Embryonic development or embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo is formed and develops. It starts with the fertilization of the ovum, egg, which, after fertilization, is then called a zygote. The zygote undergoes rapid mitotic divisions, the formation of two exact genetic replicates of the original cell, with no significant growth (a process known as cleavage) and cellular differentiation, leading to development of an embryo.
Sand crabs, a key species in beach ecosystems, were found to have increased adult mortality and decreased reproductive success when exposed to plastic microfibers, according to a new Portland State University study.
Cancer-promoting genes MYC and TWIST1 co-opt immune system cells to enable cancer cells to spread, but blocking a key step in this process can help prevent the disease from developing.
Researchers at Harvard Medical School and the New York State Department of Health have discovered how a common plasticizer associated with human reproductive abnormalities likely does its damage at the molecular level.
More than 20 years ago, the lab of developmental biologist Olivier Pourquié discovered a sort of cellular clock in chicken embryos where each "tick" stimulates the formation of a structure called a somite that ultimately becomes a vertebra.
A new study published 9th January in PLOS Genetics by Mónica Colaiácovo of Harvard Medical School and colleagues reports that the most commonly used plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate, leads to fertility problems by causing an excess number of breaks in the DNA during egg production, and then interfering with the repair systems that fixes the breaks.
Scientists from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore, and the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)'s Genome Institute of Singapore have discovered four potential drug compounds that target hepatocellular carcinoma, the most common type of liver cancer.
Scientists at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC) have identified the molecular mechanisms that allow our cells to adapt to, protect themselves against, and survive mechanical stress.
Have you ever wandered through your garden or a meadow on a summer day and wondered why and how butterflies exhibit such beautiful and diverse colors? Scientists have, especially when thinking about butterflies in the genus Colias. In most Colias butterflies, all males and most females are an orange or yellow color, but some females are white.
Glycine receptors are one of the most widely distributed inhibitory receptors in the central nervous system and have important roles in a variety of physiological processes.
One out of eight couples has trouble conceiving, with nearly a quarter of those cases caused by unexplained male infertility. For the past decade, research has linked that infertility to defective sperm that fail to "evict" proteins called histones from DNA during development.
Using a new mouse model, Penn Medicine researchers have identified defects in the sperm epigenome that cause male infertility.
Researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine and Harvard Medical School have found a novel mechanism to explain the resistance of certain breast cancers that spread in the major organs of the body. They hope that this would help develop new therapeutic strategies to treat the cancer.
A specialized system of ducts transports bile and enzymes from the liver and pancreas to the intestine. In a new study, researchers from the University of Copenhagen have shown how this ductal system is formed. The new knowledge can help understanding how congenital diseases in that part of the body arise.
Scientists at the University of Würzburg have successfully produced human tissues from stem cells. They have a complexity similar to that of normal tissue and are far superior to previous structures.
In Brazil, scientists affiliated with the Human Genome and Stem Cell Research Center (HUG-CELL) at the University of São Paulo (USP) have identified a molecule capable of reducing the aggressiveness of embryonal central nervous system tumors.
Can scrambled eggs unscramble themselves? Well, sort of.
Researchers report they have developed a new technique that uses light to control the lifetime of a protein inside the cell. This method will allow scientists to better observe how specific proteins contribute to health, development and disease.
Some deadly skin cancers may originate in the pigment-making stem cells in hair follicles rather than in skin.
Little is known about the molecular and cellular events that occur during early embryonic development in primate species.
During embryonic development, nerve cells form thin, long extensions, which they use to wire up a complex network, the brain. Scientists from the German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases in Bonn have now identified a protein that regulates the growth of these extensions by pulling a brake.