Race differences in average IQ are largely genetic

Published on April 26, 2005 at 5:29 PM · 212 Comments

A 60-page review of the scientific evidence, some based on state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain size, has concluded that race differences in average IQ are largely genetic.

The lead article in the June 2005 issue of Psychology, Public Policy and Law, a journal of the American Psychological Association, examined 10 categories of research evidence from around the world to contrast "a hereditarian model (50% genetic-50% cultural) and a culture-only model (0% genetic-100% cultural)."

The paper, "Thirty Years of Research on Race Differences in Cognitive Ability," by J. Philippe Rushton of the University of Western Ontario and Arthur R. Jensen of the University of California at Berkeley, appeared with a positive commentary by Linda Gottfredson of the University of Delaware, three critical ones (by Robert Sternberg of Yale University, Richard Nisbett of the University of Michigan, and Lisa Suzuki & Joshua Aronson of New York University), and the authors' reply.

"Neither the existence nor the size of race differences in IQ are a matter of dispute, only their cause," write the authors. The Black-White difference has been found consistently from the time of the massive World War I Army testing of 90 years ago to a massive study of over 6 million corporate, military, and higher-education test-takers in 2001.

"Race differences show up by 3 years of age, even after matching on maternal education and other variables," said Rushton. "Therefore they cannot be due to poor education since this has not yet begun to exert an effect. That's why Jensen and I looked at the genetic hypothesis in detail. We examined 10 categories of evidence."

  1. The Worldwide Pattern of IQ Scores. East Asians average higher on IQ tests than Whites, both in the U. S. and in Asia, even though IQ tests were developed for use in the Euro-American culture. Around the world, the average IQ for East Asians centers around 106; for Whites, about 100; and for Blacks about 85 in the U.S. and 70 in sub-Saharan Africa.

  2. Race Differences are Most Pronounced on Tests that Best Measure the General Intelligence Factor (g). Black-White differences, for example, are larger on the Backward Digit Span test than on the less g loaded Forward Digit Span test.

  3. The Gene-Environment Architecture of IQ is the Same in all Races, and Race Differences are Most Pronounced on More Heritable Abilities. Studies of Black, White, and East Asian twins, for example, show the heritability of IQ is 50% or higher in all races.

  4. Brain Size Differences. Studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) find a correlation of brain size with IQ of about 0.40. Larger brains contain more neurons and synapses and process information faster. Race differences in brain size are present at birth. By adulthood, East Asians average 1 cubic inch more cranial capacity than Whites who average 5 cubic inches more than Blacks.

  5. Trans-Racial Adoption Studies. Race differences in IQ remain following adoption by White middle class parents. East Asians grow to average higher IQs than Whites while Blacks score lower. The Minnesota Trans-Racial Adoption Study followed children to age 17 and found race differences were even greater than at age 7: White children, 106; Mixed-Race children, 99; and Black children, 89.

  6. Racial Admixture Studies. Black children with lighter skin, for example, average higher IQ scores. In South Africa, the IQ of the mixed-race "Colored" population averages 85, intermediate to the African 70 and White 100.

  7. IQ Scores of Blacks and Whites Regress toward the Averages of Their Race. Parents pass on only some exceptional genes to offspring so parents with very high IQs tend to have more average children. Black and White children with parents of IQ 115 move to different averages--Blacks toward 85 and Whites to 100.

  8. Race Differences in Other "Life-History" Traits. East Asians and Blacks consistently fall at two ends of a continuum with Whites intermediate on 60 measures of maturation, personality, reproduction, and social organization. For example, Black children sit, crawl, walk, and put on their clothes earlier than Whites or East Asians.

  9. Race Differences and the Out-of-Africa theory of Human Origins. East Asian-White-Black differences fit the theory that modern humans arose in Africa about 100,000 years ago and expanded northward. During prolonged winters there was evolutionary selection for higher IQ created by problems of raising children, gathering and storing food, gaining shelter, and making clothes.

  10. Do Culture-Only Theories Explain the Data? Culture-only theories do not explain the highly consistent pattern of race differences in IQ, especially the East Asian data. No interventions such as ending segregation, introducing school busing, or "Head Start" programs have reduced the gaps as culture-only theory would predict.

Read in | English | Español | Français | Deutsch | Português | Italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | 简体中文 | 繁體中文 | Nederlands | Русский | Svenska | Polski
Comments
  1. Black Supremacist Black Supremacist United States says:

    in the United States, when matched for IQ with Whites, American Blacks have been shown to demonstrate superior “Working Memory” (Nijenhuis et al., 2004). This is a particularly interesting finding as African Americans tend to be taught by less qualified teachers (e.g. non-certified teachers and teachers with limited experience) than their white counterparts, and are provided with less challenging school work (Hallinan 1994; Diamond et al., 2004; Uhlenberg and Brown 2004). In Chicago, for example, the vast majority of schools placed on academic probation as part of the district accountability efforts were majority African-American and low-income (Diamond and Spillane 2004). Thus, it is somewhat of a surprise that African Americans should outperform white Americans on any portion of a paper and pencil test designed to mimic the structures of western style schooling and culture (Richardson, 2000, 2002).

    Educational inequality in the U.S. is a pervasive part of the social system and is primarily a consequence of housing. Since the majority of states determine school funding based on property taxes, schools in wealthier neighborhoods receive more funding per student. As home values in white neighborhoods are higher than minority neighborhoods, local schools receive more funding via property taxes (Kelly, 1995). In addition, there has been a history of social policy which has limited African American’s access to avenues of wealth accumulation (e.g. purchasing suburban homes); so that black families also have far fewer assets than their white counterparts who earn the same incomes (Oliver and Shapiro, 1995). Parents with greater assets are free to use them for things like tutors, purchasing educational materials (e.g. computers), and to pay for private schools and more expensive colleges.  

    In a study which helped to highlight the need for better education for African American children, Serpell et al. (2006) took 162 low-income African American and white fourth graders and assigned them, randomly, to ethnically homogeneous groups of three to work on a motion acceleration task, using computer simulation or physical tools. Or to a control group that did not participate in the learning activities. It was shown that both African American and White students performed equally well on the test of initial learning, with both groups scoring significantly higher than the control group. However, it was also found that African American children’s transfer outcomes were superior to those of their White counterparts (see Serpell et al., 2006). The study demonstrated, empirically, that not only do African American children learn as well as white children, but that they may actually exceed their white counterparts in their ability to transfer learned abilities to real tasks.

    • looncraz looncraz United States says:

      Chimpanzees have considerably better working memory than humans.  But we out-compete them hands-down because we are more fluid in our reasoning and logic.

      As whites are to blacks, and Asians to whites.

      The loss of working memory requires more reasoning skills, which increases intelligence.

      I watched a documentary a few years ago about an ape that demonstrated extraordinary memory abilities and could remember patterns thirty or forty times better and faster than humans... the documentary studied the behavior of young apes vs children and found that children would explore the possible solutions and apes would simply - and exclusively - go for the most obvious one.  Apes would get frustrated that their one solution didn't work and try the same one over and over.  Human children immediately reasoned that they needed to find another way in - hence a survival advantage.

      • Elise Harris Elise Harris United States says:

        Guess who out-performs EVERYONE on measures of fluid intelligence? People on the autistic spectrum. Wanna guess what the trade-off is?

        Point is, IQ and fluid intelligence isn't everything.

      • Hamsa Rosenberg Hamsa Rosenberg United States says:

        I was an anthropology major for awhile, and studied primates in depth.  One thing I remember is when they tested chimps against human children, the chimps developed much faster.  Much of the testing was shapes/holes/problem solving with objects...  The chimps out performed the humans...up until about age 6 - when the human children caught up, and continued to develop, while the chimps had reached their max.  Then I just read the same in this article.  Blacks developed faster than asians/whites (sit, crawl,putting on clothes).  Because of this it is not obvious in the beginning that they have a deficiency.  And by 6 they know enough,are in a coddling affirmative action school, and move right through the system (working memory). Second point, you are right that a lack of working memory skills does lead to innovation...like language and math.  When you don't remember stuff as well, you have to write it down, which leads to a whole slew of innovations. Also, on anderson Cooper he visited a gorilla fora segment, and the gorilla was symbolically/mathematically more advanced than any human.  Besides the basic sign language, the gorilla tried to communicate with flash card symbols, but none of the humans knew what they meant.  Just interesting.

    • James W. Maxey James W. Maxey United States says:

      Whites hate blacks because the so-called bible says so. The so-called African American are the Hebrew Israelites. For your information read Lev. 26 chapter and Deut. 28 chapter. We Hebrews are under a curse for not obeying Yah's law. The first white man on earth came after the flood. Can you handle the truth. If you want proof email me at kamjam2002@yahoo.com. The proof is in the so-called bible. Blacks are highly inteligent. Go to the search engine and type in "Black Inventord. You will see that most the things you used is invented by blacks. The first open heart surgery was done by a black doctor in 1893. We invented the helicopter, typewriter, air conditioner, computer, traffic light, park meters and over 144 items. If I do not hear from you then I will know that you are afraid of the truth. Ye shall know the trtuh and the truth will set you free. The so-called bible was written only for Hebrews in the begininng. He who does not speak the truth is a traitor to the truth. Let me hear from you. If you object to what I have said when you reply send proof of what you say and where to find it. Never make a remark unless you can give proof. I am waiting to hear from you.

      • Stefan van Westing Stefan van Westing Netherlands says:

        That's so untrue ... the first computer was developed by the british in the 2nd world war to crack the Nazi secret communications code.

        I never understand why blacks continue to lie about having made inventions or pioneering stuff ... let me guess ... you're gonna claim the Wright brothers were black too don't you ?

        I don't fully understand why .. but i suppose they try to lie, imagine and 'engineer' a history of their own together to fill the utter void of blacks and any black contributor's in world history.

        Just accept black have historically been useless, they've only been useful idiots (in Lenin's words) by being slaves for a short while .... just like everyone else were enslaved at some point in time.

        Stop lying about blacks inventing shit they never invented in the first place ... you people are plainly forging a false history to give blacks the feeling that they belong ... and contribute to the modern world.

        They did not.

        • Brenda Savage Brenda Savage United States says:

          A black man invented the first personal computer like you are using to type your ignorance on. So thank that black man every you are able to show how stupid you are online... go look it up. You are proven to be an unintelligent fool.

        • Ali Denver Ali Denver United States says:

          Morocco held Spain for 700 years , so everything modern in Spain was from Africa  , while Europa had the dark ages Africa flourished , and as far as the I.Q. thing of course if they went and found any crack baby off of the street , or any bushman from Africa and tested them but test a black person not from that kind of back ground .

          • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

            You are using a white man's invention to speak a white man's language on a website created by a white man. You stupid Black man (see above).

          • Xzanaith B Xzanaith B United States says:

            Why don't you volunteer?

          • Thomas Kable Thomas Kable United States says:

            North Africans, like the Moors from Morocco, are Berber, not Sub-Saharan black. This is a common misconception African Americans make all the time Ali Denver. Black people come from Sub-Saharan Africa, meaning below the Sahara Desert. North Africans are Berbers and Egyptians, people who look Middle Easter to us, they are not black. Various Islamic empires took holdings in Spain from the Germanic Visigoths and held them for close to 700 years before being driven out by Christians. No blacks ever ruled Spain or anywhere in Europe.

          • Rog Dowsett Rog Dowsett United Kingdom says:

            You have just demonstrated one example of these findings. I.e.: an unfounded and destructive comment that only serves to bring racism into this subject, which has absolutely nothing to do with it. A low IQ I guess.

        • Western O'Connor Western O'Connor United States says:

          you can interpret the bible in many ways.  some common interpretations are
          1. that adam was the first man. (another interpretation is there were men, and he was a sort of special man, (this fits with the bible as well, and it fits with historical humanlike bones of neanderthals and such.) his name Adam translates to face that blushes with blood. a description that fits most with whites)
          2.cain killed able, and was marked and made black.

          before the flood, god told noah to take "2 of every flesh" so this could translate to 2 of every race. there is no way to fairly even postulate that white man came after the flood. theres simply no evidence or reason to beleive that.

          the bible chapters you gave, really bear no relevancy... mabye you are talking about when god says he took the israelites out of egypt? and you assume because egypt is in africa, therefore the people coming from egypt where black? a far stretch.... but only thing atleast remotely reasonably.

          as far as inventions go.... before 2000 years ago, blacks had invented perhaps huts, chairs, tables and torches..... since learning from western society, they have made a few inventions.... anytime the poster invention for your race, is peanut butter xD haha .. well blacks did patent a refrigeration device, i do believe the device and technology was made before, but the black had just patented it for use to refrigerate. and they did a few things. nothing too noteworthy though.... nothing to brag about.

        • John Turner John Turner United States says:

          Here is some TRUTH for you Stefan van Westing:

          LIFE WITHOUT BLACK PEOPLE

          A very humorous and revealing story is told about a group of white people who were fed up with African Americans, so they joined together and wished them away. They passed through a deep dark tunnel and emerged in sort of a twilight zone where there is an America without black people.

          At first these white people breathed a sigh of relief. At last, they said, "No more crime, drugs, violence and welfare. All of the blacks have gone!"

          Then suddenly, reality set in. The "NEW AMERICA" is not America at all — only a barren land.

          1. There are very few crops that have flourished because the nation was built on a slave-supported system.

          2. There are no cities with tall skyscrapers because Alexander Mils, a black man, invented the elevator, and without it, one finds great difficulty reaching higher floors.

          3. There are few if any cars because Richard Spikes, a black man, invented the automatic gearshift, Joseph Gambol, also black, invented the Super Charge System for Internal Combustion Engines, and Garrett A. Morgan, a black man, invented the traffic signal.

          4. Furthermore, one could not use the rapid transit system because its procurer was the electric trolley, which was invented by another black man, Albert R. Robinson.

          5. Even if there were streets on which cars and a rapid transit system could operate, they were cluttered with paper because an African American, Charles Brooks, invented the street sweeper.

          6. There were few if any newspapers, magazines and books because John Love invented the pencil sharpener, William Purveys invented the fountain pen, and Lee Barrage invented the Type Writing Machine and W. A. Love invented the Advanced Printing Press. They were all, you guessed it, Black.

          7. Even if Americans could write their letters, articles and books, they would not have been transported by mail because William Barry invented the Postmarking and Canceling Machine, William Purveys invented the Hand Stamp and Philip Downing invented the Letter Drop.

          8. The lawns were brown and wilted because Joseph Smith invented the Lawn Sprinkler and John Burr the Lawn Mower.

          9. When they entered their homes, they found them to be poorly ventilated and poorly heated. You see, Frederick Jones invented the Air Conditioner and Alice Parker the Heating Furnace. Their homes were also dim. But of course, Lewis Later invented the Electric Lamp, Michael Harvey invented the lantern and Granville T. Woods invented the Automatic Cut off Switch. Their homes were also filthy because Thomas W. Steward invented the Mop and Lloyd P. Ray the Dust Pan.

          10. Their children met them at the door-barefooted, shabby, motley and unkempt. But what could one expect? Jan E. Matzelinger invented the Shoe Lasting Machine, Walter Sammons invented the Comb, Sarah Boone invented the Ironing Board and George T. Samon invented the Clothes Dryer.

          11. Finally, they were resigned to at least have dinner amidst all of this turmoil. But here again, the food had spoiled because another Black Man, John Standard invented the refrigerator.

          Now, isn't that something? What would this country be like without the contributions of Blacks, as African-Americans?

          Martin Luther King, Jr. said, "by the time we leave for work, Americans have depended on the inventions from the minds of Blacks." Black history includes more than just slavery, Frederick Douglass, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and Marcus Garvey and W.E.B. Dubois.

          Read more at www.snopes.com/.../blackinv.asp

          • Terri Skidmore Terri Skidmore United States says:

            MLK was a commie degenerate, nothing more.  

            So, you're saying that just in the last 50 years or so blacks have devolved that far, that fast?  Wow!

          • Dawn Ewers Dawn Ewers United States says:

            So many to go through.

            You do know you don't need a pencil sharpener to print a magazine or newspaper.  You can thank a white person for that-Johannes Gutenberg.

            There were crops before the white man even got here.  Thanks to the Indians and taught many white people to plant.

            Elisha Otis invented the elevator, hence the Otis mark on every elevator.

            There were standards before there were automatics and they get better gas mileage.  You don't need a Super Charge System to make an engine work. When I look up traffic light inventor I get-J. P. Knight.

            Wow, I keep looking up other things and still not coming up with the names you have.  A lot of the stuff I don't even use.  A

            I do believe, given some time, that there will be a way to claim that blacks built the first airplane and steam liner and who knows what else.

          • Lady Wolf Lady Wolf United States says:

            There has been primitive elevators since 3 century BC.  In 1823, two architects Burton and Hormer built an "ascending room" as they called it, this crude elevator was used to lift paying tourists to a platform for a panorama view of London. In 1835, architects Frost and Stutt built the "Teagle", a belt-driven, counter-weighted, and steam-driven lift was developed in England.   In 1846, Sir William Armstrong introduced the hydraulic crane, and in the early 1870s, hydraulic machines began to replace the steam-powered elevator.  In 1853, American inventor Elisha Otis demonstrated a freight elevator equipped with a safety device to prevent falling in case a supporting cable should break. This increased public confidence in such devices. In 1853, Elisha Otis established a company for manufacturing elevators and patented (1861) a steam elevator. While, Elisha Graves Otis did not actually invent the first elevator, he did invent the brake used in modern elevators, and his brakes made skyscrapers a practical reality.
            In 1857, Elisha Otis and the Otis Elevator Company began manufacturing passenger elevators. A steam-powered passenger elevator was installed by the Otis Brothers in a five-story department store owned by E.W Haughtwhat & Company of Manhattan. It was the first public elevator.  Electric elevators came into to use toward the end of the 19th century. The first one was built by the German inventor Werner von Siemens in 1880.  Then, Alexander Miles patented an electric elevator (U.S. pat#371,207) on October 11, 1887.

            2. The lawn mower was invented in 1830 by Edwin Beard Budding, an engineer from Stroud, Gloucestershire, England.

            3.  On July 17, 1902, Willis Haviland Carrier designed the first modern air-conditioning system.  Frederick Jones was born 1893 so that would make him only 9 yrs old at the time the air conditioner was built.

            4.  Sir Joseph Swann of England and Thomas Edison both invented the first electric incandescent lamps during the 1870s.

            5. September 4, 1849 that the first street sweeper was patented by C.S. Bishop of Easton, Pennsylvania. It was a towed attachment fitted with a rotating brush wheel. The brush swept refuse onto a conveyor that lifted the material into a holding bucket.

            6.  Urban development got a major boost in 1887 when inventor Frank Julian Sprague developed the world's first successful electric street railway system.  

            Maybe you should have read all that was on snopes and realize all those that was said was not true.  Try to do research for once instead.

      • Jonathan Schell Jonathan Schell United States says:

        You believe that non-sense that modern comforts are owed to the expertise and ingenuity of blacks. You read a Facebook post that spewed some outrageous claims and you instantly associated them with fact. I, a person with some sense, did some further reading into the claims and easily dismissed ~75% of them as being inaccurately flat out lies to perpetuate ignorance.

      • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

        Actually black people didn't invent ANY of those things that you have mentioned, some of them were refinements on earlier white inventions and the rest are just complete fabrications. I would very much like to see the source of this 'information'.

      • Sean Nelson Sean Nelson United States says:

        You're first sentence...
        "Whites hate blacks because the so-called bible says so"
        That is not true. Whites don't hate blacks. I was brought up to believe that we are all brothers and sisters in the eyes of the lord.
        Also, I don't see why the skin color of an inventor is relevant. Hell, all of the so called "data" in the above article is suspect to say the least.
        The paper that they site for the above article was written by J Phillipe Rushton. Rushton's research methods were ridiculed by the scientific community at large. He was considered a racist quack by most. The only people who endorsed his work were funded by the same people Rushton was. Many didn't even consider what he did to be science. Robert Sussman, an evolutionary anthropologist and the editor in-chief of American Anthropologist, explained why the journal did not accept ads for Rushton's 1998 book:
        "This is an insidious attempt to legitimize Rushton’s racist propaganda and is tantamount to publishing ads for white supremacy and the neo-Nazi party. If you have any question about the validity of the "science" of Rushton’s trash you should read any one of his articles and the many rebuttals by ashamed scientists"

    • Bob Murdoch Bob Murdoch Canada says:

      I am a white guy born with an IQ in the upper 5 percentiles meaning that my mind works quicker and more organized than 97% of the people I meet.
      One of the few people I have met that impressed me mentally was Malcolm X. Some of the ones that impressed me the least were CEO's of major companies and politicians who control our daily lives. The latter two all white by the way.
      Another person who impressed me greatly was someone who was counted out as mentally deficient but through hard work and determination became a very good lawyer. He may not be the fastest thinker but he is very thorough, makes no mistakes and catches things I have missed.
      From what I have read on this subject I can not conclude from my own reasoning that IQ is stratified so clearly across ethnic lines as to make a significant difference. I will say this how ever that success in life has more to do with attitude, perspiration and persistence than skin colour

      • Joseph Stern Joseph Stern United States says:

        A person in the upper 5th percentile by definition scores at least as high as (100 - 5)% = 95% of the sampled population; not 97%. This is more typically referred to as the "95th percentile", rather than the "upper 5th percentile". Also: should someone in the 95th IQ percentile not understand the difference between one data point (Malcolm X) and a data set of statistically significant size? Just a thought. Cheers.

        • Stefan van Westing Stefan van Westing Netherlands says:

          He's plainly lying about his "intellectual" merits .... the appalling mathematic error he opens his statements up with is a perfect testimony to his low intellect.

          He lies about being competent white, in order to make his statement of "it's not about race, it's more about persistence and attitude" seem more legitimate than it would be coming from a black man (i'm guessing he's black in reality)

          Even though the very article here highlights that intelligence differences already play out at age 3 before education and culture has any impact on one's intellectual merits.

          He also says "From what I have read on this subject I can not conclude from my own reasoning that IQ is stratified so clearly across ethnic lines as to make a significant difference."

          Only a black man could ever say that ... because any white man inherently knows that the fact that white people invented nearly everything relevant on the planet today, whilst blacks invented nothing, and this clearly has everything to do with race.

      • Elise Harris Elise Harris United States says:

        How's that high IQ working for you in life?

    • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

      Your entire spiel is irrelevant. The Intelligence quotient is not a measure of education it is a measure of intelligence.

      People from poor uneducated backgrounds can and do still achieve exceptionally high scores. As long as they can read above a fourth grade level then they can do the IQ test.

      The information you have presented here is completely redundant to the issue at hand.

    • your carwash your carwash United States says:

      I am a white guy, and very politically active. Evolution and atheism are the road to hell. "All men are created equal" You know that passage from the Declaration of Independence. It was stated because we are all equal under God. All races have the same ability, and these studies are actually used to divide us into groups who hate each other. Look at some of these comments. The hate in them is palpable, and it is very sad. Evolutionists in all levels of academia, if you talk to them in private, although it is starting to become "PC"  to say in public and in books, believe blacks are the "missing link" from apes to smarter humans. If you don't believe me look at this study, and ask yourself what its trying to portray to the readers. Also, correlate that to the comments here. Evolution is a scam of the greatest order. Atheists will say the same thing about Creationists, but in the end there is absolutely no proof of evolution, therefore both groups are religious, because we both believe something that cant be proven. The difference in IQ among races and nations has nothing to do with evolution or race, it is social. A great portion of the  black population in this country has made a deal with the devil, and moved it self into government slavery. Give up all your responsibility, vote the right way, and the government will take care of you. Asian countries have high IQs, especially Japan, because their schools are run the right way. Japan makes sure great influence is put on the value of education, and the students take it to heart. Some kids even commit suicide because they don't get into the most prominent universities. I am not condoning this, but making the point as to how they influence the young population. In America, many black parents use the public school system as daycare, and could care less about what they teach.
      God bless everyone on this page, and please don't let yourself be divided into groups, it can destroy even the strongest Countries.

      • Babak Navabi Babak Navabi Saudi Arabia says:

        And they should be equal under the law and merit equal justice. But this is not what we are talking about here. People of different races are physiologically and mentally different. But as soon as we say someone is different from us the implication is that he is inferior  and therefore we have a right to take advantage (enslave) him like we use  say, a hose.

        It is obvious that blacks have a physical advantage over whites - bone density, musculature, etc. Track and field, boxing, football, basketball, is dominated by  blacks. ( But denser bones have an adverse effect on swimming). Even if you factor in selective breeding of Afro-Americans (survival on slave ships, purpose breeding)you will find that Blacks in general have some superior abilities. You do not see any white person argue for equality in such areas. Why is it so outrageous to suggest that mentally, emotionally, and in other ways there are differences between the races?  - Just as there are physical differences between the races (American Indians  building sky scrapers, or their susceptibility to alcohol)

      • Babak Navabi Babak Navabi Saudi Arabia says:

        The question that needs to be asked is why there is such a gap between white vs. black IQ test across all countries, continents, soci-economic groups, etc. etc. If there is a bias in the testing then let a black person come up with a different test that that that eliminates such a gap in IQ Tests. Blacks are over represented in athletic and musical achievement than whites. If otherwise we are all equal must we then not assume that the whites are actually inferior?

      • Rog Dowsett Rog Dowsett United Kingdom says:

        Please take your bible bashing rant to an appropriate site or topic of relevance.

      • Thisismynew Espnaccount Thisismynew Espnaccount United States says:

        There is an astounding amount of evidence for evolution. Jesus doesn't even fulfill his supposed fathers prophecy. Revelation was written about Nero Ceaser, and the guy that wrote it wasn't christian. He was actually calling for the first and only coming of the actual messiah. There are plenty of holes in the Jesus myth. Hell go ask a jew why they convicted him for blasphemy.

    • Kaitlyn Downing Kaitlyn Downing United States says:

      Black Supremacist makes some very valid points, and should definitely be considered regarding American IQ test scores broken down by race. However, what fascinates me is the IQ difference at the international level, which removes the issues (I assume) he discusses.  None of those issues are applicable, and while one can make a case for colonization keeping African IQs lower, it doesn't explain Asian IQs superiority.  In other words, since most of the world was colonized by whites, one would assume the results would favor them. However, this is not the case. So, other factors than environment must be considered.

      On another note: evolution is a fact. The method of evolution (how we evolved) is what is being debated as a theory.  Darwin proposed Natural Selection, while the newer theories look at short bursts of evolutionary change, sometimes over shorter periods of time, IN ADDITION TO Natural Selection.  The fact that humans (and all species) evolved from less complex species is not up for debate. It's not only been observed in the natural world, but recreated in a lab, and if that isn't enough, the extensive fossil record of human skeletons showing each step of our evolution from primates.  Stephen Jay Gould (the Stephen Hawking of evolutionary biology) wrote an excellent, clear, easy to understand article explaining the concept called, "Evolution as Fact and Theory". In this article, he clearly explains the difference and where the confusion lies for some people.  Frankly, ninth grade biology should cover this, but...

    • Terri Skidmore Terri Skidmore United States says:

      What a bunch of PC BS.  You just keep trying to find junk to convince yourself but the real world knows better.  Just like we know that young black males (approx. 3% of our population) commit well over 1/2 of all violent crime in this country.  That makes them our number one terrorist threat and who should be avoided at all costs.

  2. Black Supremacist Black Supremacist says:

    Barnes (1972) noted that the Stanford-Binet, and the Wisc IQ tests are examples of “Culture specific tests,” and that the culture in this instance is what is referred to as “white middle class” culture. Lyman (1970) designed a cross cultural test called the “American Cross Culture Ethnic Nomenclature Test”, or “ACCENT.” The instrument contained 20 black biased and 20 white biased items. In one experiment this test was administered to 110 undergraduates (91 whites and 19 blacks) where it was found that the black participants out performed the white participants. Blacks obtained a mean of 15.3 on the black items and 11.1 on the white items, while white subjects obtained a mean of 12.7 on the white items and 8.3 on the black items. The results of this study indicated that when blacks and whites are tested cross-culturally that blacks may outperform whites on standardized tests.

    Williams and Rivers (1972b) showed that test instructions in Standard English penalize the black child and that if the language of the test is put in familiar labels, without training or coaching, the black child’s performance on the tests increase significantly. Ideally a child’s language development should be evaluated in terms of his progress toward the norms for his own particular speech community (Cadzen, 1966); however, this kind of evaluation is rarely, if ever, done with respect to African Americans. Studies using sentence repetition tasks have found that at both third and fifth grades white subjects repeated Standard English sentences significantly more accurately than black subjects, while black subjects repeated nonstandard English sentences significantly more accurately than did white subjects (Marwit et al, 1977). Students in American schools are usually taught and tested only in Standard English, which can put African American students at a disadvantage. In fact, this issue was at the center debates concerning the use of Ebonics in the American school system during the 1990s.

    Researchers provide considerable evidence showing that traditional psychological assessment is based on skills that are considered important within white, western, middle-class culture, but which may not be salient or valued within African-American culture (Helms, 1992; Helms, 1997; Hilliard, 1995; Boone et al, 2007; Teng and Manly, 2005). Kwate (2001) argues that IQ tests are antagonistic and incompatible with an African centered conception of intelligence and mental health, while a study by Obiakor and Utley (2004) showed that culturally diverse learners are often excluded in educational programs in the U.S. through misidentification, misassessment, miscategorization, misplacement, and misinstruction-misintervention. When test stimuli are more culturally pertinent to the experiences of African Americans, performance improves (Hayles, 1991; Williams and Rivers, 1972b). For example, research shows that “Black Culture” depicts problem solving as an integrative hemispheric endeavor rather than a linear, analytical process (Bell, 1994), and that in this culture "psychological closeness" is necessary for one’s involvement in the phenomena which he seeks to understand.

    Studies using empirical methods also find that cultural differences in the provision of information account for racial differences in IQ scores. Fagan and Holland (2007) asked African-Americans and white Americans to solve problems typical of those administered on standard IQ tests. Half of the problems were solvable on the basis of information generally available to either race, or on the basis of information newly learned; while other problems were only solvable on the basis of specific previous knowledge. In this study specific knowledge varied with race and was shown to be subject to test bias (Fagan and Holland, 2007).

    • jon jon United States says:

      I'm just going to try and make this as simple as possible. Why is it that all over the world blacks live a poor quality of life. Whenever I see feed the children commercials I don't see white people. If you want to blame white people for slaving black people I have this to say, maybe if you weren't so stupid we wouldn't have been able to slave you in the first place. It's always the white man holding you back. How about you stop acting like children and take responsibility for your stupidity.

      • Adrian Stewart Adrian Stewart United States says:

        If you remember your colonial history Caucasians also dominated China, India, and Japan also. Now you claim higher incidence of intelligence to them. You Caucasian are deathlessly infear of the rising Asian tide. Doesn't that have an element of hypocrisy to it.
        Maybe because of colonial domination, which was made possible by the use of gun powder (the , gun and cannon), Caucasians dominated.
        There is Caucasian poverty all over this world. Wherever you are there are Caucasian street people. Every European Country has it's own Appalachia(s). And I guess that you are ignorant of the terms de facto and de jure racism.
        Please take responsibility for your own ignorance.

        • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

          Your comment actually supports his argument. Yes, whites did reign over these countries at various times throughout history but these people went on to contribute great things to society and are generally considered to be capable intelligent people. The blacks have no excuse.

        • Babak Navabi Babak Navabi Saudi Arabia says:

          China was at one point in time far superior in technological achievement ( gunpowder, paper, ship building, etc. etc. ) than any Caucasian country. The emperor decided that non-Chinese were barbarians and it is better nothing to d with them lest they become polluted.  They burned all the ships and isolated themselves.  It was the isolation ( like in Japan) and imposed uniformism that prevented them to benefit from new ideas and thus fall behind technologically.

      • Xzanaith B Xzanaith B United States says:

        If they hadn't sold their unwanted members of the tribe and those they kidnaped to us they wouldn't have anyone to blame now would they? I guess they would have to make up some more anti White propaganda.

    • Stefan van Westing Stefan van Westing Netherlands says:

      "The instrument contained 20 black biased and 20 white biased items. In one experiment this test was administered to 110 undergraduates (91 whites and 19 blacks) where it was found that the black participants out performed the white participants. Blacks obtained a mean of 15.3 on the black items and 11.1 on the white items"

      I would like to know what those specific questions were, since black students always get simplified tests in school and whites are simply measured with a higher standard.

      The "black" questions

      1 is the earth a sphere ... or a cube shape ?

      2 If john has 8 skittles, and gives 4 skittles to a friend, how many skittles does john still have left ?

      3 what animal has a green color, a Frog, or a Shark ?

      etc. etc. etc.

      the "white" questions were probably more to the grade of rocket science and advanced physics.

      Those "white" questions were probably to the likes of nuclear fusion/fission, complex mathematics, chemical components etc.

      just like school tests are simplified to make blacks pass the test ... this does not mean blacks are as competent as ... or more competent than whites since their study material tends to be several grades below the "white" study material.

      • Kissy Nonya Kissy Nonya United States says:

        John still has 8 skittles. He stole them back from the friend!!

        But seriously I have to wonder as others have before me, why black countries have always been so bad off and starving regardless of the fact they have abundant natural resources. I mean, if you watch a National Geographic segment you can see dinner run right by them...pathetic, actually,

        Anyone else notice also that blacks generally are very quick to anger, are obnoxious, etc? Even black adopted children seem different and extra loud. Also, is it possible that the claim black serial killers are not abundant because the "white man" is the crazy one actually wrong and the truth is blacks just have no concept of the patience and premeditation it takes to carry out those heinous acts?

    • Babak Navabi Babak Navabi Saudi Arabia says:

      Yes, there may be certain built in bias in some tests, but what the article in question is essentially stating is that even if corrected for such biases Afro-Americans, and especially Sub-Sahara blacks scored on average lower than whites and East Asians and that this lower score directly correlates to their lower brain mass compared with Whites, in the same manner as the intelligence of whites and their brain mass compares with those of East Asians.

  3. John John United States says:

    Black Supremacist, please stop spamming your copied and pasted drivel.

  4. Steve Steve United States says:

    Dear BS- It's interesting that you had to go back over 40 years to find studies to support your beliefs.... must have taken a lot of time.

  5. opex9718 opex9718 United States says:

    its so funny that everyone just loved to here that whites are so much smarter than blacks then when someone post facts from source after source saying sorry yall its just not true,now the white folks have a problem and want to get mad becouse there superior bubble is burst!I should ask my little sister who graduated from yale and is currently a doctor what she thinks.She may have a better opinion than i do seeing that she graduated from UCLA before going off to Yale,but then again she is just another stupid black women!

    • John John United States says:

      First of all, please learn the difference between "here" and "hear."

      I highly doubt that your sister graduated from Yale since intelligence is highly heritable, and you seem to be rather mentally deficient. (Of course, blacks aren't known to respect monogamy -- perhaps she's your half-sister.) And even if she did get into Yale, she almost certainly benefited substantially from affirmative action -- don't think her potential employers won't know this.

      Anyway, yes, black supremacist did post a lot of "evidence," but he failed to cite it with accessible sources! How are we supposed to verify if his evidence is true? There is simply no reason to believe that anything he said is true.

    • Nick Nick United States says:

      Actually, these "racist" tests show that East Asians have the highest IQ. So these racist whiteys made up racist IQ tests to make East Asians look smarter than the rest of the people? Why is it that Chinese and Indian immigrants can come to the US and take college entrance exams and not complain, while blacks who were born here keep complaining that the tests are culturally or racially biased?

    • Stefan van Westing Stefan van Westing Netherlands says:

      All of these sources date back to the 60's and 70's when you had hippies forging study's to raise the belief that blacks were competent in order to push through the "multiculturalist" agenda.

      Many of those were frauds ... are there any new and reliable sources ?

  6. MAC MAC United States says:

    Hi Opex, Your email didn't do anything to support your case. Next time, I suggest that you use spell check before you post.

  7. J A J A United States says:

    I think it's true as with other genetic/race traits.  It doesn't mean someone of a certain race that has tendency's to score lower on IQ tests means that the race as a whole is "dumber" than another.  It means that there are talents that they have in other areas that another race might lack in slightly from another.  One may have better communication abilities, while another may have better problem solving abilities, and another have a better memory. I'm just saying that this test does not go in depth enough and needs further research..  I'd say average out everyone of different races abilities and it would all average out to equal.

    -A German/Lithuanian/Cherokee

    • Edward Wolf Edward Wolf Australia says:

      Thank God I see at least one sensible and unbiased person here

    • Stefan van Westing Stefan van Westing Netherlands says:

      Oh ....factual things like averages don't get in the way do they ?

      If persons of a certain group in 95% of all cases score significantly lower than the 95 % of another specific group this DOES IN FACT indicate a "tendency" to be dumber if you're from the first group.

      There are always exceptions to the case that go against the common example.

      What people like you do is take one smart black man, and then try to extrapolate that to the entire black race, saying race has no significant influence.

      Even though 95% of the white race, scores higher than 95 % of the black race.

      Averages exist, stop trying to deny that.

      • tmarko yea tmarko yea United States says:

        Hey buddy, you missed the point.

        Whites and asians score significantly higher on IQ tests.

        Blacks dominant sports and athletics.

        If you'd ever studied psychological theories, you'd know that there are different "types" of intelligence. Do you think that coordinating your body movements is easy? It takes tremendous brain power to move fluidly while maintaining an kinesthetic awareness of your surroundings. Blacks tend to have more of their brain-power devoted to that.

        It also reads in the study that blacks have a better "working memory than whites.

        As well, blacks tend to be more masculine than whites or Asians.

        None of these factor mean that one race is "superior" to the other. The current socio-political situation on earth is no testament to the superiority of the white race. There was once a time when power and intellectualism were Afrocentric, and people travelled across continents to attend African universities in great African empires; but, of course, you won't learn about that in white-centric schools.

        As well, East Asian countries are surpassing white countries economically and politically. We may well witness the balance of power shift in their favor soon.

        In closing, you should consider the different races of man have different talents and abilities. Instead of being fearful, intimidated, and reactionary to that fact, accept it and apply the knowledge to your own life.

        • RYU BK RYU BK United States says:

          "Blacks tend to be more masculine than whites or asians"
          Only African-Americans are. Body structure of pure Africans aren't as tall or big as the African-Americans. Ever considered the diet? Out of all the meat products available, chickens are grown the fastest through the method of steroid. Chickens are fully grown in 2 weeks time. Their bodies grow, but their head remains small and are sold as headless chickens over at the supermarket. The very same chickens sold in popeyes and KFC. Now imagine feeding that to people, it's indirect steroids. Why do you think kids get periods or grow pubic hair faster than the 60s or 70s? In Asia, average height of South Koreans tower over at 3"+ compared to the Japanese or Chinese. South Korea is the #1 importer of American meat. While vegetable and rice is the main diet in all three countries, meat tends to be on the Korean(Galbi & SamGyupSal) table a lot more than the Chinese or Japanese(mainly fish-Sushi/Sashimi).

          "Blacks dominate sports and athletics"
          You're strictly refering to Basketball and Football. Please do not count Tigers Woods in golf. He's the only African-American and he doesn't count, because he's actually half Asian. Even if we're talking about football and bastketball, please consider the diet. You might squeeze in one or two pure Africans to play basketball(Mutumbo, Olajuwon), but those heights aren't natural in Africa and are seldomly rare, as Yao Ming in China, while it's common here in America. You certainly do not see as many pure African players in football as their built aren't made the same as African-Americans. You might also want to check the build on American-Whites compared to European White or American-Asians(pure American born) compared to Asians. With that said... Soccer, Swimming, Hockey, Ice Skating(Figure), Golf, Tennis, Ping Pong, Archery, etc. are dominated by Whites and Asians.

        • Lucius Lucius Lucius Lucius United States says:

          You stated that the world used to be Afrocentric and that is true. However, Africa as a continent has not been historically black.

          The Egyptian Empire for example was not composed of black Africans, although they are clearly depicted in some Egyptian paintings as slaves to the Egyptians, who would have looked more like what we would consider Arabs than black people.

          The only really notable African culture that comes to my mind was Ancient Ethiopia, which wasn't so much known for its cultural sophistication as for its massive wealth as a result of sitting on major natural resources.

          People too often get confused into thinking that Africa is the land of black people, when only the southern half was typically black.

        • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

          What is it with 'Blacks' making outrageous Afrocentric claims yet not providing any supportive evidence whatsoever. You say "There was once a time when power and intellectualism were Afrocentric, and people travelled across continents to attend African universities in great African empires; but, of course, you won't learn about that in white-centric schools. " When exactly was this time? If this is indeed true then I for one would find it very interesting. But I doubt it is true and furthermore I'm assuming that the places you are referring to are 'North African' (Carthaginians, Phoenicians etc.) where the people are far from black.

        • Xzanaith B Xzanaith B United States says:

          They were NOT black African Empires.

        • Grand Cl_eagle Grand Cl_eagle United States says:

          Tmarko - that sounds reasonable.  I mean different subspecies of other mammals have different qualities.  I agree that blacks dominate the sports world due to their superior physical traits.  I think the main strength of the white sub species (but don't think it's true for all white tribes) is the ability to work cooperatively better than others - to include the Asian and Jewish sub sets that have superior intelligence quotients.  I think this stems from our development in Northern, colder climates where shared work was required for survival.  I thought of this while considering the different basketball styles of Notre Dame and Michigan as told in the book "Stuff black people don't like" by Paul Kersey.  It's an interesting read.

        • William Griffin William Griffin United States says:

          "People travelled across continents to attend African universities in great African empires"

          The first known university was indeed in Africa, but it was Muslim, not sub-Saharan African. It also was not built until around the 12th century AD.

    • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

      Actually IQ tests cater to all the areas of intelligence you just mentioned. They are designed to be fully comprehensive and were originally created by 'whites', yet East Asians outperformed the 'whites', but the 'blacks' performed abysmally.  IQ tests don't cater to white people, they cater to intelligent people.

  8. The Monk The Monk United States says:

    Interesting to read as well:

    http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/crimoff.htm

    stating such facts as:

    The prevalence of imprisonment in 2001 was higher for
    -- black males (16.6%) and Hispanic males (7.7%) than for white males (2.6%)
    -- black females (1.7%) and Hispanic females (0.7%) than white females (0.3%)

    and

    Lifetime chances of a person going to prison are higher for

        -- men (11.3%) than for women (1.8%)
        -- blacks (18.6%) and Hispanics (10%) than for whites (3.4%)

  9. A. Shevis A. Shevis United States says:

    What's crazy is that, if you look at reproduction rates, there is a correlation between IQ and reproduction - but on its face seems to indicate almost an anti-evolutionary track.  On balance, low I.Q. people have far more children per/capita than do high I.Q. people...People with high I.Q.'s have the least children per/capita.  That's just crazy.

  10. A. Shevis A. Shevis United States says:

    Just look at the average IQ by country - it's overwhelming evidence of the wide difference in iq's.  But IQ doesn't address all life situations, do they?  I don't think Einstein would do well lined up at wide receiver for the Washington Redskins.  

    The important thing is what does society reward?  Generally, it rewards high iq.

    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IQ_and_the_Wealth_of_Nations

  11. John John United States says:

    Maybe we should ship them back to Africa?

  12. Barry Richter Barry Richter says:

    John, you are racist trailer trash. America would not be the country it is today if not for the free labor (slavery) and contributions made to this country by African-Americans. People like you are the cause of most of the problems and shortcomings (no pun intended) of this country today!

  13. Harding Harding United States says:

    Your reasoning is fallacious because it assumes that the way America prospered (slavery) is the only way it could have prospered.

    A similar argument is that we wouldn't know about relativity -- and would never know about it -- if Einstein hadn't been born. This argument leaves out the possibility that someone other than Einstein could have discover relativity, just as your argument ignores the possibility that America could have prospered by a means other than slavery.

  14. Dagny Taggart Dagny Taggart United States says:

    The actual issue that everyone sidesteps is not with the "race" but the leadership. The reason that African Americans consistently do poorly on any measure of outcomes is that the leadership of the black community owes it's very existence on there being an "oppressed" underclass.

    If black leaders, or white leaders that pander to the same underclass, actually had their constituent's betterment as their focus, they would lose their following. Fair housing, class mobility, economic opportunity and access to the trappings of the middle class are not segregated only to whites. As all of these things are gathered wholesale by eastern and western Asians. Indians come from a culture that is currently(today) stratified by caste. A deep and unyielding segregation bordering on slavery for some. Yet even the lower castes come here and prosper. How many Indians do you see in public housing?  The differences are in entitlement, self-sustainability and accountability.

    Political correctness has become the constitution. Even if studies that focus on genetic differences could be used to help the plight of minorities, they are buried, dismissed or ignored. Did anyone see this on any national broadcast news? The so-called leadership of an entire minority is incentivized on keeping them just where they are and convincing them that the only solution to their situation is allegiance to the leaders.

    Blame the political class, not the manipulated masses. No test can determine accountability and self-sufficiency. Oh, sorry--except one. Life.

    • WTF
      Flabbergasted Flabbergasted United States says:

      Since every-one seems to be airing their wacky ideas, here is mine.

      Why do Asians seem to do better than blacks in the US?

      For me the answer is simple, and runs thus:

      Most white men have a strong fear of black men. There is nothing scarier to an average white man than a black man unshackled - in a position to freely compete and challenge.Many white men fear this because they have a deeply repressed dread that they would come the worse off in such a situation. Irrational, if you ask me, but oh so true.They may feel the same with regards to Asian men but not with the same intensity. So these Asian men have more chances of doing better as they do not face as many hurdles from the MAN.

      Out of this widely held insecurity complex has sprung the myth of the inferiority of the black man to the white man - the greatest fraud in human history.

      Why is it a fraud? Simply because those who have propounded and propagated it have shown by their actions that they do not believe in it.

      Simply because if black men were really inferior to white men, then the attitudes of "race conscious" white men towards blacks should have been characterized by paternalistic benevolence. Instead much of modern history has been characterized by the unscrupulous but futile attempts of the white man to repress and shackle the black man.

      If black men were really dumber than white men - then why the repressive legislation and practices in matters of professions. Why the death penalty for any-one found teaching slaves to read and write? Surely with their lower cranial volume blacks would naturally not pose any threat. There would therefore be no need for the unpleasantness that has characterized much of Black-White interactions in history.

      • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

        I don't fear any black man. What I do fear is 'Black men' who prowl the streets like a pack of dogs looking for civilized folk to prey on. Blacks don't fight fair, they attack in groups and they attack the weak and defenseless. Our only well-founded fear is that if were to leave blacks to their own devices without whites to govern them, then society would devolve to become primitive and dangerous for our people within the very societies that we founded. Just look Zimbabwe and South Africa and the very real threats of rape, torture and murder that white people experience there.

      • Xzanaith B Xzanaith B United States says:

        Chimpanzees have smaller craniums too and they are quite unpredictable.

      • Babak Navabi Babak Navabi Saudi Arabia says:

        Please refrain from such arguments - they are ammunition for the Whites! YOU cannot use the fact of a repressive regimen to content intellectual equality of the races. The only fear the whites have of blacks  is of their rampant criminality (which to a some extent is the product of slavery). According to your argument Whites should be more afraid of Asians !

  15. blacksupremacist blacksupremacist United States says:

    8,448 white-on-black rapes (see Table 42 in the report) (14.2 percent of all rapes against blacks were thus committed by white rapists); and,

    17,572 black-on-white rapes (same table) (13.1 percent of all rapes of whites were committed by blacks).

    Now, to be technical, it is no doubt true that some of the white perps in this data, AND some of the white victims were actually Latino, given the closer proximity between blacks and Latinos, spatially. But doing the complicated extractions necessary to know what percentage of either is Hispanic, though it can be done (and I am working on the methodology for my book) is more detailed than I feel the need to be here. So for the sake of comparison I will leave the numbers as they are, knowing that both would likely be smaller, and reduced in rough proportion to one another, if Hispanics were excluded.

    A few things should be noted here:

    First, blacks raped were more likely to have been interracially raped than whites were.

    Secondly, although the number of black-on-white rapes was higher than the reverse, to be sure, the multiple is nowhere near 50:1. Numerically it is a little more than 2 to 1. On a per capita basis, since whites are roughly 6 times more prevalent in the population than blacks (as of 2002), this would mean that on a per capita basis, any given black person was about 12 times more likely to rape a white person than vice versa.

    Now perhaps you are thinking at this point, "OK, whatever: whether it's 50 to 1 or 12 to 1, that's a huge disproportion!" And that's true, sort of, though not nearly as meaningful as it seems.

    To begin with, as I explain in my piece "The Color of Deception," whites and blacks do not encounter each other at rates that are comparable. Because of residential and spatial isolation from one another, this won't surprise anyone reading this, I imagine. Indeed, according to Census data, presented by criminologist Robert O'Brian (the footnote for this one is in the original Color of Deception article, which has now been critiqued on Bryant's website, and which notes can be viewed there), any given black person is about 19 times more likely to encounter a white person than vice versa. Blacks, on average, encounter 57 whites out of every 100 people they encounter--so even with spatial isolation, blacks run into lots of white folks--while whites, on average, are actually more racially isolated, encountering, on average, only about 3 blacks for every 100 people we encounter.

    Now obviously, you can't victimize someone you don't encounter, and if blacks were choosing rape victims purely randomly, we would expect that 57 percent of the victims of black rape would be white. But in fact, only 26 percent are (17,579 divided by 68,621: again, you can do the calculations easily from Table 42). This means blacks are half as likely as we'd expect to rape whites, numerically speaking, if they were raping at random, let alone TARGETING whites, in which case they would have no problem finding even more than 57 percent of their victims to be white.

    Likewise, based on encounter rates, if rapists picked victims randomly, we would expect 3 percent of the victims of white rapists to be black. But indeed, in 2002, there were 110,394 rapes committed by whites (check yourself in Table 42--the computation takes about two minutes). 8,448 as a share of 110,394 is actually 7.65 percent: more than DOUBLE what would be expected if white rapists picked victims randomly. If anything then, this would tend to suggest that whites are targeting blacks for rape, though indeed I am not claiming that. The disproportion is probably a statistical anomaly based on small sample size. But still, at the very least this demonstrates no disproportionate black on white rape.

    Based on encounter rates alone, we would expect the 68,621 black rapists to have raped 39,114 whites, while the 110,394 white rapists should have raped 3,312 blacks: a numeric multiple of nearly 13 to 1, rather than the 2.1 numeric multiple in actuality, and we would have expected a per capita rate multiple, therefore, of 75 to 1, rather than the 12 to 1 that manifested in actuality.

    In other words, based on encounter ratios and rates, blacks raped whites far less often than would have been expected, and whites raped blacks far more often than would have been expected.

    • persephone persephone United States says:

      That's impossible - people encounter each other at the exact same rates, by defintion of the word "encounter". You are talking about something different entirely: consciousness of the other person's race, or willingness to report the other's race to whatever scientist or poll this came from.

    • Ivy logic Ivy logic United States says:

      When people work diligently to oppose orthodox (mainstream) beliefs, it can be noble and profoundly beneficial to mankind.  

      However, this man is something very different.  

      He is a 'contrarian'.

      His behavior is that of the egotist who delights in always trying to prove the group wrong.  He doesn't much care if he's actually right, he just needs to be contrary to maintain his (deluded) sense of superior insight; thus establishing himself as (in his mind) the smartest man in the room.

      His behavior is common among 'narcissists'.  This is a rather severe maladaptive behavior.  Please be aware of where he's coming from and factor that when reading what he submits.  

    • J J J J United States says:

      Since your making  this about race lets point out that Hispanic is not a race.  Its a culture. Its like me removing from your statistics  the Haitians, African Americans  or  any other new world black  culture. This Hispanics originate from Europe. Even with some of the cultural blending that occurred  with some of the Spaniards. It would be unfair to  claim that all Spaniards mixed with blacks and  Indians to  produce's whats is now misused as Hispanic. In the United States  use of the term to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship either with Spain and Portugal or only with Spain, regardless of race. Oh and BTW most of  Spain and Portugal is white. In Hispanics cultures you have Black Hispanics , White Hispanics, Asian Hispanics ......

    • Ken Brown Ken Brown Australia says:

      Either cite the sources of your claims or don't make any claims at all.

  16. j-boy j-boy United States says:

    High IQs correlate to high scores on standardized tests: Asians/Whites at the one extreme end and the blacks on the other. also, Jews as a group are the most successful ethnicity in terms of achievements...is it any surprise to anybody?

    Why can't we just accept the truth and move on...

    Oh yeah, blacks on average are the best athletes in the world than any other racial/ethnic groups...I guess God is fair!

  17. Alan Alan Ireland says:

    Ok. Im just randomly passing by this webpage so have no interest or obsession with the subject.

    Quickly, some of my observations would be:

    1). It seems to me that brain size isn't indicative of intelligence. There was a news report some time ago about a man with a degree in mathematics who went for an X-Ray and amazed and startled himself and doctors with the discovery that he had almost no brain and a hollow skull.  If intelligence was related to brain size then  how come Einstein was'nt a freak with a brain the size of a house. Einstein was'nt 6 foot 10 with a 250 pound brain. Nobody would point and laugh at his huge head. However his brain did work efficiently.
    Then of course we have gifted children whos brains are smaller than those of fully grown adults yet who can find the prime number solutions of really difficult problems.

    2.) People should'nt be using the question of racial intelligence to engage in triumphalism whatever the result. Triumphalism is childish and not intelligent.

    3.) I would not be of the opinion that intelligence or superior athleticism happens accidentally. What is random is whether or not it is exploited to the advantage of humanity but theres no way if I had better parents  or a wealthier upbringing that I would be able to find out whether 998989322344 is a prime number without a pencil and  a piece of paper. Middle class families often have a kid who does well in school plus a kid who does poorly so whats thew difference if its not something innante ? You can give a pencil to a 5 year old. One will draw a masterpiece and the other like myself will draw a stickman. We cant all be Einsteins of Van Goghs however apart from those who are innately psychpoathic, we can be educated with the ethic to respect and care for each other.'

    • Lizzie Lizzie United States says:

      I would hope you wouldn't need a piece of paper to know that 998989322344 is not a prime number, because even numbers other than 2 can not be prime. Smile

    • persephone persephone United States says:

      Going back to the article/general discussion of race and IQ, I wanted to bring up another point and ask if you guys realized that there are inherently MAJOR problems with sample size and standard deviation considering there are billions of any given race. You are not polling a country but an entire race.... Sample size is a well-known MAJOR starting-point issue with any study - ask any statician or researcher or look it up.

      Further, if there is some truth to this as a general rule I'd look to environmental factors and diet. Third world societies can NOT be judged in the same light and given the same IQ tests.

    • Xzanaith B Xzanaith B United States says:

      I.Q. has to do with how the brain is configured as well as size.

  18. HHH HHH People's Republic of China says:

    I am a Chinese and grew up in a large city.

    My IQ score is 137. But I don't think I am clever around my Chinese friends. Normally a high school student in China would have >110 although I didn't do the statistics.

    • Skeptic Skeptic United States says:

      HHH: I once saw statistics on the Chinese education system. I recall that only a tiny percentage of the Chinese population makes it into the university system. (I believe it was around 2%. But you probably have a better idea than I.) So, university students are the cream of the crop. If your friends are university students, then they are undoubtedly highly intelligent. Even with an IQ of 137, you would not necessarily stand out.

      IQ is usually defined such that the average is 100. One standard deviation is 15 points. So, someone with an IQ of 130 is two standard deviations above the mean. This is only the ninety-fifth percentile on a Gaussian distribution. (5% of the population has an IQ above 130.) You are about halfway between two and three standard deviations. That puts you at roughly the ninety-ninth percentile of intelligence: about average in a pool of the smartest two percent of the population.

      Even if you think that the average high school student has an IQ above 110, that is still less than one standard deviation from the mean. An IQ test ideally is supposed to measure innate intelligence, regardless of education and background. However in practice, it is not clear that one can completely separate pure cognitive ability from skills developed in the classroom and elsewhere. All IQ differences between different races are one standard deviation or less from the mean. This can easily be explained by variations in education and privelege, as well as cultural differences.

  19. HHH HHH People's Republic of China says:

    Of course I am well educated. For my university classmates, I think they should all get around 130. It's just too normal to have around an IQ of 120 in China. The problem is that these smart guys only earn 200 euros every month.

  20. ORIT ORIT United Kingdom says:

    I love it how so many people on these boards proclaim their own high IQ - nobody of course is anything other than gifted...

    You do all know that 90% of all these poxy IQ Tests you have taken aren't worth Jack S*** Smile

    The truth about IQ is that when measured properly it has repeatedly been found to be the best predictor of success in an industrialised society and the differences between groups (with a massive overlap of course) has been well known for decades.

    The only thing in dispute is what percentage of those differences is genetic - clearly it is far from 100% and people can better themselves - but the idea that the differences are 100% environmental doesn't stand up to realistic scrutiny. There are obviously people on these boards that don't want to look at the overwhelming evidence in an objective way.

    The world would be an easier place to live if it wasn't so, but we can all see with our own eyes that the differences exist.

  21. John Smith John Smith United States says:

    Just like some families are more intelligent than other families (ie: families where everyone is either a lawyer, a doctor, a businessman or a politician vs. families where maybe only 1 person went to college), it is conceivable that some "races" are ON AVERAGE more intelligent than other "races".

    • Alan Alan United States says:

      Facts are facts.  Asians have the highest IQ's, then Caucasions, Latino's, and then blacks.  This is average by group.  There are of course many blacks with higher IQ's than Asians and Whites.  As an employer, I higher the best person for the job.  In all cases, I higher the person with the best work ethic combined with a high intelligence.  Nothing worse than a very smart person who is lazy.  Depending on the job, an eager less intelligent person is just not going to cut the mustard.  Intelligence is important, you just need a good balance.  Most black children have parents who do not care about education.  Education starts and ends in the home.  My neighbor has 2 children, one has a high IQ and the other has an IQ which is below average.  The parents spend a lot of extra time with their less intelligent child.  Because of this, the child is successful in school, without all the extra effort, she would fail out of school.  The difference between her and the average black child is the parents involvement.  Blacks have a high drop out rate because the parents, or should I say parent is very lazy and takes no active role in the childs educational development.  People, black or white with lower intelligence need all the extra help they can get.  I would love to see Al Sharpton or Jesse Jackson take out all their hatred on the black parents and stop blaming whitey.

  22. S. E. Joseph S. E. Joseph United States says:

    Gee, all this time I thought that it was talent and hard work contributed to obtaining two master's degrees and my upcoming doctorate. Now I know that it was the generations of white men who sexually exploited my foremothers that have given me my big brain! White narcissism and arrogance knows no bounds.

    • Sam Sam United States says:

      No one is saying that a black person CANT have a high IQ or be intelligent or succeed.

      However, many studies by many different groups, controlling for all other variables but race have shown the same things over and over again:
      East Asians have slightly higher IQs than Whites, Whites have significantly higher IQs than blacks.

      We have been searching for a reason for the relative failure of black people throughout the world. Why do all black countries fail? Why do blacks perform poorly, on average, in academia? Well, think about it: Doesn't it make sense that countries whose average intelligence is 15-30 IQ points lower than other countries would not have enough individuals to become first world?

      If you are black and as intelligent as you say you are, you should be working towards maximizing your fellow blacks potential. I can give you some advice: Blaming whites for all black problems will not do this.

  23. ORIT ORIT United Kingdom says:

    As caucasians are not claimed to be the brightest on average I do not understand why you would want to turn this into a specific Black-White issue.

    Instead of discussing the issue rationally you start boasting about yourself and attacking others - it makes you look like a bit of a tool.

  24. Cairin Cairin United States says:

    This is simply racist! I cannot belive someone from Berkeley was involved in this clap trap. I am white and I don't give a flit what my IQ is because I am secure in my own abilities but apparently these idiots need IQ test and studies to stroke their flailing egos and deep rooted insecurities. They should all burn their cards in Mensa and join SAIA. (Stupid Ass----s in America). WE HAVE SO MANY!

  25. Mushroom Mushroom Sweden says:

    I just wish that racists stop exploiting studies like these. This doesn't need to be a taboo subject. The fact is that black people are underperforming in academic endeavours (as a group, not necessarily individually).

    We should try to understand how much of it is genetic and how much is dependent on environment. This could lead to a better understanding of where the differences lie and what could be done to close the gap.

    And yes, whites can learn a thing or two from other cultures. Because a race that is highly materialistic and linear in thinking isn't exactly an advantage in all situations. Again, what is genetic and what is environmental in creating such a left hemisphere bias is up for discussion. Just saying that you aren't some kind of triumph of human evolution.

    I'm not anti anyone.

  26. ORIT ORIT United Kingdom says:

    Not sure why you are talking about 'whites' again, these studies do not show 'whites' as having the highest average IQ.

  27. goodtallviking goodtallviking United States says:

    Here's the question to which  I think we should: Given that 1/2 of our population has "below average IQ" (by definition), and given that this difference cannot ever be removed, or even reduced, what should we do to achieve the best society ? If by "best society " we can all agree that we bean the one that will maximize every one's opportunity to "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," then let's roll up our sleves and figure that out.

    We have learned that trying to make every one equal in IQ is a complete failure. The Great Society and Head Start and all proved that !Cuba, China, and the USSR taught us that simply giving everyone equal income regardless of ability also fails.

    So what is left ? I do not have that answer, but I think we should all work on finding an answer. Let America once again be the "city on the hill," that leads the world to a better place.

    Let us strive for a world that nurtures independence, self reliance, hard work, faith in God, autonomy, personal freedom, and all of the important, classical virtues. But let us strive for one that also keeps the "floor" of personal failure high enough that the least among us are not in abject misery.

    Time to create the next and best social system for our glorious republic !

  28. Mushroom Mushroom Sweden says:

    "Not sure why you are talking about 'whites' again, these studies do not show 'whites' as having the highest average IQ."

    Because that is where the historical tension lies. Because it was whites that have upheld racial theories and implemented it in social institutions in europe and the US.

    It doesn't matter in this discussion that east asians average 5 points ahead of whites, because if you read between the lines, what white supremacists are saying is that 5 points doesn't matter much. Do you get it now?

  29. ORIT ORIT United Kingdom says:

    Mushroom, no I don't get it, you cannot make a supremacist argument on being five points BEHIND. I think YOU are looking for a problem.

    Every institution I have had experience with in my country only discriminates in so far as checking there are ENOUGH minorities in that institution to fulfil a minimum set quota - regardless of ability. In my country it is now legal to deliberately discriminate specifically against white males - that's the law.

  30. Krishna Krishna India says:

    To All the folks ( black, white and all else ) who posted here,
    I am a  Indian, born and educated in India. I have a graduate degree from very good Indian colleges,worked ( software engineering manager)  in the USA for a few years as well and know a thing or two about US society. My IQ is definitely on the higher side, but i would not post it here.

    First a few opinions from me:
    - There is incontrovertible proof that IQ is inheritable , atleast upwards of 50%.
    - But it is also true that there are huge differences within a race. There are i am sure there are 140+ IQ blacks as there are sub 70 IQ whites.
    - It is also true that IQ is very complex. It depends on
         --- nutrition
         --- brain size
         --- cultural nuetrality of tests and language
         --- Education level of parents and the general sorroundings.
         --- even order of birth
         --- Many other factors.

    - I am also not sure, if comparing Black American IQ with other races is fair. US blacks were those selected for physical labor, not for their brains, when they were shipped to US. So there was likely to be some selective  pressure that played a role in their IQ. Same for Indian US ( and chinese as well ) immigrants, on the opposite direction, many studies show average IQ above of 115  or near this figure. This again is due to selective pressure.
    Also, as someone pointed out i am not sure, the average black parent ( single or double ) cares about the education of his/her kids. Chinese, Indian and Korean parents spend all their energy on their kids education.

    - That is why the best IQ tests are those that are culture neutral and can measure general intelligence without being too hard or easy to any one race or cultural group. I am not sure, that somehow the US blacks are at a disadvantage due to difference in black culture and white cultures. If true, even East Asians, Indians in India and US are at a bigger disadvantage many of who speak a non English language at home, are not christians .

    - Generally white nations seem to be properous, and now many east asian nations also seem to be joining them.

    - I see many black nations, in Africa ( and Haiti ) impoverished, and crime ridden. I dont buy that colonial rule did this to them. Many are free countries now. Even countries like Korea, China ( partially ) and India were either ruled over or very poor in the 1950s. But they seem to be prospering of late. If Africans still dont beleive, this, then may be there is  some international white conspiracy ( that i cannot apparently fathom ), that is somehow keeping these couries poor.

    - Though I have no problem admitting that East Asians ( koreans, chinese, Japanese ) have a high average IQ, i must also admit that, these societies have not been the torch bearers of creativity or originators of technical inventions in the last few centuries. It is the predominantly West and central europeans that were responsible for the modern society and all the technology. So there you go, having highest IQ has not exactly given rise to geniuses ( chinese, korean and Japanese ).Something that blacks should take note of.

    - At the end of the day, average IQ of a race means nothing to me. I see a black individual with 140+ IQ and a white individual with 90 IQ, i am going to select the black guy for any congitively demanding job.  At the end of the day, it is important to be objective about IQ, race and cause and effect, so that, any new knowledge gained could be put to good use in improving everyones lot.

    - Well one ray of hope about this IQ. We are probably on the verge of figuring out the genes for IQ and intelligence. I am wondering, ( setting aside all the social and political minefields, doing this might generate ) one day it may become routine to selectively have kids with these genes ( or have these genes inserted from outside )  and ensure all kids have high IQ. Then perhaps , this IQ 'thing' will become a non issue.

  31. Krishna Krishna India says:

    Quote from one of the persons who posted:

    "Researchers provide considerable evidence showing that traditional psychological assessment is based on skills that are considered important within white, western, middle-class culture, but which may not be salient or valued within African-American culture"

    Assuming this research is very true, why cannot anyone ( black educationists or other researchers ) come up with IQ tests that do assess skills that are considered important to blacks?. Is it too hard to do that?

    From a purely curiosity point of view, I wonder what criteria or items are salient or 'valued' within African-American culture. Anyone can enlighten me or offer guesses!.

  32. Skeptic Skeptic United States says:

    I found the paper on Google Scholar. I did not read it, because I would have had to pay a fee to do so. However, I looked over the list of over 100 papers citing this one, and I found a number attacking it. This paper is by no means the final word on race and intelligence

    Note that the authors are NOT reporting any original findings from a study they performed. Rather, they have compiled a review of the vast literature on race and intelligence, and are drawing sweeping conclusions from it.

    When writing any review, one must choose to cite certain papers and ignore others. It is impossible to do this without introducing some type of bias. This is especially problematic when reviewing an entire subfield of research. Therefore, any conclusions should be greeted with skepticism. Given the subject matter the authors put so much effort into reviewing, it is not hard to guess what their bias is.

    When a scientific community draws conclusions from many lines of research, it does not rely on a single review. Rather, a consensus among many researchers develops over time. Given that there are papers attacking this one, it does not seem that the authors are speaking of any consensus.

    Typically, a review of the literature will simply summarize major results from different research groups. Attempting to draw sweeping conclusions shows hubris and a lack of scholarship.

  33. Irungu Kangata Irungu Kangata Kenya says:

    I am a Kenyan, Black African lawyer. I am a black nationalist, in fact, a Rastafarian - a religion drawing inspiration from ultra-black nationalists like Garvey.

    Does Culture play any part in IQ assessment? This study is not very clear on that. I think it does. Probably Blacks IQ is low because there does not exists a universal Black culture (e.g a black religion or political thought system which has existed over many years and probably imposed to other societies) as opposed to the other races. Take religion. Christianity, though not originally from Europe is basically a white religion;Islam is  Arab;Hindu is Asian etc.

    Personally, I tend to agree that the black race has a problem though I am not sure whether it is genetic. This is because in all societies in the world, blacks are committing vices at a higher rate compared to other races(even to their very own). Secondly, We do not have a single black nation which is showing any potentiality of prospering in the near future.But most pathetic, blacks' level of assimilation by the cultures of other people is pathetic. Blacks have  adopted  the negative aspects of the other people's culture to their own detriment. Blacks tend to blame whites for their underdevelopment,but they are not offering any resistance to that perceived domination (intellectual or  even physical like what Alqueda are doing presently). I was astonished to find that the rates of black-to-black crime, divorces,abortion and extra-marital fertility  are highest amongst all other American ethnic groups.In Africa,our governments have aligned themselves with the west in all international issues;every domestic discourse   is justified by a quotation of the West. The Black youth are not interested in serious issues of politics or economics but watching European soccer. In fact, I suspect that probably,at this rate, black race with its multitude of problems will be wiped out. I understand in the US, Latinos have now overtaken Blacks in terms of population.

    The East Asians, Indians and some modern Arabic counties like UAE and Kuwait  have maintained their unique cultures and this probably explains their present economic ascent.Well,we do not have a cross-cutting authentic African culture to fall back to but I am convinced that Blacks should endeavor to mould a unique,progressive culture (that is scientific) which is disengaged or independent from the West to stimulate an economic and social take-off.

    Irungu, Kenya.

    • Patrick Patrick Australia says:

      They are some very thought provoking ideas that you wrote Irungu. The entire discussion is very interesting, although I think some of the posters are a little shrill in their opinions.

      I also would agree that there must be some genetic basis for intelligence and that it would probably vary depending on race. I think that it is a difficult thing for many people to accept calmly though, as it has many implications.

    • Watanabe Watanabe Japan says:

      I agree. Maybe the solution is to stop adopting other thought systems and make your own. Like East Asians have a culture of only the highest achievement. I'm sure if we see a powerful culture like that develop in Africa we might see drastic changes. All I see in Africa right now is a poor culture of corruption and violence.

    • trevor kidd trevor kidd Canada says:

      I would add that the problem of IQ gaps is largely genetic due to environmental and evolutionary factors over the last 60,000 years. It is well established that modern humans evolved  in Africa around 200k years ago. Those proto-moderns that left the more stable and warm climate of Africa and slugged it out in Ice-age Europe have these extreme environments to thank for their propensity for higher AVERAGE intelligence. Pressure to survive exceedingly long Ice-age winters selected for the truly hardy and bright among the limited survivors. It was natural selection that helped "over-represent" the survivors with sharp minds, the dull never had a chance(they would have not been able to cope with -40 winters and little food). Of note,  4% of non-African DNA is neanderthal. I think the mutations and selective forces allowed more of the ancient homo-sapiens in Ice-age Europe and Asia to unconsciously select for intelligence, instead of their ability to dance or for bravery. To assume the Human brain stopped evolving 50-100k years ago, makes absolutely no sense, especially since mankind was extremely isolated and small in number in the relevant time period.  One must remember our own emergence from the jungles to the more challenging African Savannah allowed us to evolve at a rapid rate, while our closest relatives, chimpanzees,  remained MUCH CLOSER to our common ancestor. The same evolutionary pressures that  allowed our brains to quintuple in size over chimps in Africa are the same conditions that caused a minor, but significant split in humanity from those who remained in less-challenging environments, to those who survived and prospered in difficult ones  

      I realize this isn't exactly politically correct, but it does seem to make sense. Had the climates of Europe and Asia been similar to Africa 100k years ago to the present time, there would likely be far less difference between races as we see now (perhaps none) To bury ones head in the sand and stifle the debate not to offend anyone, actually is offensive to those who seek the truth. Maybe then we can help African countries more effectively if we know WHY they are the way they are instead of ignoring the actual problems

  34. RightofRush RightofRush United States says:

    Mr. Katanga, I'm sure that you are aware of the infrastructure and civil service legacy of the White colonial powers as well as the value of European technology.  It would have been nice for you to have acknowledged so.

    • Quotexon Quotexon United States says:

      RightofRush, you must be kidding if you are suggesting that Africans harbor a sentiment of gratitude toward colonial whites for their "contributions". First off, any infrastructure that was developed, was done so for the increased dominance and comfort of the white colonials. Why do you think that it is impossible to find white South Africans citizens living in the dilapidated slums that native Africans were displaced to. This is analogous to how European colonists arrived in America and displaced Native Americans. Given that prior to European invasion, Native Americans were plentiful in numbers, I'd say that your "infrastructure and civil service", has all but crippled the native populace. But hey, whites never intended to develop the land for anyone other than their own greedy selves.

  35. Tshim Tshim United States says:

    If you have any knowledge about studies, you will know this study is very flawed. It does not take into account many factors. Such as cultural and environmental issues. This study and many of you arguing I believe do not realize the difference between genetic IQ and actual IQ. Genetic IQ is the range of IQ you are able to achieve, which is dependant on your genetics. Actual IQ is the IQ you currently have due to the education, environmental, and cultural factors of your life. So to summarize that for you, because I think many of you are too dumb to understand. That we all have a range of Iq we can achieve for example 110-130, now if you live in well developed environment with great education its very possible you can achieve a 130 IQ. On the other hand if you life in a culture that is not nurturing to Intelligence you will almost certainly be at the bottom of that scale at 110. This is what im trying to point out. That this study did not take this proven factor in to account. If you do not take factors like this into account, you can not make conclusions like this study did.

    • burford burford United States says:

      This fellow "thinks" that "...."many of you are too dumb to understand."

      How smart does one have to be to say such a magnificently ignorant thing?

    • Valris Valris United States says:

      IMHO culture and environment shouldn't be too much of an issue. Why? Simply because if you look at it from another perspective, culture and environment also involves intelligence. Culture (of all races) did not appear from nowhere. It was thought of by people (in the past) and in some cases, through trial and error that they found the ideal way of life they wanted and incorporated it into their lives. Their ways of life were then passed on generations after generations and eventually this became their culture. A culture is ever changing, even today. So, if you were to argue that certain people have higher iq because of their culture, then my question is, why didn't another group of people (who have lower iq supposedly due to their culture) come up with a culture that would allow them to have higher iq/ to prosper? Why did they decide to stick on with their culture that you seem to be indirectly saying, is hindering them from attaining high iq? Is it because they/ their ancestors weren't intelligent enough to realise the flaws in their culture? It most likely seems so (I'm assuming that everyone acts in self interest and so you wouldn't find people contented with a flawed culture.) Hence if you were to blame it on culture, it just reinforces that certain groups of people are more intelligent to have come up with a better culture.

  36. whatever whatever Canada says:

    Asian, does that includes Vietnamese, Filipino etc.. because last time I've checked it was all about the CHinese and Japanese or Koreans (the whitest of the Asians)

    • Watanabe Watanabe Japan says:

      The 'Asians' referred to here are East Asians aka the Japanese, Koreans, Chinese. We separate them because they experienced a harsh ice age unlike say Filipinos. Theory has it, the harsh conditions are what picked off the intellectually inferior leaving only the intellectually superior. Skin color has nothing to do with it, just a higher concentration of albanism in East Asia. However when we compare East Asians with other Asians we see East Asians have very small noses (to avoid inhaling the cold) and more fatty eyelids (as protection from the cold). The ice age is what is theorized to have contributed to the high average intelligence among East Asians.

  37. Chris Chris United States says:

    it is really interesting to see the contradictory arguments on here. Many of you are proving you'll say anything to degrade blacks which really ends up proving the argument of the "liberal media". There are people on here who have actually said that maybe if blacks weren't so dumb they wouldn't have been enslaved or colonised. Then you call blacks violent. Well, couldn't someone supposedly respond to that pathetic excuse for an argument that if whites weren't so violent, opportunistic, inconsiderate, and ruthless that there wouldn't have been enslavement, Jim Crow, the KKK, Skinheads, Neo-Nazis, the Holocaust, the Cold War, the Civil War, WWI & WWII, raping and beating slaves, etc. etc.?? All these violent and inexcusable acts throughout history, and yet to blacks you apply a different standard? Very interesting. I'll tell you what I don't believe in "race", and do see inequality around me all the time, but at least you can say that inner city or African issues remain in their respective areas for the moat part. You don't see blacks starting wars with random countries, attempting to colonise Europe, or trying to enslaving anyone in the last hundreds of years

    • TyroniusJamalJackson TyroniusJamalJackson United States says:

      Please refer to the statistics published by the U.S. Department of Justice on "Crime and Race".  Why do you suppose that Detroit, New Orleans, Washington D.C. and Cincinatti are the crime centers of our country?  
      Is it because I don't encourage them to move next door to my family?  Is it because their great-great grandfathers were slaves?  Is it because male blacks never assume the role of "father"?  Is it because Free Gov't Cheese contains carefully crafted doses of cocaine?  Or, maybe, is it because they are inherently inferior to any civilized culture.

      Stop blaming your own miserable condition on others and take care of your welfare queens.

  38. Richard Richard United Kingdom says:

    Chris, not quite accurate to say that blacks didn't invade or enslave. The Bushmen of Southern Africa were ethnically cleansed and their lands taken away (they left evidence of  their decimation by blacks on their caves, whom they depicted as black, as opposed to their being brown). Also, starting long before the Trans-Atlantic slave-trade, the barbary pirates (Corsairs) launched continual attacks against Europe to capture slaves. Estimates are that more than a million Europeans were captured by Africans in this way. That is why France colonised Algeria, to stop the practice. In fact, I see you are from the USA: as far as I know, the first war your country fought after independence was against the African barbary pirates. Within Africa, there is a continual history of warfare and destruction and eradication of various tribes by others. The only difference is that Europe was able to project its power because they had boats to get them across the waters, but I think you are likely to find that a comparative scale would put Africans right up there. However, we are still living the post-colonial narrative of good blacks, bad whites, so this sort of thing, although freely available to read, is simply not interesting to ideologues.

  39. Chris Chris United States says:

    Nice try, but the Corsairs weren't "black". Thry were humans though, just like blacks. And they were for the most part Arabic and/or Muslims. And there is no narrative of "good blacks", as blacks are still stereotyped by many before they can even show their character

    Slavery did take place in Africa. However as it relates to hurting others, considering the World Wars, the Slave Trade, atomic bombings and killing for oil and power...historically "whites" as we like to call them has more of that rap sheet

    Personally it matters not to me. I see history and I see human violence. But if we are to use the logic of many on here, the logic is really astounding. It's the equivalent of calling blacks barbaric when the KKK and Nazis still exist..not to mention the Italian Mafia once caused a lot of pain and violence.

    Irony

    • Richard Richard United Kingdom says:

      Your use of the word "try" (as in "nice try") is somewhat aggressive. Never mind, you no doubt have reasons for that behaviour. You are viewing the history of the world as a black person living within a white context. If you lived in a black context, you would see things rather differently. For example, if you visit Ulundi in South Africa, the residence of Shaka, king of the Zulus, you will find that he aggressively conquered and annihilated surrounding tribes, enslaving them, and totally assimilating them. Thousands of people fled this event (called the Mfecane in the Nguni language) and fled... to whites for protection. In fact, so many fled to the early white settlements that the Zulu kings became hostile to them. Before that, over the course of many thousands of years, negroid Africans overpopulated the Great Lakes region, and pushed southward, overwhelming all the indigenous peoples of the south, who were distinct ethnic groups. Blacks are no more indigenous to most of southern Africa than whites, they simply usurped the original inhabitants sooner, and more completely.

    • Gavin Foster Gavin Foster United States says:

      @ Chris
      So how did the whites (and the Muslims) get their slaves? they didn't "catch" them - they bought them from their brothers.

  40. Astrogirl Astrogirl Canada says:

    As a Black person, I don't think Blacks get it. They are always blaming Whites for their problem, yet the tend to strive in White environment more than their own.  They complain about the White school system (when it comes to math and science or language even), yet show up for gym class and dancing contest and other nonsense just fine.

    The issue with Blacks is serious, because it is a global one, so it can't be just racism. Go anywhere in the world where it's majority Black (nation, or neighbourhood) and it's the same scenario.

    Now they are obsessed with Ghetto garbage.

    • dawn dawn United States says:

      As a black person.... give me a break.  You're in Canada, so you don't get what goes on here in the US.  Now I don't know how Africans are in their own environment, but bring them to the US and they outshine any American.... white and or black when it come to US Academics.  That's with any foreigner...

      And yes, black people can't blame everything on whites when it comes to education.... but please, we have a long way to go.  I suggest you stay in Canada because you wouldn't make it here in the US... or you would be the black person standing around with a bunch of whites telling N'word jokes.    

      • William Griffin William Griffin United States says:

        "Now I don't know how Africans are in their own environment, but bring them to the US and they outshine any American.... white and or black when it come to US Academics.  That's with any foreigner..."

        Utter nonsense. The cream of the crop from other nations can come to the US and do quite well as any highly intelligent person is equal to other highly intelligent people of the same sort regardless of race, nationality, and so on. That does not mean that anyone from anywhere can come here and excel.

        An Indian person with a 150 IQ can obviously come to the US and do as well as an American with a 150 IQ, or a Chinese person with a 150 IQ, or a sub-Saharan African with a 150 IQ.

        That does not mean that "any foreigner" can come to the US and "outshine any American."

  41. dawn dawn United States says:

    I wonder how they came up with this study.  US, has the lowest IQ compared to other countries.  They lost me at the light skinned blacks had higher IQ than the average blacks... and brain size.... Give me a break.

    • steph steph United States says:

      To be realistic, Dawn, those crude categorizations are not the choice of the authors of the review.  That is derived from the decades of research that they are attempting to broadly summarize, not materials they wrote.

      I cant say I've read the criticisms of their work (although a number have been published and some are in my bookmarks), but I'd think they would be no longer tenured at universities such as UC Berkley if their review was at all unscientific.  

      Also, remember this are mean scores.  In theory, I would honestly think that any lower IQ race could breed up to higher standards in only a few centuries.  

      Evolution does not stop at the neck.  Similarly, an quantified evolutionary state is not a barrier, especially when it has been surpassed by the same species.

    • William Griffin William Griffin United States says:

      "US, has the lowest IQ compared to other countries"

      No, it does not. The US is in the Top 25 for average IQ (IQ and the Wealth of Nations).

  42. Al Al United States says:

    If you go to the Info Please web site, you will find pages that list all of the Nobel Prize winners in physics, chemistry, medicine and economics and if you copy and paste that information into a Word document and us the "Replace All" function to count up the number of times that the name "Switzerland" occurs and then do the same for "Japan", "China", "India" and "Korea", you will see that the name, Switzerland, occurs more often than all those other names combined. Why would tiny Switzerland, with only 7.6 million people, produce more Nobel science winners than billions of Asians if the Asians are, on average, smarter than the Swiss?

  43. Ils Ils Switzerland says:

    I don't see why people are arguing the facts. This stuff is taught in my psych classes in uni. E. Asians DO have the highest iq and Africans DO have the lowest. It's established OK? The question is: is it purely genetic or are there cultural influences or is it a combination. We've known Asians had the highest for more than 50 years now and that Africans had lower iqs. Now we're just trying to find out WHY.

  44. M Khan M Khan United States says:

    Vitamin D deficiency is common among black skin even in tropics. It is worse in fully covered religious women. Brain development is abnormal and disorganized with Vitamin D deficiency. In black women in USA (northern latitudes) the amount of vitamin D reaching the developing fetal brain is close to Zero. Animal models (rats)show large brains large ventricles. Behavior in vitamin d deprived rats is abnormal showing erratic behavior suggestive of attention deficit.
    There are other factors as well and genetics may play a role. Fish oil( East Asians) and teaching of eastern languages in Chinese characters is also a factor according to research.

    So want to have intelligent children? (google it there are some good websites) Try the following. 4000 IU of vitamin D daily and make sure your vitamin D levels are normal before getting pregnant. Eat oily fish like salmon 2 to 3 times a week. Take omega 3 fish oil. Eat Almonds walnuts, ots of green vegetables and B vitamins.

    For rest of you please stop fighting do something constructive like informing colored people to load up on vitamin D.

  45. M hill M hill United States says:

    The entire study is based on statistical analysis of other studies they did not conduct their own research. You would think they would simply take the IQ of every person of their respective race, unfortunately that's not possible because not everyone takes the IQ test so whats the sample size?

    After reading the entire document, they never list the sample sizes.

    Secondly there are studies out there that show blacks do just as well as others when they are home schooled.

    Its interesting they only used a very selective sets of studies that supported their view points.

    We all know today sexuality orientation has nothing to do with aids but looking solely statistics it does.

  46. King King United Kingdom says:

    This is ridiculious..
    Native Born Africans are the most educated immigrants living in America currently according to the U.S Census and are actually more educated then current Americans also but im suppose to believe that Black People are genetically less smart? What lies, people are not considering culture and surroundings ..Also for the people who claim African countries are not growing, what are you talking about?

    Africa has some of the fastest growing economies in the world while eastern Europe has zero and western europe is cripped with debt, people need to research things before they type utter foolishness.

    • William Griffin William Griffin United States says:

      "Native Born Africans are the most educated immigrants living in America currently according to the U.S Census and are actually more educated then current Americans"

      That is a meaningless statement. Even if that is true, legal immigrants in the US are not necessarily representative of their race, nationality, or whatnot. For example, let's stipulate a race of green people with an average IQ of 50, but three of them have an IQ of 180. If those three immigrated to the US, could you assume that the entire race of green people has an IQ of 180? Of course not, and you cannot use a small number of immigrants of any race to extrapolate anything about those back in their home countries.

      This does not mean that the article is correct in its entirety, or in part, but your anecdotal evidence about "Native Born Africans" being the "most educated immigrants living in America" as well as being "more educated [than] current Americans" does not negate this paper's findings.

  47. CREATION DE SOCIETE A HONG KONG CREATION DE SOCIETE A HONG KONG United States says:

    Simply wish to say your article is as amazing. The clarity in your post is simply spectacular and i could assume you are an expert on this subject. Fine with your permission let me to grab your feed to keep up to date with forthcoming post. Thanks a million and please keep up the enjoyable work.

  48. Contemplation Contemplation Canada says:

    This whole entire argument is completely illogical. We have studied brain development and genetics for years yet have never come up with a single shred of evidence of genetic factors that point to this conclusion. Not to mention that it would be easy to see if it actually existed. One can come up with an evolutionary hoopla story to back ones thesis but if you actually look at the general logic behind this study one can clearly see that this cannot be taken seriously as factual science. With so many possible causes due to development, nutrition, IQ test specifics, education, social factors and test groups  anyone who actually chooses to think while reading this can plainly see that there are far too many variables to simply state that genetics is accountable. Differences in health and the formation of the body is completely different than stating that a specific group of people have a vastly different functional capability of an organ.

    • Tiff Tiff United States says:

      There is NOTHING BUT conclusive evidence that blacks lag behind in pretty much everything. Whites who grow up poor with poor nutrition still score higher than blacks. In the 1930s there was less crime but more poverty. You're just making excuses for these 'people'.

      Every single Country in Africa is 3rd world. We colonized it in the 1400s. We reduced Japan to nothing but rubble in WW2 and now they are a superpower.

      Stop being in denial of something so blatantly obvious, especially to what everyone knows. There is no firm reason to anticipate that the intellectual capacities of peoples geographically separated in their evolution should prove to have evolved identically. Our wanting to reserve equal powers of reason as some universal heritage of humanity will not be enough to make it so.

      Equality is a myth, and I'd rather have a DOG around my children than a WOLF.

  49. Lewis Loflin Lewis Loflin United States says:

    We can't broad brush Asians/whites, there are differences.

    Among whites, Jews, Unitarians, Quakers, and Anglicans outscore say much larger mostly working class whites groups such as Catholics and Baptists.

    Doesn't mean all Jews are super smart or Catholics are dumb. We need to see there's variations even within groups.

  50. IQ
    david david United States says:

    I think it all comes down to IQ

  51. Jimbo Jimbo United States says:

    One factor that we fail to mention is the role of geography in explaining average IQ differences between the so-called races. Scientist generally agree that modern day humans originate from Africa, and then later gradually migrated to other parts of the world. Geographically speaking, when humans arrived in parts of Europe and Asia, the environment provided them with clear advantages that might have led to these IQ discrepancies. Its not so much the environment, but its the culture cultivated from the environment.

  52. Jimbo, jimbo Jimbo, jimbo United States says:

    To further elaborate, Eurasia had the right set of  conditions that allowed for a higher IQ to come to fruition. Domestication of the native species of pigs, goats, cattle, barley, and wheat marked a transition from hunting and gathering to a more advanced form of agriculture than seen in other societies of the same era. This advanced agriculture was not only able to support denser populations, but also spurred about a divison of labor. Individuals began to have specific jobs and thus had time to master their craft and become innovators of new technologies and tools. Essentially, it could be the fact that they had to use their brains more, and this could have brought about the discrepancies in IQ levels that we see today.

    With this being said, intelligence is a mutable measure and is not something that is absolute. Based on the "Flynn Effect", average IQ scores have risen over time. While IQ test are standardized so that the average is around 100, the questions inherently become more difficult over time. For instance a person who has an IQ of 85 today (an average US black) , would have scored around a 100 if they took an IQ test from 1950. This simply says, that the human brain can adapt very rapidly and all human are getting smarter.

  53. Jimbo, jimbo Jimbo, jimbo United States says:

    Another point of contention is that IQ tests only measure a person's present reasoning abilities. Sure enough, if you take the time to teach people a few basic concepts then over a short amount of time, they would likely perform better on IQ tests. IQ tests say nothing about intellectual capacity, it only measures one's intelligence at its current state.

    And even if science one day does point to a gene that proves without a doubt that humans have different intellecutal capacities, should that give us reason to put races in a caste system? One can have a less than average intelligence level and still make significant contributions to a society.  Even if we prove that the black race is less intelligent, it does not mean they can't hold significant roles in a society. Even African Americans score lower than other groups, just look at what impact they have exerted on the world in terms music, entertainment, sports, and social movements. Bottom line, intelligence is not a good predictor of self worth.

  54. Premedman1992 Premedman1992 United States says:

    Well from what I have studied, I have concluded that yes everyone is of an African origin, in a sense, but after the migration of groups of people to the continents Europe, Africa, and Asia the various members of these groups'skin tones began to change based upon their need for vitamin D production. I am sure you all, being that this is a medical forum, know the rest of the story.

  55. Rocky Rocky United States says:

    The mentioned article cites studies from J. Phillippe Rushton, and Arthur Jensen. They are both known racists and their work has been discredited.  IQ tests are a FRAUD created by white men with an agenda.

  56. dave mcgee dave mcgee Canada says:

    Most of the research is valid The fact that over population and malnutrition has an effect on brain development for generations needs to be factorized for most of the black dominated country's  involved in any IQ comparisons
        

    • movegas1 movegas1 United States says:

      Most of African descent that I know are rediculously athletic and frankly superior in shear strength and physical fitness. I have no idea where your meeting your black friends......

  57. Pier Pier Australia says:

    This research doesn't appear to consider social or economical factors relating to racial differences in intelligence.
    Marginalised groups and those of a poor social economic background would be expexted to achieve to a lower IQ than a priveligded racial group in society.
    It should not be shocking to hear that blacks performed to a signicantly lower standard if they are tested in a continent ravaged by disease, malnutrition and civil war. Likewise in America a certain level of predudice still exists towards black americans that may effect level of education recieved.
    Because despite these test being 'equal footing' for all who take them the truth of the matter is one does require a certain level of education if they are to do well. For those with a limited education these questions and concepts may be very unfamiliar.
    Also if children tested aged 3 were supposed to be the control group i think their grades should be disregarded. It is not stated were these groups of children came from an the events surrounded them at the time they were tested. A number of environmental factors may have effected their level of developement.
    And finally i also do not believe brain size is of any significance. Their is huge variation between the sizes of men and womens brains yet any evidence stated men with the larger heavier brain are more intelligent then women has been disproved and tossed out of scientific debate. I beleive the same principle should be applied to variation of brain size between asians, whites and blacks.

  58. Nyder Nyder United States says:

    My thinking is that these results are related to testosterone levels primarily. Blacks have the highest average testosterone levels, whites in the middle, with east asians with the lowest.

    Lower testosterone levels will make one prone to abstract thinking while higher testosterone levels will make one prone to practical thinking. Think street smarts vs. book smarts. Whites and Asians will do better academically and thus score higher on an IQ test, but blacks will be better at dealing with the visceral world around them in a practical, common-sense manner.

    It's not that any race is more intelligent; it's that hormone levels will make one prone to different modes of thinking and understanding.

    In Africa natural selection will select those who are strong, masculine, and good at dealing with the warring nature of the tribal culture they're in. When people moved towards Europe, they had to think of creative ways to survive in the harsh environment and thus had to be more inventive.

    This is a matter of masculine vs. feminine intelligence, and masculine intelligence is not tested in IQ tests as effectively as feminine intelligence. In fact, masculine intelligence is much harder to design a test for in the first place.

  59. James James United States says:

    I'm white and have an IQ of 181. I don't believe race factors into IQ. It's true that blacks in the US may have an IQ lower than their white counterparts, but this test clearly didn't take into consideration the economic differences of the races. I guarantee that more people sampled in the inner city, where education quality is lower, were black and lower the average for their race.

  60. SteveW SteveW United States says:

    I have a female Springer Spaniel dog, who is AKC registered she has been with me since she was a puppy.

    I have often been amazed at how this dog, which is the third Springer Spaniel I've had in my lifetime - has the ability to 'associate' and 'memorize' certain words or actions that she sees me say or do.   Such as:  Whenever I intend to go somewhere in my vehicle, I have a habit of grabbing a stainless steel drink mug that I usually fill with ice cubes and blue Gatorade to take along with me on my trip, whether it be a short trip to the grocery store or anywhere else.  As soon as she sees me pick up that drink container and hears me dropping ice cubes into it, if she's in the house - she will immediately rush to the back door and wait, showing a clear anticipation of my impending departure.  If she's outside, her hearing is such that she can actually hear and recognize the sound of ice cubes dropping into that drink container and she will start whining and barking and raising a big ruckus, to let me know that she knows I am about to leave and that she hopes she can go with me.

    This is only one of the many other scenarios that this Spinger Spaniel seems to have stored away inside her head whereby she demonstrates the ability to form and remember 'associations' - that tell her, if he does this, then that means --- he is going to do this next.   This never ceases to amaze me and it is a clear indication that, simply by observing my behavior - she is able to almost read my mind and react accordingly.

    Blacks and many other non-whites who manage to live inside a historic White nation - alongside and able to observe the behavior of a race who is, on average, of higher intelligence than they might be - can, to some modest degree, be able to mimic some of those behaviors and benefit from being able to form associations in their less intelligent brains between mimicking the positive behaviors and the positive results that come their way as a result of their copying a certain behavior which leads to success or which yields positive results.

    The problem is - is that the vast majority of Blacks and other non-whites do not have this ability and are therefore not able to assimilate into White Western societies in such a manner as to not be a negative influence within it.    Instead, they follow their natural, genetically engrained instincts and behave as they would if they were in their natural habitat, i.e., if they were in Africa or whatever other third world, non-white nation where their race and people are dominant.   This creates an increasingly dangerous and potentially explosive degree of volatility within every historic White European nation which these nation destroying, clearly anti-white and intensely hostile, alien ruling elites have imposed - without the consent or approval of their  native White populations - the curse of multiculturalism and multi-racialism.    Never in world history has any multicultural, multi-racial civilization been successful over the long term - and they all have descended into horrible and extremely violent and bloody ethnic warfare between the various ethnic and racial groups as a result of the conflict and competition that arises between them.

    America will be no different - this is the future that our hostile and alien ruling elites are charting for White European people - in literally every historic White European nation.

    So, need I point out who should get top priority for 'counseling' once this ethnic conflict kicks off?

  61. Israel Cohen IV Israel Cohen IV United States says:

    Jews let the dogs out. Who do you think started the NAACP and ran it for years? Who was the driving force behind racial integration, "affirmative action," set-asides, and civil rights and PC in general?

    That's right. The main player was Jews, the nation-wreckers since time untold.

    They used the blacks as a crowbar against white society in order to take over and grind the gentiles into dirt. The blacks were a very useful weapon! If you raised a hand to them, you were an "evil racist." If you bent over and let them rape, rob, and kill you, it was progress but "we still have a long way to go."

  62. Frank Bousek Frank Bousek Canada says:

    Very much true. It appears that they are for their past efforts in US today finally rewarded in Israel with black refugees complaining about discrimination, deportations and their black Jewish brothers Ethiopeans raising stink about their women being vaccinated with Depo-Provera as the means of birth rate control.

  63. Stephen White Stephen White United States says:

    I spent several hours reading the original article and all 192 posts here as I thought it was rather interesting. I almost made it to the end without encountering blatant anti-semitism but the last two posts sneaked in there. It's interesting, Ashkenazi Jews comprise about 1/5 of 1% of the world's population yet they get blamed by anti-semites for either controlling the world or causing all the ills of the world. Jews, again about 1/5 of 1% of the world's population, received almost a third of the Nobel prizes in recent times and are highly overrepresented for their numbers in fields of science, math, medicine, law, literature, and the arts. Interestingly, the higher average IQ score of Ashkenazi Jews is reflected mainly in the verbal/reasoning abilities; the visuospatial abilities are about average--that's where the East Asians excel. But to raise the average Jewish IQ about 13 points above average means that that portion of their abilities is probably close to double that above average, since the test combines both verbal/reasoning and visuospatial components. Visuospatial abilities are important in pursuits like engineering and architecture but for mathematics, except for certain fields like topology, it is the reasoning component that is the most important. Perhaps this is why Western countries have led the world in technological innovation and mathematics in recent times, even dating back to the Greeks and Romans--this slight edge that whites have over Asians in verbal/reasoning ability, especially since the last couple hundred years of Jewish emergence, may be what drives the innovation process. Of course when it comes to manufacturing the visuospatial ability of Asians would come into play. It takes only a fraction of one percent of the population with the highest ability to create the design innovation for the rest of the world, and the higher the average IQ of a population, the higher, exponentially, is the number of geniuses in that population. On another note, I don't know where the information for lower testosterone increasing academic ability comes from but my understanding is that just the opposite is true; higher testosterone levels increases visuospatial ability, and men on average have greater visuospatial ability than women.

  64. Lee Trotsky Lee Trotsky Australia says:

    This is a non-issue , genetic engineering will enhance human intelligence in the future, no need to stress.

  65. informed citizen informed citizen United States says:

    It's scientific facts at work here. Kind of hard to argue with what's been proven to be true OVER AND OVER. The white and asian population needs to wake up and realize that they are throwing away hard earned tax dollars trying to make africans intellectually equal.

  66. So?
    Elise Harris Elise Harris United States says:

    So what? What difference does it really make? Seriously.

    Move on to something that really matters

  67. Elise Harris Elise Harris United States says:

    I feel so sorry for people who wear their presumed high IQ's like a badge to defend & protect. People like that just like to sit & talk about how superior they are, exaggerating the importance of it, while the rest of humanity just goes about living life to the fullest and having a good time.

    IQ is one very small factor in determining someone's success and contributions in life. You can have he highest IQ in the world and still be a socially inept loser going nowhere. Just look at Chris Langan.

    • 1
      Let Wawa Let Wawa Germany says:

      That's because success is a function of luck, not of intelligence. Like in poker, you can hold a pair of Aces, but still lose. So, there is only a correlation between intelligence and success.

      Business works on the Winner Takes All model and if you are not in the right place at the right time, no matter how smart you are you will have little chance of winning. There are more guys like Bill Gates in the world, but they are unknown. Look up "survivorship bias" if you are interested. It's an interesting topic.

      A good book would be Fooled by Randomness.

      In fact, you can go further and think about all the smart people who didn't make it because they died in a car accident or of cancer on their way of success.

      The genetically best must have a lot of luck to come out on top. His odds are still the greatest of all, but success is not guaranteed.

  68. Boby Brady Boby Brady United States says:

    I will make this very simple, you can not argue it. African Americans and Australians Aboriginal's  are the only two races that never developed a written language nor a numerical system.

    So what does that tell you.

  69. Evan Pickell Evan Pickell United States says:

    Because I don't want to be given the injustice of being considered a racist, which is god forbid the worst thing since the holocaust; I would suggest Ethnicity has no role in who is superior. White men went to the moon, carried the industrial revolution on its back, dropped nuclear bombs, invented democracy, invented computers, air planes, skyscrapers. Names like aristotle, von brown, plato, albert einstein, sir isaac newton stick out but African Americans are just less socially evolved to the mental aspect of reasoning.

  70. Andrew N Andrew N South Africa says:

    I really don't see what all the fuss is about. The human brain comes in all sorts of shapes and sizes. It's a scientific fact that black people have brains that are on average 5 cubic inches smaller than that of white people. There is absolutely nothing wrong with that.

    We here in South Africa have implemented affirmative action to help compensate for the average lower brain size and resulting lower IQ.
    Nobody needs to be proud that they have larger brains and nobody needs to feel inferior about having smaller brains. What we are doing, is placing a handicap on ourselves so that our black brothers can have a better chance at making a success of life.

    It's like a horse race where the better horses are made to carry more weight. This makes for a proper race. You can just imagine how boring it would be if the same horses always won the race.

  71. Andrew N Andrew N South Africa says:

    Anybody that feels the need to state the value of their IQ is most likely not telling the truth.

    If you have a high IQ then people will be able to see this from what you write.

  72. Shaoxiong Zhu Shaoxiong Zhu People's Republic of China says:

    As a Chinese citizen lived in States for a couple of years, I did see several interesting social and political phenomena there.

    If we check the racial components of electors voting for Republicans or the Democrats, we could possibly see a slightly (yet statistically significant) difference. A government focusing more on complementary social welfare might gain more supports from African Americans (who possess a higher tendency to live relying on social walfare), which, again, is not under fully studied.

    Just only thoughts: African Americans might need to think more on themselves just as John Kennedy said "what did they do for the Country."

    • Mengjiao Zhang Mengjiao Zhang United States says:

      Supporting social walfare does not necessarily mean hoping to live relying on social walfare!

    • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

      Wow most of the responses on this thread amaze me. Perhaps you are unfamiliar with American history & even if you were its possible you still would not be aware of Afro American contributions. Sir we have literally built this country. The labor of Blacks in bondage poured 100's of trillions of dollars into the US economy over the 250 years of US slavery..  Today we a pour 1.5 trillion every year into the US economy. We are the only race besides Whites that have faught in every war this country has had & the 1st to die for the American  Revolution was a Black man named Crispus Attucks. My father was in the Navy & my Grand Father faught in WW2. Despite our efforts to amalgamate the very government has worked against us to qoute Nixon & his cabninet men

      "Haldeman, referring to the President as "P," said: "P emphasized that you have to face the fact that the whole problem is really the blacks. The key is to devise a system that recognizes this while not appearing to"
      this is right after the so called Civil Rights victories.  Victories that helped lift racist immigration policies that have helped Asians enter this country on visa or other wise. So when you quote Kennedy as if to question what Blacks have done for this country "you have insulted me & the shoalin temple"

  73. Pixie Whistler Pixie Whistler United States says:

    Being black, I want to say this isn't true, but I think that it is. However, I don't feel that it is dependent on genetics as this study will have you think.

    Having been educated in American private schools (therefore associating mostly with whites, asians, and other black kids educated in the same system), I can say that I received a radically different education than black kids in American public schools. Our reading levels were higher, our math levels were higher, and typically SAT scores were higher. IQ tests look at critical thinking skills and I think white education may cater more to that.

  74. Cookie Monsta Cookie Monsta United States says:

    This entire chain is truly disheartening! The reason humanity will end up exhausting the worlds resources & killing ourselves off when the repercussions of doing so are obvious is because we simply haven't evolved enough emotionally to work together! To put aside our insecurities & fears & embrace the idea that happiness doesn't come from anything one can purchase or take from others but from within.

    I've known a few people who would never be accused of being a genius but still they accomplished great things & exceeded all expectations. I've watched one of the smartest & most talented people to ever cross my path kill herself slowly from drug addiction. It doesn't matter who is smarter or stronger or better...those are sad little warm & fuzzy's for us to cling to! The only things that matter are love, happiness & community & no matter what the IQ test results say...anyone disputing that  fact is missing the forest thru the trees!

    What horrible things people of all races, IQ's, educations & backgrounds have said to one another in this thread! I can't understand how anyone could say some of these things to another person! How anyone could truly believe there is anything uplifting to be found by putting down others? How can we claim to be the evolved or enlightened inhabitants of this planet when we are the only ones destroying it & fighting wars amongst ourselves? All around us animals with much lower IQ's live in harmony with one another & their surroundings! IQ's have steadily risen throughout our existence but humankind is reportedly more depressed than ever.

    Its a sad display of intelligence to use it in attacking others when only embracing, accepting & helping them will bring us joy! I'm more buddhist than christian but I do appreciate christ's message & I don't recall him judging anyone...let alone measuring their worth based on the speed their neurons fire or their score on some test!

    May we all find peace & a place where these discussions no longer have legs. May the ideal that anyone is better than another be relegated to the history books & may it truly confuse our children's children how we could live so blindly for so long

  75. Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

    Again so called academics are taking numbers and reading what they wish into them. One can only assume gentics is the primary cause for low IQ. No one has found an IQ gene only Genes that seem to effect IQ and no one has found that these genes are lesser in number in Blacks or other sub tropical peoples.  European and Asians have bigger brains and have bigger eyeballs as well. In fact all people living in and or native to northern latitudes have bigger brains and eyeballs. You can see this dynamic with in the populations living at varying latitudes in Europe. As you travel north in latitude studies show Northern Europeans have bigger eyeballs and brains than Southern Europeans.

    This being the case the people with the biggest brains and eyeballs are Eskimos or the Inuit people who live near the North Pole. European and Asian brains are bigger in the areas dealing with sight. During the ice age it was dark and difficult to see. Also today due to sunlight refraction it is more difficult to see in Northern latitudes.

    Neanderthal man who was an early cousin to homo sapiens (us) evolved during the ice age and had a bigger brain than any human.
    We can tell from early Neanderthal artifacts they were less intelligent than homo sapiens archaic or homo sapiens sapiens (us/modern man) so their bigger brains did not equate to a higher intelligence. In fact it appears to have been substantially lower Europeans and Asians like Neanderthal developed in the northern hemisphere during ice age climatic changes. Both Asians and Europeans evolved bigger eyes and optic nerve areas to see better and developed bigger brains to deal with the extra sight sensory input
    So now we understand “why” Europeans and Asians have bigger brains. The next question is does this correlate with their inherently having a higher IQ than Africans?

    The two areas of the brain Asians and Europeans have increased size and have more grey matter dedicated to are the visual cortex  & lateral ventricles . Again note this extra brain matter is dedicated to analyzing increased visual input. The lateral ventricles  are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) which bathes and cushions the brain and spinal cord . The lateral ventricles do not consist of any grey or white matter.

    Cognitive functions such as -executive functions, planning, abstract reasoning, impulse control, sustained attention and insight are not carried out in these areas. These functions are carried out primarily in the frontal lobe were the Orbitofrontal Cortex is located.

    African Americans in fact have a larger orbito-frontal cortex  than Caucasians.

    So for those who feel they have this definitive proof of some type of inate gentic upper hand I say you must look into all of the possible stimuli that could effect IQ (such as economic status,health and the psycholigical effects of systemic racism) and look for the causation of the numerical data they tout so often

    • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

      There have been scientific Nobel laureates from very poor backgrounds (Jewish, whites, Asians, even races plagued with poverty like hispanics), yet NOT A SINGLE BLACK MAN awarded with a scientific nobel prize.

      So, where the environment explanation stays after this verifiable fact?

      If there is a veru accepted fact that no matter how hard white men train, you wouldn't beat people like Usain Bolt or other black athletes.

      Training could make white atletes very good, beating most of black athletes that won't have equivalent training, but they have no chance agains similarly trained black men.

      Why this analogy is considered invalid regarding intellect? Isn't it obvious that facts shows up that with the best trainging possible, black scientists can become very good, but not being a match to Nobel-laureate level brains?

      Isn't the brain as biological as athlete muscles, why would it have to be an exception to the rules that shows that some races are better suited for some tasks?

      Could you answer these questions please?

      • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

        Before you read my whole response to your question let me 1st ask you a question. I see you seem to be of Hispanic origins do you feel the Hispanics average IQ of 88 to be largely genetic in origin or a result of a people from a socially disadvantaged group not having the same access to education as Whites?

        Some say Hispanics may never reach equal IQ levels with Whites
        www.huffingtonpost.com/.../...ation_n_3240168.html

      • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

        Sorry for the 2 part response as I am typing from a tablet. Whites & other ethnic groups seem to easily minimize or dismiss the severity of the forms of racism suffered by Black Africans. One crucial factor is that the other groups you have mentioned all have intact cultures & none have survived 300 plus years of chattel slavery, American Apartheid ie: Jim Crow & systemic socially entrenched racism. Other groups may have risen from economic hardship but the discrimination they suffered has been fundamentally different thus the environment the rose from was different.  You cant compare an immigrant Jew who is raised in a tradition of reading the Torah in Hebrew & has a healthy culture to an African American who for one comes from a legacy were simply knowing how to read could cost you your life or loss of limb. African Americans live in a system where the very government has taken action to destroy them.
        To quote:
        "Mr. Haldeman, referring to the President as "P," said: "P emphasized that you have to face the fact that the whole problem is really the blacks. The key is to devise a system that recognizes this while not appearing to"

        www.nytimes.com/.../...ary-of-blacks-and-jews.html

        This is the racist system Blacks live under today.
        As for your comparisons of Athletic muscles to the brain this is a common fallacy.  Yes environment plays a part in both but the brain contains human consciousness & is thee most complicated orginism in the known universe.

        • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

          Why would the athletic muscles be an unfair comparison? Arent such muscles BIOLOGICAL and influenced by GENETICS, the very same as the brain is? Of course environment help, but genetics will give you a LIMIT regarding potential. With great environment and effort, you can improve up to such potential limit, that's why no white athlete can compete with the best black athletes, a top-notch white 100 m runner, can beat 99% of black runners, but he won't have a chance against top black athletes in the league of Usain Bolt, no matter how hard the white guy trains from childhood. Tell me, is this false? If this happens with muscles, why do you think it's impossible to happen with brain? Isn't brain also biological? Why would nature would have to be 'fair'? could you explain?

  76. Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

    Unlike some assume THERE HAVE BEEN SEVERAL BLACK NOBEL LAUREATES not just peace prize winners (see link below) aslo I will again ask Javier Perez as it seems I have difficulty commenting & responding on this thread

    I see you seem to be of Hispanic origins do you feel the Hispanics average IQ of 88 to be largely genetic in origin or a result of a people from a socially disadvantaged group not having the same access to education as Whites?
    Some say Hispanics may never reach equal IQ levels with Whites
    www.huffingtonpost.com/.../...ation_n_3240168.html

    Also comparing the genetic heratibility of athletic prowess to that of IQ is a fallacy in its self. The brain is the seat of consciousness & psycho social stimuli effect the mind far more so than mere muscle. Hopefully my previous response is allowed but if not ill give a synopsis.  No group has endured the 300 plus years of chattel slavery, American Apartheid ie Jim Crow & the systemic ingrained racism that is apart of American culture. Its like equating what the Americans did to the Japanese Americans In WW2 to what the Germans did to the Jews. Both are crimes but one pales in comparison to the other

    en.m.wikipedia.org/.../List_of_black_Nobel_Laureates

    • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

      Do you realize that your link of "List_of_black_Nobel_Laureates" CONFIRMS MY POINT?

      Did you read what I wrote? specially when I say "awarded with a SCIENTIFIC nobel prize. "? Which of the prizes shown in the link are SCIENTIFIC?

      About hispanics in US, do you realize that they usually face a worse fate than blacks, because, for a start, most of them started as ILLEGAL citizens?

      Are you aware that there are statistically confirmed, more weathy blacks than hispanics weathy people? yet how come no black has nearby that level of success regarding science (being awarded a Nobel prize or a Fields medal)?

      Same in classical music (the most complex music by far), are you aware that  even indigenous people, living in the wild for ages,
      were capable of composing music like this https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sez0z4RTP1U (look for bolivian baroque in amazon, for more), take also Jaime Laredo also as another example unmatched by black people in classical music.

      With millions far more wealthy than the family of SCIENTIFIC nobel laureates like Alvarez, Molina, or maestro Laredo in classical music,
      or the indigenous people in south america during the jesuit missions. How come no black equivalents in such fields?

      Do you get my point now, with these examples and facts?

      • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

        Jazz is far more complex than classical & it wasn't just mimicked like your Hispanic examples did with classical Blacks created this art form from scratch. As for Nobel prize winners we have 16 in 6 categories & we are working on that scientific one. As for why we don't have one yet I point to my previous comment alluding to the current & past several centuries of economic & educational discrimination.  Now how about you answer my question about the low average Hispanic iQ. Do you believe thats in your genes or is there someother dynamic?

        • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

          Jazz is "far more complex than classical"? You have to be very ignorant of music to make such claim.

          There are TONS of classically trained musicians who amuse jazz fans in concerts, despite they mainly play classical.

          Examples? you can check the german pianist Alexander schimpf as a small example, or violinists Joshua Bell, Roy Sonne.

          However, how often do you see jazz musicians being able to play top notch classical music with such level of proficiency?

          About hispanics low iq, as I told you, the low average (better than blacks, despite living in worse conditions than blacks, as they are illegals for a start) doesn't avoid hispanics winning  SCIENTIFIC nobel prizes, or being found within top notch mathematicians.

          For instance, the mayans had math and/or astronomy MORE ADVANCED THAN THE EUROPEANS OF THEIR TIME (same amazing stuff found with some amazonic tribes less known than mayans), while the black NEVER were able to show that level in math. Jaime Escalante showed the path to raise up for illegal latins, when trained, they beat up whites in national scores. Too bad he got expelled because he was a problem for unions.

        • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

          Forgot another example CHESS.

          Brainy ethnic groups like whites or jews shine at Chess, yet hispanics had one world champion, Jose Raul Capablanca.

          Today, there are top notch (above 2600 elo) hispanic Chess players like Julio Granda, Lenier Dominguez, Lazaro Bruzon, Fernando Peralta, Rafael Leitao, etc. While on the black side, the black gold standard is Maurice Ashley, elo 2446 (a VERY long way from the 2600 elite).

          Isn't this another clear example of what I'm talking about?

      • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

        en.m.wikipedia.org/.../List_of_composers_of_African_descent here is a list of Black classical music composers.
        again the 100 meter example is moot. We are talking about cognitive ability. This envolves consciousness. Its not just mere muscle. Once consciousness is entered into the equation you just cant measure it like a bicep.
        As far as illegal immigrants facing a worst fate im sorry this is a fallacy. Immigrants still have their lanquage & culture.  Both are powerful psychological support systems. The fallacy in this whole IQ argument is that no psychological data is taken in when IQ is clearly an aspect of mental function.  Numbers & data are easier to work with than psycho analytics but you simply cannot attribute numbers to an aspect of the mind. To do so will always be simply guess work

      • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

        1st Id like to correct the categories 3 out of 6 were won by African Americans ir Black Africans & Sir William Arthur Lewis won the nobel prize for Economic Sciences ie: SCIENCE. We can talk physics & chemestry in the near future if you like but  I also dont see the point of admitting there are more Black Millionares than Hispanics millionares. I mean one need be intelligent to aquire a fortune. As for IQ & real intelligence Two of the highest IQ processors work in bars for a living [other peoples bars]

        • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

          They also call psychology a science, but we are talking about REAL SCIENCE, the one who require EXTREMELY HIGH ABSTRACTION CAPABILITY that goes beyond the league of average humans.

          And again, I'm not talking about IQ, but about SCIENTIFIC NOBEL LAUREATES or winners of FIELDS MEDAL.

    • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

      Why my latest comments were removed?
      FWIW, the list of Nobel laureates you present just confirm my point, check your own list, can you confirm the absence of SCIENTIFIC nobel laureates?

      Besides, is it false what I told of my 100 meter competition example?

      Please ANSWER DIRECTLY and don't remove my posts.

      • Hugh Cipher Hugh Cipher United States says:

        I can understand whites & Asians being cocky about the IQ numbers seemingly to point to some inherent superior intelligence but why is a Hispanic with a mean IQ of 88 trying to look down on Black IQ scores individually even if your an outlier im personaly more intelligent than you so why try to go there? Please dont ignore or dance around the question.  Also why would I erase your responses & how could I? I dont control this website.  Not to sharp are we Javier?

        • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

          I gave you examples of Hispanics winning top notch scientific prizes (even in science olympiads), or the mayans or ancient tribes in south america showing advanced scientific understanding. Black have never shown such level in science, despite having a lot of rich black people worlwide.

          While at the same time, they are unbeatable in 100 meter running, showing the exact opposite scenario (other races, inclusing hispanics, being unable to compete at top level with blacks).

        • Javier Perez Javier Perez Bolivia says:

          Another thing I forgot, are you aware that, apart from being illegals, many of the kids taking IQ tests doesn't have english as their native language?

          Despite having high IQ in my childhood, I remember having wrong answers just because I didn't understand the questions. How impossible is that a similar thing happens to illegal citizens who are just having their first grasps at english language? Blacks doesn't have such 2 powerful barriers, yet they score lower in average.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
Post a new comment
Post