Tryptophan is one of the 20 standard amino acids, as well as an essential amino acid in the human diet.
An analysis of small molecules called "metabolites" in a blood sample may be used to determine whether a person is following a prescribed diet, scientists at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have shown.
There's more than one type of fat cell. Besides the white fat that stores triglycerides in lipid droplets in preparation for lean times later, mammals also have heat-generating brown fat, which acts more like a radiator than a storage closet.
Researchers at Tufts University have elucidated a mechanism by which the "good" bacteria that reside in our gastrointestinal tract can help protect us from inflammation, and how their disruption (dysbiosis) can increase the susceptibility of the liver to more harmful forms of disease.
This news article describes a recent study which showed that learning and memory skills could be enhanced by adding prebiotics to piglet feed.
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute have peered deep into the heart of a key protein used in drug design and discovered dynamic structural features that may lead to new ways to target diseases.
Patients diagnosed with the most common form of leukemia who also have high levels of an enzyme known to suppress the immune system are most likely to die early, researchers say.
Researchers have found a link between dysregulated tryptophan metabolism and abdominal aortic aneurysm, a life-threatening vascular disease, according to a new study led by Georgia State University.
Montmorency tart cherry juice was found to help extend sleep time by 84 minutes among eight study participants, ages 50 and older who suffer from insomnia, according to a new pilot study published in American Journal of Therapeutics.
A faculty member in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences has received a $7.3 million grant for innovative research on a cellular protein that could be a target for enhancing immune function in response to a variety of diseases and environmental toxins.
Mutations in the human genome may be responsible for many diseases. In the case of Parkinson's disease (PD), five locations have been the subject of recent attention. Variants of one of these locations, ACMSD (aminocarboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase), may be implicated in PD, but until now, no mutations in ACMSD have been found in any PD patients.
Immune cells patrol the gut to ensure that harmful microbes hidden in the food we eat don't sneak into the body. Cells that are capable of triggering inflammation are balanced by cells that promote tolerance, protecting the body without damaging sensitive tissues.
In one of the largest studies to date to use metabolomics, the study of compounds that are created through various chemical reactions in the body, researchers have been able to identify new circulating compounds associated with the risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Five years of hard work and a little "cosmic luck" led Rice University researchers to a new method to obtain structural details on molecules in biomembranes.
A new study by University of Maryland School of Medicine researchers has found that in mice, adjusting levels of a compound called kynurenic acid can have significant effects on schizophrenia-like behavior. The study appeared in the latest issue of the journal Biological Psychiatry.
Part of the reason tuberculosis-causing bacteria are so good at colonizing the human body is that they have defenses against the body's immune system.
Scientists from the Lomonosov Moscow State University in cooperation with colleagues have worked out a safe, not that expensive and highly efficient method, which allows to speed up and improve searching of new germicides.
Biochemists from Trinity College Dublin have solved an old mystery as to the cause of especially smelly camel urine, with implications for the millions of people affected by African parasites called trypanosomes.
Infants whose mothers had a higher level of a particular type of vitamin B during pregnancy have a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months, new Southampton research has shown.
A Japanese research group has determined the crystal structure of the JUNO protein, an egg surface protein essential for fertilization. These structure-based mutational analyses elucidated a mechanism of the interaction between egg (JUNO protein) and sperm (IZUMO1) on a molecular level.
It has a funny name - coxsackievirus - but there's nothing funny about how this tiny germ and its close relatives sicken their hosts.