Advertisement

什么是病毒?

由 Ananya Mandal, MD 博士

病毒是可能导致温和严重病症在人、动物和植物中的微小的有机体。 这可能包括流感或感冒到事威胁生命象 HIV/AIDS。

多大是病毒?

病毒微粒小于一个唯一细菌细胞 100 次。 单独这个细菌细胞小于一个人类细胞和一个人类细胞 10 次小于唯一人发的超过 10 次直径。

病毒是否是运行?

病毒独自不运行。 他们不可能独自地增长或倍增和需要输入一个人力或动物细胞和接收这个细胞帮助他们倍增。 这些病毒可能也传染细菌细胞。

病毒微粒或 virions 攻击这个细胞并且接管其机械执行他们增殖和增长的自己的生活进程。 一个被传染的细胞将导致病毒微粒而不是其通常产品。

病毒的结构

virion (病毒微粒) 有三主要部分:

  • 核酸 - 这是病毒的核心与脱氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸 (各自脱氧核糖核酸和核糖核酸的)。 脱氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸暂挂所有病毒的信息,并且那使它唯一和帮助它倍增。
  • 蛋白质外套 (capsid) - 这包括在保护它的核酸。
油脂膜 (信包) - 这报道 capsid。 许多病毒没有此信包和叫赤裸病毒。

感受器官

病毒没有被采取到细胞。 他们必须fi rst 附上到在细胞表面的一种感受器官。 每病毒有其 speci fi c 感受器官,通常一个重要要素细胞表面。 它是确定病毒细胞特选这些感受器官分子的配电器在寄主细胞的。 例如,感冒和流感病毒更喜欢肺和空中航线的黏液线路单元。

病毒如何传染?

病毒没有必要的化工机械独自地生存。 他们,因而寻找他们可以倍增的寄主细胞。 这些病毒从这个环境送进这个身体或其他单个从土壤浇灌到航空通过鼻子,装腔作势地说,或者在皮肤的所有中断并且寻求细胞传染。

感冒或流感病毒例如将排行呼吸的靶细胞 (即肺) 或消化 (即胃) 短文。 该的 HIV (HIV) 导致艾滋病攻击 T 细胞 (抵抗传染和疾病) 白细胞的类型免疫系统。

基本的病毒的寿命周期

有所有传染的病毒按照的一些个基本步骤,并且这些叫这个细胞溶解的循环。 这些包括:

  1. 寄主细胞的病毒微粒随员。 这称吸附的进程
  2. 这个微粒注射其脱氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸到称项的寄主细胞。
  3. 侵略的脱氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸接收这个细胞并且吸收主机的酵素
  4. 蜂窝电话酵素开始做称副本的新的病毒微粒
  5. 这个细胞创建的病毒的微粒一起来形成新的病毒。 这称集合
  6. 新形成的病毒杀害这个细胞,以便他们能任意中断和搜索一个新的寄主细胞。 这称版本。

复核在 4月 Cashin-Garbutt 前, BA Hons (Cantab)

来源

  1. http://www.safewater.org/PDFS/resourcesknowthefacts/Viruses.pdf
  2. http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/13/9780199206735.pdf
  3. http://cc.bjmu.edu.cn/download/1469d0793292486fb79de5420688-2906309031657.pdf
  4. http://www.ots.ac.cr/tropiweb/attachments/volumes/vol59-3/02-Herrero-Viruses.pdf

深层读取

Last Updated: Feb 28, 2013

Read in | English | Español | Français | Deutsch | Português | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | 简体中文 | 繁體中文 | Nederlands | Русский | Svenska | Polski
Comments
  1. Ethan Mellor Ethan Mellor Ukraine says:

    The article is good. I would like to know more about viruses.

  2. maseera mirza maseera mirza India says:

    best webside thank you

  3. Ralph R. Zerbonia Ralph R. Zerbonia United States says:

    In this article's 2nd paragraph, headlined "How big are viruses?" are the following words:
    "The virus particles are 100 times smaller than a single bacteria cell. The bacterial cell alone is more than 10 times smaller than a human cell and a human cell is 10 times smaller than the diameter of a single human hair."

    May I point out that you really can't get smaller than one time the size of something at which point you disappear. What I assume is meant by the above paragraph is the following re-written set of words:
    "The virus particles are 1/100 the size of a single bacteria cell. The bacterial cell alone is smaller than 1/10 the size of a human cell and a human cell is 1/10 the diameter of a single human hair."
    Or
    "The Virus particle's size is 1% of that of a single bacteria cell. That bacteria cell is less than 10% of the size of a human cell and that human cell's size is 10%  of the diameter of a human hair. So that makes the virus particle's size approximately 1/1000th the size of a human hair!" (Hope I got all the math right there! It's 1% of 10% of 10% of the diameter of a human hair)
    Remember if I subtract one whole you (1 time smaller) there is nothing left. You want to speak about fractions, not whole numbers when speaking about something smaller. Unless of course it somehow is possible for the item being described to actually go into negative numbers. Physical items don't. You can only have one less of a physical item.

    I know, I am feeling very much like a word Nazi, but I only do it for this particular peeve..... Smile

  4. Stephen Spink Stephen Spink United Kingdom says:

    I wonder if a prolonged burst of low voltage electricity would affect the virus ability to function.

  5. Russell Wuertz Russell Wuertz United States says:

    Modern Latin is what the state Universities use.  Since the 16th century.   Yale would be different using Old Latin or Middle Latin, and is not what anyone has classes for.

    The Modern Latin meaning for "Virus" is a slimy liquid, or in my opinion, the reason for a pimple, chicken pox, small pox, cow pox.  Nitric acid, has been a problem ever since we did what was not allowed and pumped up crude oil.  The nitric acid from coal oil is the worst of all the acids we have, without the word cataylst being what we know, and how much it does not dilute, but comes back into its origional form and strength.  

    The experts eliminating this acid from effecting us today is the reason our teeth don't rot, and our children all don't have acne.

  6. Prettiecandie Lemo Prettiecandie Lemo na says:

    virus .. I am looking forward to learn a lot on virus

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
Post a new comment
Post