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In genetics, microRNAs (miRNA) are single-stranded RNA molecules of 21-23 nucleotides in length, which regulate gene expression. miRNAs are encoded by genes from whose DNA they are transcribed but miRNAs are not translated into protein (i.e. they are non-coding RNAs); instead each primary transcript (a pri-miRNA) is processed into a short stem-loop structure called a pre-miRNA and finally into a functional miRNA. Mature miRNA molecules are partially complementary to one or more messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, and their main function is to down-regulate gene expression.
Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 signaling may open up new therapy options for lung cancer patients

Targeting PD-1/PD-L1 signaling may open up new therapy options for lung cancer patients

New findings about regulation of PD-L1, a protein that allows cancer to evade the immune system, has shown therapeutic promise for several cancers, including the most common form of lung cancer. [More]
Winners of GSA poster awards announced at 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference

Winners of GSA poster awards announced at 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference

The Genetics Society of America (GSA) and the Drosophila research community are pleased to announce the winners of the GSA poster awards at the 56th Annual Drosophila Research Conference, which took place in Chicago, IL, March 4-8, 2015. [More]
AstraZeneca selects Regulus' RG-125 as clinical candidate for treatment of NASH

AstraZeneca selects Regulus' RG-125 as clinical candidate for treatment of NASH

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, announced today the selection of RG-125 (AZD4076), a GalNAc-conjugated anti-miR targeting microRNA-103/107 (“miR-103/107”) for the treatment of Non Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (“NASH) in patients with type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes, as a clinical candidate by AstraZeneca under the companies’ strategic alliance to discover, develop and commercialize microRNA therapeutics. [More]
Researchers identify 22 genetic variations associated with increased risk of prostate cancer

Researchers identify 22 genetic variations associated with increased risk of prostate cancer

Prostate cancer affects one out of every 6 men during their lifetime and is the second most common cause of cancer-related death for men in the United States, resulting in an estimated 27,500 deaths in 2015. Identifying those men who have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer may reduce mortality. [More]
Scientists identify small RNA molecule that can suppress cancer-causing genes in GBM

Scientists identify small RNA molecule that can suppress cancer-causing genes in GBM

Northwestern Medicine scientists have identified a small RNA molecule called miR-182 that can suppress cancer-causing genes in mice with glioblastoma mulitforme (GBM), a deadly and incurable type of brain tumor. [More]
Pseudogenes may play role in cancer development, shows study

Pseudogenes may play role in cancer development, shows study

Pseudogenes, a sub-class of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that developed from the genome's 20,000 protein-coding genes but lost the ability to produce proteins, have long been considered nothing more than genomic "junk." Yet the retention of these 20,000 mysterious remnants during evolution has suggested that they may in fact possess biological functions and contribute to the development of disease. [More]
Regulus' RG-012 receives orphan medicinal product designation in EU for treatment of Alport syndrome

Regulus' RG-012 receives orphan medicinal product designation in EU for treatment of Alport syndrome

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, announced today that the European Commission has granted orphan medicinal product designation for RG-012, a single stranded, chemically modified oligonucleotide that binds to and inhibits the function of microRNA-21 ("miR-21") for the treatment of Alport syndrome, a life-threatening genetic kidney disease with no approved therapy. [More]
New study reveals how cells sort out loops meant to encode microRNAs

New study reveals how cells sort out loops meant to encode microRNAs

Just as two DNA strands naturally arrange themselves into a helix, DNA's molecular cousin RNA can form hairpin-like loops. But unlike DNA, which has a single job, RNA can play many parts -- including acting as a precursor for small molecules that block the activity of genes. These small RNA molecules must be trimmed from long hairpin-loop structures, raising a question: How do cells know which RNA loops need to be processed this way and which don't? [More]
Researchers find key step in understanding genetic mechanism of plants' environmental adaptability

Researchers find key step in understanding genetic mechanism of plants' environmental adaptability

A fundamental question pursued by plant scientists worldwide for the past decade has been answered by researchers led by the University of Sydney in Australia. [More]
New approach to improve cardiac regeneration

New approach to improve cardiac regeneration

The heart tissue of mammals has limited capacity to regenerate after an injury such as a heart attack, in part due to the inability to reactivate a cardiac muscle cell and proliferation program. Recent studies have indicated a low level of cardiac muscle cell (cardiomyocytes) proliferation in adult mammals, but it is insufficient to repair damaged hearts. [More]
Study describes the dual role of microRNA during hepatitis C infection

Study describes the dual role of microRNA during hepatitis C infection

In the battle between a cell and a virus, either side may resort to subterfuge. Molecular messages, which control the cellular machinery both sides need, are vulnerable to interception or forgery. [More]
Study supports use of ThyraMIR, ThyGenX Thyroid Oncogene Panel to improve thyroid cancer diagnosis

Study supports use of ThyraMIR, ThyGenX Thyroid Oncogene Panel to improve thyroid cancer diagnosis

PDI, Inc. subsidiary, Interpace Diagnostics, announced today new data supporting the use of combination platform testing with ThyraMIR, the first and only microRNA expression classifier, and ThyGenX Thyroid Oncogene Panel, a DNA and RNA mutational analysis, to improve thyroid cancer diagnosis. [More]
New genetic discovery may lead to effective treatments for Huntington's disease

New genetic discovery may lead to effective treatments for Huntington's disease

A new genetic discovery in the field of Huntington's disease (HD) could mean a more effective way in determining severity of this neurological disease when using specific treatments. This study may provide insight for treatments that would be effective in slowing down or postponing the death of neurons for people who carry the HD gene mutation, but who do not yet show symptoms of the disease. [More]
Regulus Therapeutics reports net loss of $22.2 million for fourth quarter 2014

Regulus Therapeutics reports net loss of $22.2 million for fourth quarter 2014

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, today reported financial results for the fourth quarter and year ended December 31, 2014, including a summary of recent corporate highlights. [More]
Researchers identify two cell-signaling molecules that appear critical to stalling cancer's spread

Researchers identify two cell-signaling molecules that appear critical to stalling cancer's spread

In what is believed to be the largest epigenetic analysis to date of cell-signaling molecules in early-stage melanoma, researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center and its Laura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center have identified two tiny bits of non-coding genetic material in primary tumors that appear critical to stalling the cancer's spread -- and essentially setting the biological fate of the disease. [More]
Regulus Therapeutics reports top-line results from RG-101 clinical study for HCV treatment

Regulus Therapeutics reports top-line results from RG-101 clinical study for HCV treatment

Regulus Therapeutics Inc., a biopharmaceutical company leading the discovery and development of innovative medicines targeting microRNAs, today announced top-line results from the 4 mg/kg cohort and additional results from the 2 mg/kg cohort in a completed clinical study evaluating RG-101, a wholly-owned, GalNac-conjugated anti-miR targeting microRNA-122 ("miR-122"), for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection ("HCV"). [More]
Genomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): an interview with Professor Thomas J. Giordano

Genomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC): an interview with Professor Thomas J. Giordano

There are two types of thyroid cells and therefore there are two broad types of thyroid cancer. Medullary carcinoma is derived from parafollicular or C cells, whereas follicular cells give rise to several types of thyroid cancers. [More]
Clusters of gene-blocking microRNAs can limit spread of cancer

Clusters of gene-blocking microRNAs can limit spread of cancer

Cancers that have spread throughout the body, a process known as metastasis, are difficult, often impossible, to control. They are the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. [More]
Researchers are one step closer to devising an approach to identify pancreatic cancer earlier

Researchers are one step closer to devising an approach to identify pancreatic cancer earlier

Pancreatic cancer affects approximately 46,000 people each year in the United States and ranks fourth among the leading causes of cancer-related deaths. Only about 6 percent of individuals with pancreatic cancer will live five years after their diagnosis. [More]
Study discovers microRNA signatures that could predict prognosis, distant metastasis in colorectal cancer

Study discovers microRNA signatures that could predict prognosis, distant metastasis in colorectal cancer

A new study developed at the Center for Gastrointestinal Cancer Research and the Center for Epigenetics, Cancer Prevention and Cancer Genomics at Baylor Research Institute has discovered unique metastasis-specific microRNA signatures in primary colorectal cancers that could predict prognosis and distant metastasis in colorectal cancer. [More]
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