Chromosome News and Research

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In the nucleus of each cell, the DNA molecule is packaged into thread-like structures called chromosomes. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure.

Chromosomes are not visible in the cell’s nucleus—not even under a microscope—when the cell is not dividing. However, the DNA that makes up chromosomes becomes more tightly packed during cell division and is then visible under a microscope. Most of what researchers know about chromosomes was learned by observing chromosomes during cell division.

Each chromosome has a constriction point called the centromere, which divides the chromosome into two sections, or “arms.” The short arm of the chromosome is labeled the “p arm.” The long arm of the chromosome is labeled the “q arm.” The location of the centromere on each chromosome gives the chromosome its characteristic shape, and can be used to help describe the location of specific genes.
People born with short telomeres found to have short-lived immune system cells

People born with short telomeres found to have short-lived immune system cells

Study finds novel opportunity for treating subgroup of cancer patients with MSI-H tumors

Study finds novel opportunity for treating subgroup of cancer patients with MSI-H tumors

Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens

Research provides opportunities for biological control of insect-borne pathogens

Immune system errors linked to development of childhood leukemia

Immune system errors linked to development of childhood leukemia

Study: Female birds have longer, healthier lifespan when they have help raising offspring

Study: Female birds have longer, healthier lifespan when they have help raising offspring

Chemistry researchers patent new method for making anti-leukemia compounds

Chemistry researchers patent new method for making anti-leukemia compounds

MIT announces creation of the Alana Down Syndrome Center

MIT announces creation of the Alana Down Syndrome Center

Researchers determine factors that cause stress development in the human body

Researchers determine factors that cause stress development in the human body

Study sheds new light on early development of embryos

Study sheds new light on early development of embryos

Radiation after surgery in children with ependymoma nearly triples survival rate

Radiation after surgery in children with ependymoma nearly triples survival rate

Research on mosaic embryos gives new hope to people seeking infertility treatments

Research on mosaic embryos gives new hope to people seeking infertility treatments

Second-ever case of semi-identical (sesquizygotic) twins

Second-ever case of semi-identical (sesquizygotic) twins

Breakthrough chromosome imaging could aid in development of new treatments

Breakthrough chromosome imaging could aid in development of new treatments

Johns Hopkins researchers find genetic cause of olfactory neuroblastoma

Johns Hopkins researchers find genetic cause of olfactory neuroblastoma

Study finds specific mechanism that protects cells from natural DNA errors

Study finds specific mechanism that protects cells from natural DNA errors

Biologists uncover mechanism that determines faithful inheritance of short chromosomes

Biologists uncover mechanism that determines faithful inheritance of short chromosomes

New test could be a ‘game changer’ in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

New test could be a ‘game changer’ in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

'Chromosome scanner' that protects against cancer identified

'Chromosome scanner' that protects against cancer identified

New blood test detects genetic disorders in fetuses

New blood test detects genetic disorders in fetuses

Study finds new genetic clues associated with asthma in African ancestry populations

Study finds new genetic clues associated with asthma in African ancestry populations