Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 16, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 16 spans about 89 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents almost 3 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 16 likely contains between 850 and 1,200 genes.
Genes on chromosome 16 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation process of cytosolic materials and damaged organelles. Researchers at Ubiquitin Project of TMIMS have been studying the molecular mechanism of mitophagy, the selective autophagy process to eliminate damaged mitochondria.
Progressive vision loss, and eventually blindness, are the hallmarks of juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (JNCL) or CLN3-Batten disease.
Researchers at Yale University have identified genetic variants among people of white British ancestry that may increase the risk of dying from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – the illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
As COVID-19 continues to take a heavy toll on human health and life in many parts of the world, there is still no effective antiviral drug or vaccine. This has fueled an intensive search for small molecules and proteins that can inhibit viral entry and replication.
Nearly 10 years ago, a group of Israeli clinical researchers emailed Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) geneticist Len Pennacchio to ask for his team's help in solving the mystery of a rare inherited disease that caused extreme, and sometimes fatal, chronic diarrhea in children.
A team of WA researchers has uncovered new genes that could play an important role in the development of sarcoma, a group of rare bone, muscle and connective tissue cancers.
Whether an individual develops a neurodevelopmental disorder like autism or ADHD and the severity of that disorder depends on genetic changes beyond a single supposedly disease-causing mutation.
Genes located in a large chromosomal aberration associated with autism interact with each other to modulate the variable symptoms of the disease, according to new research.
In a new study of one of the most common genetic causes of autism, neuroscientists at MIT's Picower Institute for Learning and Memory have identified a specific molecular mechanism that appears to undermine the ability of neurons in affected mice to properly incorporate changes driven by experience.
Scientists have identified a pair of treatments that may restore brain function to autism patients who lack a gene critical to maintaining connections between neurons, according to a study from the Peter O'Donnell Jr. Brain Institute at UT Southwestern Medical Center.
For the first time, Whitehead Institute scientists have documented a direct link between deletions in two genes--fam57ba and doc2a--in zebrafish and certain brain and body traits, such as seizures, hyperactivity, enlarged head size, and obesity.
In rare cases -- for instance, among siblings in two families from Pakistan and Oman described in a new study -- children have been born with an unnamed neurological disorder.
A new study in Biological Psychiatry reports that variations in 16p11.2, a region of the genome associated with risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), have distinct effects on cognition. The findings highlight the diversity of people with ASD.
Research led by investigators in veterinary and human medicine has identified genetic pathways that exacerbate severity of canine compulsive disorder in Doberman pinschers, a discovery that could lead to better therapies for obsessive compulsive disorder in people.
Resistance to CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, a type of immunotherapy that yields long-lasting remissions in many patients with B-cell leukemia, can be caused by CD19 splicing alterations, leading to loss of certain parts of the CD19 protein that are recognized by the CAR T cells.
A new study of more than 25,000 men has uncovered four new genetic variants associated with increased risk of testicular cancer.
Researchers in the University of Georgia's Regenerative Bioscience Center are visually capturing the first process of chromosome alignment and separation at the beginning of mouse development. The findings could lead to answers to questions concerning the mechanisms leading to birth defects and chromosome instability in cancer cells.
A novel molecule designed by scientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and the University of Virginia inhibits progression of a hard-to-treat form of recurring acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in patient tissue.
Genomics researchers analyzing a rare, serious immunodeficiency disease in children have discovered links to a gene crucial to the body's defense against infections. The finding may represent an inviting target for drugs to treat common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).
Children born with a DNA abnormality on chromosome 16 already linked to neurodevelopmental problems show measurable delays in processing sound and language, says a study team of radiologists and psychologists.