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Causas de la Leucopenia

Por el Dr. Ananya Mandal, DOCTOR EN MEDICINA

La Leucopenia refiere a la disminución del número de glóbulos blancos (WBC) en sangre. Esto se puede causar debido a ciertas medicaciones, la quimioterapia para el cáncer, la radioterapia para el cáncer, la cirugía, el trasplante de la célula madre, el trasplante de la médula, los esteroides, el cáncer sí mismo, algunas condiciones genéticas así como enfermedades autoinmunes. Esto se llama immunosupresión mientras que la leucopenia lleva a una inmunidad debilitada.

Cuentas Normales de WBC

La Leucopenia se causa debido disminuir en número de WBCs, determinado neutrófilos. Para los varones adultos normales el WBC cuenta el rango entre 4500 y 11000 por el milímetro cúbico de sangre. Esto es ligeramente más alto en niños.

Causas de la Leucopenia

La Leucopenia se puede causar por diversas enfermedades y drogas. Algunos de éstos se contornean aquí: -

Daño o supresión de la médula

Esto se causa debido a la exposición a las ciertas substancias químicas o toxinas, quimioterapia del cáncer, radioterapia y ciertas drogas. Estos agentes causan una disminución de la producción de todas las células de la médula que lleva a la leucopenia, anemia (número inferior de producción y de plaquetas del glóbulo rojo).

Enfermedades de la médula

En estas condiciones la médula no produce suficiente WBCs ni produce selectivamente exceso de un tipo de WBCs que lleva a una falta de otros tipos. Las causas incluyen síndrome myelodysplastic, leucemia, síndrome myeloproliferative, el myelofibrosis (médula reemplazada por los tejidos fibrosos), la vitamina B12 o la deficiencia Etc. del folato.

Cánceres que se han extendido a la médula

Los Cánceres cuando se han extendido a la médula pueden llevar a la leucopenia. Esto se ve en linfomas y otros cánceres.

Desordenes Autoinmunes

Esto ocurre cuando el cuerpo no puede reconocer sus propias células y comienza a atacarlas. En casos de leucopenia los WBC del cuerpo se perciben como no nativo y se atacan. La condición se llama lupus o eritematoso de lupus Sistémico (SLE).

Infecciones Severas

Las infecciones Severas que agotan el cuerpo de WBCs pueden llevar a la leucopenia. Esto se llama sepsia.

Enfermedades del sistema inmune

Enfermedades del sistema inmune, tales como VIH, que destruyen linfocitos de T

Hypersplenism

Esto es causada por la ampliación del bazo que destruye a los glóbulos que llevan a la leucopenia así como a la anemia.

Otras condiciones

Otras condiciones tienen gusto de desordenes de la tiroides (determinado sobre las glándulas tiroides activas), de la anemia aplástica, artritis reumatoide, infestaciones parásitas, deficiencias de la vitamina, deficiencias minerales del cobre y cubren con cinc tifoideo, la malaria, la gripe, la dengue, las infecciones Rickettsiales, la tuberculosis Etc.

Pseudoleukopenia

Esto ocurre en las fases iniciales de la infección. Los leucocitos (predominantemente neutrófilos) son responsables de la reacción inicial a una infección. Después de una infección estas células recolectan alrededor de los márgenes de los vasos sanguíneos (marginados) de modo que puedan explorar para el sitio de la infección. Así hay producción creciente de WBC pero aparece inferior de una muestra de sangre, puesto que la muestra de sangre está de sangre de la base y no incluye el WBCs recolectado para alcanzar el sitio de la infección.

Drogas que causan leucopenia

Algunas drogas pueden llevar a la leucopenia. Las Medicaciones que pueden causar leucopenia incluyen:

  • clozapine, una medicación antipsicótica
  • valproate y lamotrigine - agentes antiepilépticos del sodio
  • drogas inmunosupresivas, tales como sirolimus, mofetil del mycophenolate, tacrolimus, y cyclosporine que se utilizan en pacientes trasplantados
  • interferones usados en el tratamiento de la esclerosis múltiple Etc.

El antidepresivo y la medicación del tratamiento del apego que fumaba llamaron Bupropion y la Minociclina y la penicilina antibióticos pueden también causar leucopenia.

El mecanismo de la leucopenia causado por las drogas es mediado principal por el sistema inmune sí mismo. Algunos agentes como las drogas de la quimioterapia del cáncer sin embargo causan leucopenia suprimiendo la médula.

En abril Cashin-Garbutt Revisado, VAGOS Hons (Cantab)

Fuentes

  1. http://www.cancer.org/Treatment/TreatmentsandSideEffects/PhysicalSideEffects/InfectionsinPeoplewithCancer/InfectionsinPeoplewithCancer/infections-in-people-with-cancer-immune-suppression
  2. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/leukopeniacauses-of-low-white-blood-cells.html
  3. http://www.lef.org/protocols/heart_circulatory/blood_disorders_06.htm
  4. http://www.kck.usm.my/husm/pharmacy/images/cpe/leukopenia.pdf

Lectura Adicional

Last Updated: Apr 6, 2013

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Comments
  1. Rebecca Perez Rebecca Perez United States says:

    I have leukopenia and have had it for a long time now, I am tired now of feeling sick all the time! I pray to god they find a medication soon to heal me and so many others.
    I pray for the doctors to never stop trying to find the answer to this illness. GOD BLESS AND HELP YOU DOCTORS AND THANK YOU FOR TRYING!

    • Sally Wood Sally Wood United States says:

      I was feeling very sick and tired all the time for several years...I have COPD so my family doctor just chalked it up to that, even tho my blood work showed very low white count.....now she sent me papers to sign....and as I read them, noticed she has written down, "Leukopenia" as one of my chronic conditions....I am not pleased since I had researched tiredness etc and told her I thought I had it but she at that time, asked me what Leukopenia was and then just brushed it off. I am not fond of doctors having so many errors with them these past 15 years ......I am not sure how to approach her on this subject but really feel she has not been fair and honest with me so I have every right to find another Dr who is educated and knows what they are doing.....many seem to book two patients at a time......it's more about their bank accounts, then properly treating patients.

      • Rick Ridgeway Rick Ridgeway United States says:

        Sally, I discovered I had leukopenia in 2012 by accident. My doctor hid the facts from me. They overdosed me on tc99 and other drugs. My records show copd also,never got meds for it. I also have bradycardia, arrhythmia and nodules on my lungs. They experimented on me. Rick

  2. Rebecca Perez Rebecca Perez United States says:

    TOO ALL THAT HAVE THIS ILLNESS......NEVER GIVE UP AND KEEP ALL DOCTORS IN PRAYERS!! They are the key to all the illness out there, thank you doctors for all hard work you all put in to helping us sick people...your always in our prayers.

  3. Laura Frick Laura Frick United States says:

    I take Copaxone now 3x a week shots. Site soreness wi lump..- low White blood count high Red Blood count..So, how fast has people experienced worsening of MS milan degeneration with not taking Copaxone ?

  4. Dawn Lasalle Dawn Lasalle United States says:

    Hi Rebecca maybe you can help me..The doctor said I have Leukopenia..I had to go to the hospital cause I keep getting pains in my stomach and another doctor at my doctor's office seen this and was concerned...I told her they told me before my white blood count was low and did nothing and I kept telling them I am so tired and I keep waking up in the sweats and I am not menopausal..There checking me for leukemia cause my grandpop had it but then I have to see a Hematology ..Also my iga is low but that has to do with my sinus's can you tell me more about Leukopenia..Like what affects does it have to us when we have it? Are we tired? Does it cause fatigue..? can we get sick quicker then others?

    • Kathy Mcman Kathy Mcman United States says:

      Hi Dawn, I just came across your post. I have been seeing a Hematologist for a little over a year now, it's the best thing you can do. My primary referred me as my blood work came back saying that my WBC was a 3. I got blood work done every month, every other month to 6 months in between now. The tested me for everything under the sun, from anemia, Hiv, Lymphoma, Leukemia, and other blood disorders. All other test keep coming up negative so I am classified as having Leukopenia. Having  Leukopenia is having a consistent low WBC. Yes we are always tired (this was my main complaint to the doctor before he ordered my blood work) and Yes, your immune system is weakened (I've been fighting a cold/allergies for 3 months now, ugh!). I am 45 yrs old, eat healthy and exercise regularly and I'm still tired all of the time. I started some natural remedies to help boost my WBC. I will find out if they are working and report back when I get my next blood work done in March. I wish I had an answer to why I have Leukopenia, I hate the unknown, but Hopefully they will find something soon. I hope that you find your answers and pray that it's nothing serious that's  causing your leukopenia. Best reqards. Kathy

  5. hilary thomas hilary thomas United Kingdom says:

    I am now suffering with my third bout of flu since let October and exhausted as I am working full time.  I find that I am tired constantly and despite trying to kept fit it has simply made me even more tired.  I am due to see a doctor today but unsure what help he can give other than take me off the Tegretol , I doubt that this will happen though as I was told I would have to take this all my life.  I feel that I need to wear a mask around people with 'germs' because if they have a cold I get 'file' etc. Any ideas how I can fight this lack of immune to bugs? Thank u all

  6. hilary thomas hilary thomas United Kingdom says:

    'Flu' !

  7. Deborah Cash Deborah Cash United States says:

    My father had leukopenia and thrombocytopenia which turn into leukemia he was tired and pains joints hurt for about 4 years we tried to find out what was going on with him and his blood work and he was at one time in the Army and then he works for a Atomic plant  he was around radiation now find out  that my brother  work in Atomic plant for 3 or more years lots of  people in these area have problem radiation ]has the same thing and he's in pain there's about 10 states that have the atomic plants in there that causes disease illnesses you have to check into. What causes Leukemia is in the water  in the air kidney failure stillborn deaths of leukemia cancer several different types of cancers they're not making you aware of My dad was  working in the 1960 at Atomic radiation plant they didn't  have the protective gear like they have now they were exposed to a lot of Bellevue radiation iron different types of radiation that they shouldn't be exposed to. My grandfather work out there and couldn't  take a bath befor coming out ofbthe plant and he had all thst radiation on his pants and my mom and her sister were little kids and when my grandfather would come home and wrap them around legs my mother has chemical burns all on her arms and legs which she grabbed my grandfather's pants leg they had to take her to Washington and Chicago two Specialists and they confirmed they were radiation Burns her sister has a lot of immune diseases from it also check into it in this area that I live most people get their blood drawn forearm radiation a lot of other things because of the radiation is in everything 60 minutes had a special on the town with the radiation plants and its effect.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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