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In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Research shows how prion-like proteins critical for maintaining long-term memories

Research shows how prion-like proteins critical for maintaining long-term memories

Research from Eric Kandel's lab at Columbia University Medical Center has uncovered further evidence of a system in the brain that persistently maintains memories for long periods of time. And paradoxically, it works in the same way as mechanisms that cause mad cow disease, kuru, and other degenerative brain diseases. [More]
NDSU researcher awarded $1.35 million research grant to develop targeted treatment for colorectal cancer

NDSU researcher awarded $1.35 million research grant to develop targeted treatment for colorectal cancer

A researcher at North Dakota State University, Fargo, is receiving a four-year $1.35 million research project grant from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health to develop a targeted treatment for colorectal cancer. [More]
TSRI scientists find five different miRNAs involved in memory formation

TSRI scientists find five different miRNAs involved in memory formation

Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have found that a type of genetic material called “microRNA” plays surprisingly different roles in the formation of memory in animal models. In some cases, these RNAs increase memory, while others decrease it. [More]
IU researchers find that microRNA-29 may be potent therapeutic target against pancreatic cancer

IU researchers find that microRNA-29 may be potent therapeutic target against pancreatic cancer

Indiana University cancer researchers found that a particular microRNA may be a potent therapeutic agent against pancreatic cancer. The research was published June 22 in the journal Scientific Reports. [More]
Molecular classifications of low-grade gliomas proposed

Molecular classifications of low-grade gliomas proposed

Two research teams have independently proposed molecular classification systems for grade II and III glioma based on three tumour markers, with each category displaying distinct clinical features and outcomes. [More]
Regulus Therapeutics begins RG-012 Phase I clinical study for treatment of Alport syndrome

Regulus Therapeutics begins RG-012 Phase I clinical study for treatment of Alport syndrome

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, announced today that dosing has begun in a first-in-human Phase I clinical study of RG-012, a single stranded, chemically modified oligonucleotide that binds to and inhibits the function of microRNA-21 ("miR-21"). [More]
Novel strategy shows aptamer-based modular delivery of microRNA in endothelial, breast cancer cells

Novel strategy shows aptamer-based modular delivery of microRNA in endothelial, breast cancer cells

Researchers have shown that a novel delivery strategy can efficiently introduce a functional microRNA that has anti-cancer and angiogenic activities into two different types of cells--breast cancer cells to inhibit tumor growth and metastasis, and cells that line blood vessels to protect against atherosclerosis. [More]
miR-181b potential biomarker of replication, progression in chronic HBV

miR-181b potential biomarker of replication, progression in chronic HBV

A Chinese team reports a correlation between serum levels of microRNA-181b and hepatitis B virus replication and disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection. [More]
NYU chemists find that microRNA can serve as 'decoder ring' for understanding biological functions

NYU chemists find that microRNA can serve as 'decoder ring' for understanding biological functions

MicroRNA can serve as a "decoder ring" for understanding complex biological processes, a team of New York University chemists has found. Their study, which appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, points to a new method for decrypting the biological functions of enzymes and identifying those that drive diseases. [More]
Researchers uncover major link between human body clock and immune system

Researchers uncover major link between human body clock and immune system

An important link between the human body clock and the immune system has relevance for better understanding inflammatory and infectious diseases, discovered collaborators at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania and Trinity College, Dublin. [More]
Researchers make major step toward finding target to combat drug-resistant neuroblastoma

Researchers make major step toward finding target to combat drug-resistant neuroblastoma

Researchers at Children's Hospital Los Angeles have made an important step toward finding a target in the fight against drug-resistant neuroblastoma (NBL), the most common solid malignancy found, outside of the skull, in children. [More]
Non-coding RNAs in maternal food can pass through placenta to regulate fetal gene expression

Non-coding RNAs in maternal food can pass through placenta to regulate fetal gene expression

In a new study published in the Protein & Cell, Chen-Yu Zhang's group at Nanjing University reports that small non-coding RNAs in maternal food can transfer through placenta to regulate fetal gene expression. [More]
New study discovers master switch that drives heart cell maturation process

New study discovers master switch that drives heart cell maturation process

A molecular switch that seems to be essential for embryonic heart cells to grow into more mature, adult-like heart cells has been discovered. [More]
Luxembourg biologists provide complete image of human 'miRNome' in blood samples

Luxembourg biologists provide complete image of human 'miRNome' in blood samples

In an elaborate study, biologists of the University of Luxembourg have found out that small molecules named microRNAs are, against many hopes, not yet suitable for early diagnosis of skin cancer, as well as supposedly for other types of cancer, in blood samples. For the first time they analysed all microRNAs in the serum of healthy people and thus provided a first complete image of the human "miRNome" in blood samples, in reference to the better-known "genome". [More]
Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 signaling may open up new therapy options for lung cancer patients

Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 signaling may open up new therapy options for lung cancer patients

New findings about regulation of PD-L1, a protein that allows cancer to evade the immune system, has shown therapeutic promise for several cancers, including the most common form of lung cancer. [More]
Winners of GSA poster awards announced at 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference

Winners of GSA poster awards announced at 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference

The Genetics Society of America (GSA) and the Drosophila research community are pleased to announce the winners of the GSA poster awards at the 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference, which took place in Chicago, IL, March 4-8, 2015. [More]
AstraZeneca selects Regulus' RG-125 as clinical candidate for treatment of NASH

AstraZeneca selects Regulus' RG-125 as clinical candidate for treatment of NASH

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, announced today the selection of RG-125 (AZD4076), a GalNAc-conjugated anti-miR targeting microRNA-103/107 (“miR-103/107”) for the treatment of Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (“NASH) in patients with type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes, as a clinical candidate by AstraZeneca under the companies’ strategic alliance to discover, develop and commercialize microRNA therapeutics. [More]
Researchers identify 22 genetic variations associated with increased risk of prostate cancer

Researchers identify 22 genetic variations associated with increased risk of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer affects one out of every 6 men during their lifetime and is the second most common cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States, resulting in an estimated 27,500 deaths in 2015. Identifying those men who have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer may reduce mortality. [More]
Scientists identify small RNA molecule that can suppress cancer-causing genes in GBM

Scientists identify small RNA molecule that can suppress cancer-causing genes in GBM

Northwestern Medicine scientists have identified a small RNA molecule called miR-182 that can suppress cancer-causing genes in mice with glioblastoma mulitforme (GBM), a deadly and incurable type of brain tumor. [More]
Pseudogenes may play role in cancer development, shows study

Pseudogenes may play role in cancer development, shows study

Pseudogenes, a sub-class of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that developed from the genome's 20,000 protein-coding genes but lost the ability to produce proteins, have long been considered nothing more than genomic "junk." Yet the retention of these 20,000 mysterious remnants during evolution has suggested that they may in fact possess biological functions and contribute to the development of disease. [More]
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