Humans normally have 46 chromosomes in each cell, divided into 23 pairs. Two copies of chromosome 19, one copy inherited from each parent, form one of the pairs. Chromosome 19 spans about 64 million base pairs (the building blocks of DNA) and represents more than 2 percent of the total DNA in cells.
Identifying genes on each chromosome is an active area of genetic research. Because researchers use different approaches to predict the number of genes on each chromosome, the estimated number of genes varies. Chromosome 19 likely contains between 1,300 and 1,700 genes.
Genes on chromosome 19 are among the estimated 20,000 to 25,000 total genes in the human genome.
Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have identified a biomarker living next door to the KLK3 gene that can predict which GS7 prostate cancer patients will have a more aggressive form of cancer.
A study of older adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease shows that moderate physical activity may protect brain health and stave off shrinkage of the hippocampus- the brain region responsible for memory and spatial orientation that is attacked first in Alzheimer's disease.
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a previously unrecognized tactic to outwit antiviral responses and sustain a long-term infection. It also turns out that some people are genetically equipped with a strong countermeasure to the virus' attempt to weaken the attack on it.
Embryonal tumours with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) are rare, deadly brain tumours that affect mainly children below the age of 4 years. There are 300 cases reported but probably there are many more as this tumour is often misdiagnosed.
National Paracycling Champion Tom Staniford has an extremely rare condition which, until now, has puzzled his doctors. He is unable to store fat under his skin - yet has type 2 diabetes - and suffered hearing loss as a child. Now, thanks to advances in genome sequencing, an international research team led by the University of Exeter Medical School has identified Tom's condition and pinpointed the single genetic mutation that causes it.
Scientists at deCODE Genetics and academic collaborators from Iceland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands and the USA report the discovery of low frequency variants in the human genome that associate with risk of gout, a common inflammatory arthritis, and serum uric acid levels.
The future of regenerative medicine lies in harnessing the potential of the human body to renew and repair itself. Now, scientists at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN), the world's first bioengineering and nanotechnology research institute, have developed a new genetic engineering technique that promises safer stem cell therapy for cancer patients. Using an insect virus, the team of researchers successfully inserted a therapeutic gene into a safe site in the DNA of human embryonic stem cells without compromising the functionality of the engineered cells.
In a new study scientists have found that particular genetic variations are linked to early menopause before the age of 45. They compared the DNA of more than 2,000 women who had experienced early menopause with that of women who had menopause later than 45 years.
An international consortium of scientists has discovered new genetic variants in five regions of the genome that affect the risk of ovarian cancer in the general population, according to two separate studies published today (Sunday), online in Nature Genetics.
Although genome-wide analysis identified two genetic variations associated with Alzheimer disease, these variations did not improve the ability to predict the risk of AD, according to a study in the May 12 issue of JAMA.
Sigma® Life Science, the innovative biological products and services brand of Sigma-Aldrich®, today announced an extension to its award-winning CompoZr® product offering with the global release of the CompoZr Targeted Integration Kit, AAVS1. This kit provides a powerful method for the controlled transgene integration and expression of any gene in any human cell line using Sigma-Aldrich's proprietary CompoZr Zinc Finger Nuclease (ZFN) technology.
Pediatric oncologists have identified specific genes, dubbed partner genes, that fuse with another gene to drive an often-fatal form of leukemia in infants. By more accurately defining specific partner genes, researchers expect to better predict which infants may benefit from particular treatments.
Leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders are serious and often deadly blood cancers. Research presented today at the 51st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology introduces potential new treatment options and improved diagnostic methods for patients suffering from acute promyelocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and myelofibrosis that are based on a better understanding of the underlying genetic causes of these conditions.
A compound already used to treat pneumonia could become a new therapy for an inherited muscular wasting disease, according to researchers at the University of Oregon and the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry in New York.
Researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center uncovered a genetic pattern that may help predict how gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients respond to the targeted therapy imatinib mesylate (Gleevec). Moreover, their findings point to genes that could be suppressed in order to make these tumors respond more readily to imatinib.
Researchers at Fox Chase Cancer Center uncovered a genetic pattern that may help predict how gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) patients respond to the targeted therapy imatinib mesylate (Gleevec).
Using a drug-discovery technique in which molecules compete against each other for access to the target - the strand of toxic RNA that causes the most common form of muscular dystrophy in adults - a team at the University of Rochester Medical Center has identified several compounds that, in the laboratory, block the unwanted coupling of two molecules that is at the root of the disease.
Researchers have discovered the second, strong genetic risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, according to a new report in the June 27th issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication.
Motor neuron disease is a rare, devastating illness in which nerve cells that carry brain signals to muscles gradually deteriorate.
Using new techniques for rapidly scanning the human genome, researchers have associated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, two fats in the blood, to 18 genetic variants, six of which represent new DNA regions never before associated with the traits.