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In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Genetic differences between brain cancer cells and normal tissues could offer clues to tumor behavior

Genetic differences between brain cancer cells and normal tissues could offer clues to tumor behavior

Two recently discovered genetic differences between brain cancer cells and normal tissue cells -- an altered gene and a snippet of noncoding genetic material -- could offer clues to tumor behavior and potential new targets for therapy, Johns Hopkins scientists report. [More]
Researchers show how microRNAs play key role in tumor progression and response to radiation

Researchers show how microRNAs play key role in tumor progression and response to radiation

OHSU researcher Sudarshan Anand, Ph.D., has a contemporary analogy to describe microRNA: "I sometimes compare MicroRNA to tweets -- they're short, transient and constantly changing." [More]
Cigarette smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys, study reveals

Cigarette smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys, study reveals

Smoking may lead to fibrosis in the heart and kidneys and can worsen existing kidney disease, according to a new study. [More]
Scientists identify microrna that provides clues for quieting auditory hallucinations of schizophrenia

Scientists identify microrna that provides clues for quieting auditory hallucinations of schizophrenia

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital scientists have identified a small RNA (microRNA) that may be essential to restoring normal function in a brain circuit associated with the "voices" and other hallucinations of schizophrenia. [More]
Research provides insight into molecular mechanisms involved in immune response to HBV

Research provides insight into molecular mechanisms involved in immune response to HBV

The innate immune system in mammals defends against infection from viruses and other microbial infections. [More]
Researchers uncover new clues that may help combat leukemia and other B cell cancers

Researchers uncover new clues that may help combat leukemia and other B cell cancers

When B lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell in the immune system geared for fighting diseases) turn cancerous, they become part of the problem, and need to be eliminated. [More]
Texas Biomed researcher seeks to identify molecular mechanisms underlying early atherosclerosis

Texas Biomed researcher seeks to identify molecular mechanisms underlying early atherosclerosis

Texas Biomedical Research Institute Staff Scientist Dr. Genesio Karere was recently awarded a $609,568 grant from the National Institutes of Health to study and identify molecular mechanisms underlying early atherosclerosis. [More]
Small RNA molecules could contribute to serious pregnancy complication, study finds

Small RNA molecules could contribute to serious pregnancy complication, study finds

A family of small RNA molecules affects the development of cells that give rise to the placenta - an organ that transfers oxygen and nutrients from mother to fetus -- in ways that could contribute to a serious pregnancy complication, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers report. [More]
Scientists reveal molecular elements that bridge anxiety and metabolism

Scientists reveal molecular elements that bridge anxiety and metabolism

Metabolic and anxiety-related disorders both pose a significant healthcare burden, and are in the spotlight of contemporary research and therapeutic efforts. Although intuitively we assume that these two phenomena overlap, the link has not been proven scientifically. [More]
Researchers aim to stop breast cancer metastasis from happening altogether

Researchers aim to stop breast cancer metastasis from happening altogether

A new Tel Aviv University study finds that combining genetic therapy with chemotherapy delivered to a primary tumor site is extremely effective in preventing breast cancer metastasis. [More]
Study finds potential therapeutic target for KRAS-driven cancers

Study finds potential therapeutic target for KRAS-driven cancers

Approximately 20 percent of all human cancers have mutations in a gene called KRAS. KRAS-mutant cancers are among the most difficult to treat, with poor survival and resistance to chemotherapy. [More]
UAB researchers find microRNA as potential therapeutic target for MDD

UAB researchers find microRNA as potential therapeutic target for MDD

A tiny RNA appears to play a role in producing major depression, the mental disorder that affects as many as 250 million people a year worldwide. [More]
Study suggests microRNAs may connect inflammation with heart disease risk in obese people

Study suggests microRNAs may connect inflammation with heart disease risk in obese people

Inflammation likely plays a role in the increased risk of heart disease that comes with obesity, but scientists don't fully understand how obesity leads to heart disease. [More]
Tel Aviv University researchers unravel how melanoma spreads to distant organs

Tel Aviv University researchers unravel how melanoma spreads to distant organs

In a landmark discovery, researchers at Tel Aviv University have unraveled the metastatic mechanism of melanoma, the most aggressive of all skin cancers. [More]
Study shows microRNA molecule prevents cancer cells from responding to chemotherapy treatment

Study shows microRNA molecule prevents cancer cells from responding to chemotherapy treatment

Annually about 2000 Danish patients with colorectal cancer are treated with chemotherapy. Today, a range of different chemotherapeutic regimens are available. However, deciding which regimen to use is not easy. [More]
UH biologists developing strategies to help regenerate heart muscle cell formation

UH biologists developing strategies to help regenerate heart muscle cell formation

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the U.S. With one in every four deaths occurring each year, the five-year survival rate after a heart attack is worse than most cancers. [More]
Scientists discover tissue biomarkers that lead to joint degeneration linked to spine osteoarthritis

Scientists discover tissue biomarkers that lead to joint degeneration linked to spine osteoarthritis

A research team at the Krembil Research Institute has discovered a pair of tissue biomarkers that directly contribute to the harmful joint degeneration associated with spine osteoarthritis. [More]
Battling IBD with super heroes: an interview with Dr James Lindsay

Battling IBD with super heroes: an interview with Dr James Lindsay

Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited has launched IBD Unmasked as a first-of-its-kind global initiative designed to raise awareness of the unsung Super Heroes of the global IBD community. [More]
New research opens door to influencing immune system

New research opens door to influencing immune system

A new international collaboration involving scientists at The Scripps Research Institute opens a door to influencing the immune system, which would be useful to boost the effectiveness of vaccines or to counter autoimmune diseases such as lupus and rheumatoid arthritis. [More]
Adhesive patch can deliver triple combination therapy to tumor sites

Adhesive patch can deliver triple combination therapy to tumor sites

Approximately one in 20 people will develop colorectal cancer in their lifetime, making it the third-most prevalent form of the disease in the U.S. In Europe, it is the second-most common form of cancer. [More]
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