Mouse brain models reveal insights into genetics of autism
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  June 28, 2017  
  Genetics  
  The latest Genetics news from News Medical  
 Scientists show way to edit genome of disease-carrying mosquitoesScientists show way to edit genome of disease-carrying mosquitoes
 
Scientists at UC Berkeley and UC Riverside have demonstrated a way to edit the genome of disease-carrying mosquitoes that brings us closer to suppressing them on a continental scale.
 
   Altered virus could help more patients to become eligible for human gene therapy trialsAltered virus could help more patients to become eligible for human gene therapy trials
 
For many patients, participating in gene therapy clinical trials isn't an option because their immune system recognizes and fights the helpful virus used for treatment.
 
   Viral vectors for gene transfer can travel to distant areas in the brain, study showsViral vectors for gene transfer can travel to distant areas in the brain, study shows
 
Gene transfer is seen as a hopeful therapy for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's patients. The approach involves using harmless laboratory-produced viruses to introduce important genes into the brain cells.
 
   Elevated levels of suPAR protein combine with genetic mutation to trigger CKD in black peopleElevated levels of suPAR protein combine with genetic mutation to trigger CKD in black people
 
Between 15 and 20 percent of black people carry a genetic mutation that puts them at risk for certain chronic kidney disease, but only about half of them develop the illness – a variance that long has puzzled researchers.
 
 Researchers identify new disease gene for early-onset axonal neuropathy and mild intellectual disability
 
Researchers identify new disease gene for early-onset axonal neuropathy and mild intellectual disabilityResearch group from the University of Helsinki, Finland, has identified a new disease gene for early-onset axonal neuropathy and mild intellectual disability through an international research network, which was brought together by "Tinder for geneticists".
 
 
 Finnish researchers find accumulation of gene mutations in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis
 
Finnish researchers find accumulation of gene mutations in some patients with rheumatoid arthritisGene mutations accumulating in cells are typical of the development of cancer. Finnish researchers found that a similar accumulation of mutations occurs also in some patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
 
 
 Type I interferons could have role in natural improvement of RA during pregnancy
 
Type I interferons could have role in natural improvement of RA during pregnancyAn international US-Danish team of scientists, led by Damini Jawaheer, Ph.D. at the UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, has identified a possible link between type I interferons and a natural improvement of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during pregnancy.
 
 
 Dietary practices get reflected in the genes of Europeans, study reveals
 
Dietary practices get reflected in the genes of Europeans, study revealsA recently published Cornell University study describes how shifts in the diets of Europeans after the introduction of farming 10,000 years ago led to genetic adaptations that favored the dietary trends of the time.
 
 
 Study shows how RNA splicing errors may trigger development of ALS, FTD
 
Study shows how RNA splicing errors may trigger development of ALS, FTDThe most frequent genetic cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)- rare and related neurological disorders marked by progressive deterioration of motor or cognitive abilities- may be due to errors in RNA splicing, an intermediary step for translating genetic instructions into functional proteins.
 
 
 Study explores factors, patterns that predict use of restrictive feeding for children
 
Study explores factors, patterns that predict use of restrictive feeding for childrenIn the preschool years, children begin to learn from their environment about self-regulation--both in regards to food choices and how to deal with their emotions.
 
 
 New findings highlight possibility of developing specific cancer drugs with fewer side effects
 
New findings highlight possibility of developing specific cancer drugs with fewer side effectsScientists at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden report that cancer cells and normal cells use different 'gene switches' in order to regulate the expression of genes that control growth.
 
 
 Faulty BRCA genes and their linkage to breast and ovarian cancer: Study
 
Faulty BRCA genes and their linkage to breast and ovarian cancer: StudyA new large scale study has focussed on faulty BRCA genes and their linkage to breast and ovarian cancer. The research could help doctors counsel and advise their patients in a more definitive way in terms of treatment as well as lifestyle changes that could minimize cancer risk.
 
 
 Scientists discover link between sugar metabolism and peroxisomal biogenesis disorders
 
Scientists discover link between sugar metabolism and peroxisomal biogenesis disordersMeeting a young patient with Zellweger syndrome, a rare, life-threatening genetic disease, started a scientific investigation that culminated with an unexpected discovery.
 
 
 Types of Ehlers-Danlos Syndromes (EDS)
 
There are many types of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS). Based on the inheritance pattern, EDS can be classified as 1) autosomal dominant, 2) autosomal recessive, and 3) autosomal dominant or recessive. In all these types, a set of major and minor criteria is identified and a minimal criterion is arrived at for the physicians to suggest the EDS types. Molecular testing is done to confirm final diagnosis.
 
 
 Scientists link new gene clusters to poor breast cancer prognosis
 
Scientists link new gene clusters to poor breast cancer prognosisBreast cancer patients could get more reliable idea of how long they will live now scientists have linked a new group of genes to poor prognosis.
 
 
 MIT biologists identify how the immune system eliminates genetically imbalanced cells
 
MIT biologists identify how the immune system eliminates genetically imbalanced cellsMost living cells have a defined number of chromosomes: Human cells, for example, have 23 pairs. As cells divide, they can make errors that lead to a gain or loss of chromosomes, which is usually very harmful.
 
 
 DNA Replication and Repair
 
DNA Replication and RepairDNA replication and repair are critical processes that ensure the correct genetic material of a biological system is carried on. DNA continually undergoes a process of replication and division and errors can sometimes occur in the process. It is essential for the biological system to have a mechanism in place to detect and repair these errors.
 
 
 Positive results for AstraZeneca’s PARP inhibitor Lynparza in advanced breast cancer
 
Positive results for AstraZeneca’s PARP inhibitor Lynparza in advanced breast cancerA new study has shown that AstraZeneca's Lynparza (olaparib) can significantly slow the progress of breast cancer that is caused partially due to mutations of the culprit gene called BRCA. BRCA gene mutations are responsible for around 3% of all breast cancers.
 
 
 Research findings lay groundwork for developing more targeted treatments for deadly neuroblastomas
 
Research findings lay groundwork for developing more targeted treatments for deadly neuroblastomasGenetic variations appear to pre-dispose children to developing certain severe forms of neuroblastoma, according to new research by the University of Chicago Medicine. The findings lay the groundwork for developing more targeted treatments for particularly deadly variations of the cancer.
 
 
 Researchers bioengineer human liver tissues that mimic natural development
 
Researchers bioengineer human liver tissues that mimic natural developmentAn international team of researchers bioengineering human liver tissues uncovered previously unknown networks of genetic-molecular crosstalk that control the organ's developmental processes – greatly advancing efforts to generate healthy and usable human liver tissue from human pluripotent stem cells.
 
 
 Scientists investigate genetics of windborne bacteria arriving along with dust
 
Scientists investigate genetics of windborne bacteria arriving along with dustIsrael is subjected to sand and dust storms from several directions: northeast from the Sahara, northwest from Saudi Arabia and southwest from the desert regions of Syria. The airborne dust carried in these storms affects the health of people and ecosystems alike.
 
 
 Morgridge researchers reveal complex viral replication process in unprecedented detail
 
Morgridge researchers reveal complex viral replication process in unprecedented detailIn the fight against the viruses that invade everyday life, seeing and understanding the battleground is essential. Scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have, for the first time, imaged molecular structures vital to how a major class of viruses replicates within infected cells.
 
 
 Combination therapy shows potential for effective treatment of RAS-mutant cancers
 
Combination therapy shows potential for effective treatment of RAS-mutant cancersA study at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center has shown promise for effective treatment of therapy-resistant cancers caused by a mutation of the RAS gene found in many cancers.
 
 
 Study suggests promising therapeutic strategy for childhood brain tumor
 
Study suggests promising therapeutic strategy for childhood brain tumorA study published in Molecular Cancer Research reveals that a tumor suppressor gene p16 is turned off by a histone mutation (H3.3K27M), which is found in up to 70 percent of childhood brain tumors called diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG).
 
 
 Key metabolic enzyme fuels molecular machinery to turn on memory genes after learning
 
Key metabolic enzyme fuels molecular machinery to turn on memory genes after learningUnderstanding how memories are made, retrieved, and eventually fade over a lifetime is the stuff of poems and song. To medical researchers, solving the mysteries of memory is even more elusive.
 
 
 GFP-tagging in Fluorescence Microscopy
 
GFP-tagging in Fluorescence MicroscopyGreen Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was first isolated from the jelly fish, Aequorea victoria. The protein consists of 238 amino acid residues that fluoresce green when exposed to UV light. The gene for GFP was successfully inserted into E.coli bacteria in 1994 and the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 was jointly awarded to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien for the discovery and development of GFPs.
 
 
 Innate immune cells of myeloid lineage play central role in AD pathogenesis than previously thought
 
Innate immune cells of myeloid lineage play central role in AD pathogenesis than previously thoughtMany genes linked to late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) are expressed in myeloid cells and regulated by a single protein, according to research conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published June 19 in the journal Nature Neuroscience.
 
 
 Cancer cells may lose copies of ribosomal DNA to enable faster proliferation, study shows
 
Cancer cells may lose copies of ribosomal DNA to enable faster proliferation, study showsResearch from the Stowers Institute provides evidence suggesting that cancer cells might streamline their genomes in order to proliferate more easily.
 
 
 Existing drugs could help subgroup of patients with osteosarcoma, suggest scientists
 
Existing drugs could help subgroup of patients with osteosarcoma, suggest scientistsA subgroup of patients with osteosarcoma - a form of bone cancer - could be helped by an existing drug, suggest scientists from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and their collaborators at University College London Cancer Institute and the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust.
 
 
 Researchers identify new class of regulatory RNAs involved in cancer pathologies
 
Researchers identify new class of regulatory RNAs involved in cancer pathologiesA team of researchers at the Institute of Oncology Research has identified a new class of regulatory RNAs, which are able to act as molecular switches and can contribute in controlling the genetic evolution processes that are responsible for some cancer pathologies.
 
 
 Scientists discover new approach for antifungal drug treatments
 
Scientists discover new approach for antifungal drug treatmentsEach year, invasive fungal infections sicken an estimated 2 million people worldwide and kill nearly 800,000 - but a team of international scientists have discovered a new approach for antifungal drug treatments.
 
 
 Study finds direct link between birth outcomes and placental oxygen transport
 
Study finds direct link between birth outcomes and placental oxygen transportWhen a baby is born small, it's often attributed to genetic factors or maternal risk factors like poor nutrition or smoking.
 
 
 Blocking newly discovered cellular pathway could help control tumor growth
 
Blocking newly discovered cellular pathway could help control tumor growthScientists have discovered a new cellular pathway that can promote and support the growth of cancer cells. In a mouse model of melanoma, blocking this pathway resulted in reduction of tumor growth.
 
 
 Researchers uncover seven risk genes for insomnia
 
Researchers uncover seven risk genes for insomniaAn international team of researchers has found, for the first time, seven risk genes for insomnia. With this finding the researchers have taken an important step towards the unraveling of the biological mechanisms that cause insomnia.
 
 
 UC scientists use artificial intelligence to accurately predict treatment outcomes for bipolar disorder
 
UC scientists use artificial intelligence to accurately predict treatment outcomes for bipolar disorderThe artificial intelligence that can blow human pilots out of the sky in air-to-air combat accurately predicted treatment outcomes for bipolar disorder, according to a new medical study by the University of Cincinnati.
 
 
 Researchers who study HED identify mechanism that may be disrupted in male pattern baldness
 
Researchers who study HED identify mechanism that may be disrupted in male pattern baldnessIt is almost axiomatic in medicine that the study of rare disorders informs the understanding of more common, widespread ailments.
 
 
 Researchers discover single microglial protein that regulates AD risk genes
 
Researchers discover single microglial protein that regulates AD risk genesGenetic studies have turned up numerous genes linked to Alzheimer's disease, but in most cases, researchers have no idea how the genes raise or lower risk.
 
 
 Study: Child's gut bacteria appears to be influenced by ethnicity and breastfeeding
 
Study: Child's gut bacteria appears to be influenced by ethnicity and breastfeedingThe bacteria in a child's gut appears to be influenced as early as its first year by ethnicity and breastfeeding, according to a new study from McMaster University.
 
 
 New monoclonal antibody shows efficacy in chronic migraine patients with medication overuse
 
New monoclonal antibody shows efficacy in chronic migraine patients with medication overuseA new human antibody may soon become available as a specific medication for preventing frequent migraine attacks.
 
 
 Partnership between CASIS and NCATS brings Organs-on-Chips research to orbiting laboratory
 
Partnership between CASIS and NCATS brings Organs-on-Chips research to orbiting laboratoryModels of human disease are beneficial for medical research, but have limitations in predicting the way a drug will behave within the human body using data from non-human models because of inherent differences between species.
 
 
 Study offers insight into earliest molecular steps that lead to organ rejection
 
Study offers insight into earliest molecular steps that lead to organ rejectionResearchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine and the University of Toronto have uncovered the first molecular steps that lead to immune system activation and eventual rejection of a transplanted organ.
 
 
 Researchers create new camera that can register fast processes in transparent specimens
 
Researchers create new camera that can register fast processes in transparent specimensResearchers from ITMO University have built a setup for recording holograms of tiny objects like living cells with a femtosecond speed. The new method allows one to reconstruct phase topography of a studied sample according to deformations that emerge in a laser pulse when it passes through the specimen.
 
 
 Researchers find new evidence that autoimmunity plays role in Parkinson's disease
 
Researchers find new evidence that autoimmunity plays role in Parkinson's diseaseResearchers have found the first direct evidence that autoimmunity- in which the immune system attacks the body's own tissues- plays a role in Parkinson's disease, the neurodegenerative movement disorder.
 
 
 UIC to open new center dedicated for stem cell and regenerative medicine
 
UIC to open new center dedicated for stem cell and regenerative medicineThe University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine will launch a new center that will focus on understanding tissue regeneration and pioneering future developments in stem cell biology as a means to repair diseased organs and tissues.