CTLA-4 Molecule Information
Name：Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Associated Antigen 4
Target Synonym：CTLA4?CD_antigen=CD152?CD152?Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4?Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4?CTLA-4
Number of Launched Drugs：1
Number of Drugs in Clinical Trials：22
Lastest Research Phase：Approved
CTLA-4 Molecule Synonym Name
CTLA-4 Molecule Background
CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) is also known as CD152 (Cluster of differentiation 152), is a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system. CTLA4 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which is expressed on the surface of Helper T cells and transmits an inhibitory signal to T cells.
The protein contains an extracellular V domain, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail. Alternate splice variants, encoding different isoforms. CTLA4 is similar to the T-cell co-stimulatory protein, CD28, and both molecules bind to CD80 and CD86, also called B7-1 and B7-2 respectively, on antigen-presenting cells.
CTLA4 transmits an inhibitory signal to T cells, whereas CD28 transmits a stimulatory signal. Intracellular CTLA4 is also found in regulatory T cells and may be important to their function. T cell activation through the T cell receptor and CD28 leads to increased expression of CTLA-4, an inhibitory receptor for B7 molecules. Fusion proteins of CTLA4 and antibodies (CTLA4-Ig) have been used in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis.