survival rates of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

Breast tissue surrounding tumors could be used to gauge future survival outcomes for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, a study led by University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers has found. [More]
TSRI scientists design potential drug candidate to treat triple negative breast cancer

TSRI scientists design potential drug candidate to treat triple negative breast cancer

In a development that could lead to a new generation of drugs to precisely treat a range of diseases, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have for the first time designed a drug candidate that decreases the growth of tumor cells in animal models in one of the hardest to treat cancers—triple negative breast cancer. [More]
Study highlights significance of tiny RNA molecules in tissue regeneration process

Study highlights significance of tiny RNA molecules in tissue regeneration process

Dr. Elizabeth Hutchins, a Post-Doctoral Fellow in TGen's Neurogenomics Division, and co-lead author of the study, said she hopes this investigation eventually enables such things as regenerating cartilage in knees, repairing spinal cords in accident victims, and reproducing the muscles of injured war veterans. [More]
Implication of microRNAs in cancer development greater than previously thought

Implication of microRNAs in cancer development greater than previously thought

Small, non-coding molecules called microRNAs are known to play an important role in cancer development. Researchers now have shown their significance is greater than previously thought, a finding that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the most common and deadly form of ovarian cancer. [More]
Total cessation of GnRH production by hypothalamic neurons can lead to infertility

Total cessation of GnRH production by hypothalamic neurons can lead to infertility

Individual small RNAs are responsible for controlling the expression of gonadoliberin or GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone), a neurohormone that controls sexual maturation, the appearance of puberty, and fertility in adults. [More]
Particle Metrix reports on use of Zetaview particle characterization system at University Hospital of Erlangen

Particle Metrix reports on use of Zetaview particle characterization system at University Hospital of Erlangen

Particle Metrix, developers of versatile particle characterization solutions for the life sciences, report on the work of the Baur Laboratory in the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital of Erlangen. The Group, which is part of the Translational Research Center at the University, is working to quantify extracellular vesicles in plasma of patients. [More]
Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

A group including scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has been awarded a grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health to study the role of microRNAs in a range of physiological activities, including memory, sleep, synapse function and movement. [More]
Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Brown fat cells can burn fat to generate heat. University of Bonn researchers have discovered a new method to measure the activity of brown fat cells in humans and mice. The researchers showed that microRNA-92a can be used as an indirect measure for the activity of energy consuming brown fat cells. They showed that a small blood sample was sufficient. Results were published in "Nature Communications," a well-known scientific journal. [More]
Study describes precise mechanisms that enable TB bacteria to persist in the body

Study describes precise mechanisms that enable TB bacteria to persist in the body

Bacteria that cause tuberculosis trick immune cells meant to destroy them into hiding and feeding them instead. This is the result of a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center and published online April 18 in Nature Immunology. [More]
MicroRNA controls tumor cell proliferation in most aggressive large B-cell lymphoma

MicroRNA controls tumor cell proliferation in most aggressive large B-cell lymphoma

A recent study by researchers at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine showed that a microRNA called miR-181a dampens signals from the cancer-driving NFκB protein pathway in the most aggressive large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). By reducing NFκB signaling, miR-181a controls tumor cell proliferation and survival and could be the target of novel therapies. The study was published in the journal Blood. [More]
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