Patients are referred to nephrology specialists for various reasons, such as:
- Acute renal failure, a sudden loss of renal function
- Chronic kidney disease, declining renal function, usually with an inexorable rise in creatinine.
- Hematuria, blood in the urine
- Proteinuria, the loss of protein especially albumin in the urine
- Kidney stones, usually only recurrent stone formers.
- Chronic or recurrent urinary tract infections
- Hypertension that has failed to respond to multiple forms of anti-hypertensive medication or could have a secondary cause
- Electrolyte disorders or acid/base imbalance
Urologists are surgical specialists of the urinary tract (see urology). They are involved in renal diseases that might be amenable to surgery:
- Diseases of the Bladder and prostate such as malignancy, stones, or obstruction of the urinary tract.
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