Laryngeal cancer may also be called cancer of the larynx or laryngeal carcinoma. Most laryngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, reflecting their origin from the squamous cells which form the majority of the laryngeal epithelium.
Cancer can develop in any part of the larynx, but the cure rate is affected by the location of the tumor. For the purposes of tumour staging, the larynx is divided into three anatomical regions: the glottis (true vocal cords, anterior and posterior commissures); the supraglottis (epiglottis, arytenoids and aryepiglottic folds, and false cords); and the subglottis.
Most laryngeal cancers originate in the glottis. Supraglottic cancers are less common, and subglottic tumours are least frequent.
Laryngeal cancer may spread by direct extension to adjacent structures, by metastasis to regional cervical lymph nodes, or more distantly, through the blood stream. Distant metastates to the lung are most common.
Two in 20,000 (12,500 new cases per year) in USA. The American Cancer Society estimates that 9,510 men and women (7,700 men and 1,810 women) will be diagnosed with and 3,740 men and women will die of laryngeal cancer in 2006.
Laryngeal cancer is listed as a "rare disease" by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). This means that laryngeal cancer affects fewer than 200,000 people in the U.S.
Each year, about 2,200 people in the U.K. are diagnosed with laryngeal cancer.
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