Advertisement

什麼是病毒?

由 Ananya Mandal, MD 博士

病毒是可能導致溫和嚴重病症在人、動物和植物中的微小的有機體。 這可能包括流感或感冒到事威脅生命像 HIV/AIDS。

多大是病毒?

病毒微粒小於一個唯一細菌細胞 100 次。 單獨這個細菌細胞小於一個人類細胞和一個人類細胞 10 次小於唯一人髮的超過 10 次直徑。

病毒是否是運行?

病毒獨自不運行。 他們不可能獨自地增長或倍增和需要輸入一個人力或動物細胞和接收這個細胞幫助他們倍增。 這些病毒可能也傳染細菌細胞。

病毒微粒或 virions 攻擊這個細胞并且接管其機械執行他們增殖和增長的自己的生活進程。 一個被傳染的細胞將導致病毒微粒而不是其通常產品。

病毒的結構

virion (病毒微粒) 有三主要部分:

  • 核酸 - 這是病毒的核心與脫氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸 (各自脫氧核糖核酸和核糖核酸的)。 脫氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸暫掛所有病毒的信息,并且那使它唯一和幫助它倍增。
  • 蛋白質外套 (capsid) - 這包括在保護它的核酸。
油脂膜 (信包) - 這報道 capsid。 許多病毒沒有此信包和叫赤裸病毒。

感受器官

病毒沒有被採取到細胞。 他們必須fi rst 附上到在細胞表面的一種感受器官。 每病毒有其 speci fi c 感受器官,通常一個重要要素細胞表面。 它是確定病毒細胞特選這些感受器官分子的配電器在寄主細胞的。 例如,感冒和流感病毒更喜歡肺和空中航線的黏液線路單元。

病毒如何傳染?

病毒沒有必要的化工機械獨自地生存。 他們,因而尋找他們可以倍增的寄主細胞。 這些病毒從這個環境送進這個身體或其他單個從土壤澆灌到航空通過鼻子,裝腔作勢地說,或者在皮膚的所有中斷并且尋求細胞傳染。

感冒或流感病毒例如將排行呼吸的靶細胞 (即肺) 或消化 (即胃) 短文。 該的 HIV (HIV) 導致艾滋病攻擊 T 細胞 (抵抗傳染和疾病) 白細胞的類型免疫系統。

基本的病毒的壽命週期

有所有傳染的病毒按照的一些個基本步驟,并且這些叫這個細胞溶解的循環。 這些包括:

  1. 寄主細胞的病毒微粒隨員。 這稱吸附的進程
  2. 這個微粒注射其脫氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸到稱項的寄主細胞。
  3. 侵略的脫氧核糖核酸或核糖核酸接收這個細胞并且吸收主機的酵素
  4. 蜂窩電話酵素開始做稱副本的新的病毒微粒
  5. 這個細胞創建的病毒的微粒一起來形成新的病毒。 這稱集合
  6. 新形成的病毒殺害這個細胞,以便他們能任意中斷和搜索一個新的寄主細胞。 這稱版本。

覆核在 4月 Cashin-Garbutt 前, BA Hons (Cantab)

來源

  1. http://www.safewater.org/PDFS/resourcesknowthefacts/Viruses.pdf
  2. http://fds.oup.com/www.oup.com/pdf/13/9780199206735.pdf
  3. http://cc.bjmu.edu.cn/download/1469d0793292486fb79de5420688-2906309031657.pdf
  4. http://www.ots.ac.cr/tropiweb/attachments/volumes/vol59-3/02-Herrero-Viruses.pdf

深層讀取

Last Updated: Feb 28, 2013

Read in | English | Español | Français | Deutsch | Português | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | 简体中文 | 繁體中文 | Nederlands | Русский | Svenska | Polski
Comments
  1. Ethan Mellor Ethan Mellor Ukraine says:

    The article is good. I would like to know more about viruses.

  2. maseera mirza maseera mirza India says:

    best webside thank you

  3. Ralph R. Zerbonia Ralph R. Zerbonia United States says:

    In this article's 2nd paragraph, headlined "How big are viruses?" are the following words:
    "The virus particles are 100 times smaller than a single bacteria cell. The bacterial cell alone is more than 10 times smaller than a human cell and a human cell is 10 times smaller than the diameter of a single human hair."

    May I point out that you really can't get smaller than one time the size of something at which point you disappear. What I assume is meant by the above paragraph is the following re-written set of words:
    "The virus particles are 1/100 the size of a single bacteria cell. The bacterial cell alone is smaller than 1/10 the size of a human cell and a human cell is 1/10 the diameter of a single human hair."
    Or
    "The Virus particle's size is 1% of that of a single bacteria cell. That bacteria cell is less than 10% of the size of a human cell and that human cell's size is 10%  of the diameter of a human hair. So that makes the virus particle's size approximately 1/1000th the size of a human hair!" (Hope I got all the math right there! It's 1% of 10% of 10% of the diameter of a human hair)
    Remember if I subtract one whole you (1 time smaller) there is nothing left. You want to speak about fractions, not whole numbers when speaking about something smaller. Unless of course it somehow is possible for the item being described to actually go into negative numbers. Physical items don't. You can only have one less of a physical item.

    I know, I am feeling very much like a word Nazi, but I only do it for this particular peeve..... Smile

  4. Stephen Spink Stephen Spink United Kingdom says:

    I wonder if a prolonged burst of low voltage electricity would affect the virus ability to function.

  5. Russell Wuertz Russell Wuertz United States says:

    Modern Latin is what the state Universities use.  Since the 16th century.   Yale would be different using Old Latin or Middle Latin, and is not what anyone has classes for.

    The Modern Latin meaning for "Virus" is a slimy liquid, or in my opinion, the reason for a pimple, chicken pox, small pox, cow pox.  Nitric acid, has been a problem ever since we did what was not allowed and pumped up crude oil.  The nitric acid from coal oil is the worst of all the acids we have, without the word cataylst being what we know, and how much it does not dilute, but comes back into its origional form and strength.  

    The experts eliminating this acid from effecting us today is the reason our teeth don't rot, and our children all don't have acne.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
Post a new comment
Post