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In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
New CRISPR-EZ method makes genome editing much easier in mice

New CRISPR-EZ method makes genome editing much easier in mice

University of California, Berkeley scientists have developed a quicker and more efficient method to alter the genes of mice with CRISPR-Cas9, simplifying a procedure growing in popularity because of the ease of using the new gene-editing tool. [More]
Increasing specific microRNA levels can restore chemotherapy sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells

Increasing specific microRNA levels can restore chemotherapy sensitivity in pancreatic cancer cells

By increasing the level of a specific microRNA (miRNA) molecule, researchers have for the first time restored chemotherapy sensitivity in vitro to a line of human pancreatic cancer cells that had developed resistance to a common treatment drug. [More]
Gene expression patterns of normal tissue may predict survival rates of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

Gene expression patterns of normal tissue may predict survival rates of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients

Breast tissue surrounding tumors could be used to gauge future survival outcomes for women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, a study led by University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers has found. [More]
TSRI scientists design potential drug candidate to treat triple negative breast cancer

TSRI scientists design potential drug candidate to treat triple negative breast cancer

In a development that could lead to a new generation of drugs to precisely treat a range of diseases, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have for the first time designed a drug candidate that decreases the growth of tumor cells in animal models in one of the hardest to treat cancers—triple negative breast cancer. [More]
Study highlights significance of tiny RNA molecules in tissue regeneration process

Study highlights significance of tiny RNA molecules in tissue regeneration process

Dr. Elizabeth Hutchins, a Post-Doctoral Fellow in TGen's Neurogenomics Division, and co-lead author of the study, said she hopes this investigation eventually enables such things as regenerating cartilage in knees, repairing spinal cords in accident victims, and reproducing the muscles of injured war veterans. [More]
Implication of microRNAs in cancer development greater than previously thought

Implication of microRNAs in cancer development greater than previously thought

Small, non-coding molecules called microRNAs are known to play an important role in cancer development. Researchers now have shown their significance is greater than previously thought, a finding that could lead to new therapeutic approaches for the most common and deadly form of ovarian cancer. [More]
Total cessation of GnRH production by hypothalamic neurons can lead to infertility

Total cessation of GnRH production by hypothalamic neurons can lead to infertility

Individual small RNAs are responsible for controlling the expression of gonadoliberin or GnRH (Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone), a neurohormone that controls sexual maturation, the appearance of puberty, and fertility in adults. [More]
Particle Metrix reports on use of Zetaview particle characterization system at University Hospital of Erlangen

Particle Metrix reports on use of Zetaview particle characterization system at University Hospital of Erlangen

Particle Metrix, developers of versatile particle characterization solutions for the life sciences, report on the work of the Baur Laboratory in the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital of Erlangen. The Group, which is part of the Translational Research Center at the University, is working to quantify extracellular vesicles in plasma of patients. [More]
Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

A group including scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has been awarded a grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health to study the role of microRNAs in a range of physiological activities, including memory, sleep, synapse function and movement. [More]
Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Bonn researchers identify new technique to measure activity of brown fat cells

Brown fat cells can burn fat to generate heat. University of Bonn researchers have discovered a new method to measure the activity of brown fat cells in humans and mice. The researchers showed that microRNA-92a can be used as an indirect measure for the activity of energy consuming brown fat cells. They showed that a small blood sample was sufficient. Results were published in "Nature Communications," a well-known scientific journal. [More]
Study describes precise mechanisms that enable TB bacteria to persist in the body

Study describes precise mechanisms that enable TB bacteria to persist in the body

Bacteria that cause tuberculosis trick immune cells meant to destroy them into hiding and feeding them instead. This is the result of a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center and published online April 18 in Nature Immunology. [More]
MicroRNA controls tumor cell proliferation in most aggressive large B-cell lymphoma

MicroRNA controls tumor cell proliferation in most aggressive large B-cell lymphoma

A recent study by researchers at Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine showed that a microRNA called miR-181a dampens signals from the cancer-driving NFκB protein pathway in the most aggressive large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). By reducing NFκB signaling, miR-181a controls tumor cell proliferation and survival and could be the target of novel therapies. The study was published in the journal Blood. [More]
Qlucore’s Omics Explorer enables researchers to study genetic influences behind Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

Qlucore’s Omics Explorer enables researchers to study genetic influences behind Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

While childhood cancer is rare (adult malignancies after 20 years are 20-30 times more common in general) it remains a major cause of death by disease in children. 15,700 children are diagnosed with cancer each year in the USA. [More]
Deleting microRNA-155 prevents diet-induced obesity in female mice

Deleting microRNA-155 prevents diet-induced obesity in female mice

Researchers at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center seeking a way to combat the growing epidemic of obesity have found that deleting microRNA-155 in female mice prevents diet-induced obesity. [More]
Novel plasmid-based microRNA inhibitor system effectively prevents microRNA activity in cells

Novel plasmid-based microRNA inhibitor system effectively prevents microRNA activity in cells

Today at the 45th Annual Meeting & Exhibition of the American Association for Dental Research, researcher Brad Amendt, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA, will present a study titled "New Biotechnology to Inhibit MicroRNA Activity and Novel Applications for Craniofacial and Dental Research." [More]
MicroRNA can help combat obesity and diabetes

MicroRNA can help combat obesity and diabetes

Obesity, which is associated with low-grade inflammation, is an important contributor in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While the role of several organs including adipose tissue have been implicated in this process, the cell types and factors driving this process have not been clear. [More]
ROBO1 protein may delay progression of breast cancer

ROBO1 protein may delay progression of breast cancer

A protein called ROBO1 may delay the progression of breast cancer, according to a paper published in The Journal of Cell Biology. The study, "Loss of miR-203 regulates cell shape and matrix adhesion through ROBO1/Rac/FAK in response to stiffness" by Lily Thao-Nhi Le and colleagues, identifies a signaling pathway that may protect breast cells from the tumorigenic effects of stiff extracellular matrices. [More]
Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

Delivering microRNAs in cancer treatment: an interview with Dr Conde and Prof Artzi

microRNAs (miRs) are small endogenous noncoding RNA molecules (20–23 nucleotides) derived from imperfectly paired hairpin RNA structures naturally encoded in the genome that act specifically as triggering molecules to control translational repression or mRNA degradation. [More]
MDI Biological Laboratory discover mechanisms underlying regeneration of heart tissue

MDI Biological Laboratory discover mechanisms underlying regeneration of heart tissue

The MDI Biological Laboratory has announced new discoveries about the mechanisms underlying the regeneration of heart tissue by Assistant Professor Voot P. Yin, Ph.D., which raise hope that drugs can be identified to help the body grow muscle cells and remove scar tissue, important steps in the regeneration of heart tissue. [More]
Research findings may provide highly effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of Alzheimer's, AMD

Research findings may provide highly effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of Alzheimer's, AMD

For the first time, researchers at LSU Health New Orleans have shown that a protein critical to the body's ability to remove waste products from the brain and retina is diminished in age-related macular degeneration, after first making the discovery in an Alzheimer's disease brain. The research team, led by Walter Lukiw, PhD, Professor of Neurology, Neuroscience and Ophthalmology at LSU Health New Orleans Neuroscience Center, also discovered a key reason, identifying a new treatment target. [More]
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