Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in wild and domestic lower vertebrates (cattle, sheep, goats, camels, antelopes, and other herbivores), but it can also occur in humans when they are exposed to infected animals or tissue from infected animals.
Anthrax is most common in agricultural regions where it occurs in animals. These include South and Central America, Southern and Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, the Caribbean, and the Middle East. When anthrax affects humans, it is usually due to an occupational exposure to infected animals or their products. Workers who are exposed to dead animals and animal products from other countries where anthrax is more common may become infected with B. anthracis (industrial anthrax). Anthrax outbreaks occur in the United States on an annual basis in livestock and wild game animals such as deer.
Anthrax infection can occur in three forms: cutaneous (skin), inhalation, and gastrointestinal. B. anthracis spores can live in the soil for many years, and humans can become infected with anthrax by handling products from infected animals or by inhaling anthrax spores from contaminated animal products. Anthrax can also be spread by eating undercooked meat from infected animals. It is rare to find infected animals in the United States.
Equipment that can ‘see’ anthrax inside envelopes or explosives in luggage by recognising the distinctive shape of their molecules will be developed by researchers in the newly-built terahertz lab at Leeds, England.
A new device, nicknamed "the anthrax smoke detector,' which relies on technology developed by JPL and Caltech scientists, may serve as a first line of defense against acts of bioterrorism.
In 2001, bioterrorist activities involving the U.S. Postal Service infected 22 individuals with Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), according to background information in the article. Six survivors had inhalational anthrax and 11 cutaneous anthrax disease. Little is known about potential long-term health effects of bioterrorism-related anthrax infection.
Scientists in Rochester and 11 other cities around the nation are beginning tests of an experimental vaccine aimed at protecting people against anthrax, a rare disease that, like smallpox, has become more threatening with the emergence of bioterrorism.
In the first successful study of its kind, scientists have shown that a DNA-based vaccine for smallpox can protect nonhuman primates from monkeypox, a disease that resembles smallpox in humans.
James Cook University microbiologists have characterised the DNA in bacteria responsible for one of the world's most common forms of food poisoning.
The 21st century is shaping up to be the "century of vaccines," as vaccine developers make striking progress against both emerging and longstanding diseases, according to Vaccines: Preventing Diseases and Protecting Health, from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
Researchers at the Center for Biomedical Inventions at UT Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas have identified the genetic changes that Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, undergoes during infection of a living host.
The mechanism used by the bacteria that cause anthrax, bubonic plague and typhoid fever to avoid detection and destruction by the body’s normal immune response, leading to life-threatening bacterial infections, has been identified by researchers at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine.