Causas da disforia do género

A disforia do género significa geralmente uma dificuldade na identificação com o sexo biológico em um indivíduo.

As causas da disforia do género não são inteiramente claras.

Causas psiquiátricas e biológicas

Era tradicional provavelmente uma condição psiquiátrica que significa uma doença mental. Agora está provado que a doença não pode ter origens no cérebro apenas.

Os estudos sugerem que a disforia do género possa ter as causas biológicas associadas com a revelação da identidade do género antes do nascimento.

Mais pesquisa é necessário antes que as causas da disforia do género possam inteiramente ser compreendidas.

Causas genéticas do sexo biológico

A pesquisa sugere que essa revelação que determina o sexo biológico aconteça no ventre da matriz.

O sexo anatômico é determinado pelos cromossomas que contêm os genes e o ADN.

Cada indivíduo tem dois cromossomas de sexo. Um dos cromossomas é do pai e do outro da matriz.

Um homem normal tem um X e um cromossoma de sexo de Y e uma mulher normal têm dois cromossomas de X.

Vê-se que durante a gravidez adiantada, todos os bebês por nascer são fêmeas porque somente o cromossoma de sexo fêmea (ou o cromossoma de X) que é herdado da matriz que é activo.

Após a oitava semana da gravidez, o cromossoma do pai (um X para uma fêmea e de um Y para o homem), ganhos na actividade.

Se a contribuição do pai é o cromossoma de X o bebê continua a tornar-se como a fêmea com um impulso de hormonas fêmeas.

Isto ajuda a desenvolver seus órgãos de sexo fêmea, os órgãos reprodutivos e as características. Isto faz sua fêmea do sexo e do género.

Se o cromossoma herdado do pai é um Y há um impulso da testosterona e de outras hormonas masculinas que conduzem à revelação das características masculinas, tais como os testículos.

Isto faz o homem do sexo e do género do bebê. (1)

Causas de diferenças de género

Há diversas causas potenciais diferentes de diferenças de género, estas inclui as mudanças hormonais, exposição às drogas estrogenic e assim por diante. (1-4)

Causas hormonais

As hormonas que provocam a revelação do sexo e do género no ventre não podem funcionar adequadamente.

Por exemplo, o sexo anatômico dos genitais pode ser masculino, quando a identidade do género que vem do cérebro poderia ser fêmea.

Isto pode resultar das hormonas fêmeas adicionais do sistema da matriz ou pela insensibilidade do feto às hormonas.

A última condição é chamada síndrome da insensibilidade do andrógeno (AIS).

Exposição à progesterona ou a outras drogas estrogenic

Embora não haja nenhuma pesquisa que mostra esse os homens ou as fêmeas expor à progesterona no ventre ou em outras drogas estrogenic, tais como o diethylstilbestrol (DES) pode ter um risco levantado de disforia do género; pode haver uma associação em alguns aspectos atípicos do comportamento do papel do género.

Circunstâncias raras que podem conduzir à disforia do género

Pode haver umas condições raras como a hiperplasia ad-renal congenital (CAH), e o intersex condiciona (igualmente sabido como o hermafroditismo) que pode igualmente conduzir à disforia do género.

Em CAH um feto fêmea tem as glândulas ad-renais (capitalizações pequenas das glândulas sobre os rins) esse nível elevado do produto das hormonas masculinas. Isto amplia os genitais fêmeas e o bebê fêmea pode ser confundido com um homem no nascimento.

Os bebês médios das condições de Intersex podem ser carregados com os genitais de ambos os sexos. Está permitida nesses casos à criança crescer e escolher seus próprios antes que toda a cirurgia esteja realizada para o confirmar.

Outras causas da disforia do género

  • Pode haver as anomalias cromossomáticas que podem conduzir à disforia do género.
  • Às vezes os defeitos na elevação humana normal da ligação e da criança podem contribuir o factor às desordens da identidade do género.

Fontes:

  1. http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Gender-dysphoria/Pages/Causes.aspx
  2. http://www.webmd.com/sex/gender-identity-disorder
  3. http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/001527.htm
  4. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/293890-overview#showall

Further Reading

Last Updated: May 31, 2019

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.

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Comments

  1. Libby Ratten Libby Ratten Australia says:

    Compassion & understanding

  2. Pamela Grant-Stickney Pamela Grant-Stickney United States says:

    There is no evidence of GID starting in the womb, areas affected by sex hormones such as BSTc don't become different in men and women until adulthood. Intersex conditions can happen at birth, but GID cannot happen in the womb, I was told this by a endocrinologist who is a specialist in GID and intersex conditions with 30yrs experience to back it up.

    • Junie Aiko Junie Aiko Australia says:

      We don't know enough about the brain to make definite statements, except to say that at the moment, substantial evidence is absent, etc. If GID can only happen in adulthood, that doesn't add up with evidence considering how most transsexual people identified with their brain-gender well before adulthood.

    • Kit Slagle Kit Slagle United States says:

      Since my earliest memories I felt something was wrong. I felt like a freak from my childhood to an adult. I had to fake things that did not feel natural to me so I could blend in the best I could. You spend most of your life acting a part and otherwise I felt like I would not be accepted by my peers or my family. And you spend so much time acting and putting up walls that you forget why your doing it or who you are. I looked back on my life and I had many memories but in many ways it all felt like a fog. Even though I remember everything it felt like I was living some one ells's life. I could not make sense of why I felt that way. Back in 2013 my Dad past away and the walls I had put up started falling. Many memories I had stuffed away started coming back in a rush and realized why I spent so many years in depression and feeling miserable. At this point many would think I would go off and get HRT and get surgery, but no. I am one of the few that has elected not to because I can't stand the thought of losing everyone I love. And there are other reasons but many would not understand those. The reason why I commented is because its not something that comes about when you are an adult, you suffer from it your whole life. And I hate it when people that do not understand what a person like I and others like me go through talk about it as though they were an authority on my life. I have lived it, you have not and so can not begin to talk about what you do not know. I am not trying to be an ass but you have no idea what me and others have gone through our whole lives(not just adulthood). It is miserable existence, acting out a life that is not you at all. You realize that no one you know truly knows you but only the part you play. Like I said I love my family and even though they don't know me I know enough about them that I want to keep them in my life so I am one of the few that has chosen to remain silent, but your not family so I have no problem telling you.

      • Ven Vara Ven Vara Oman says:

        when i was  in young age i didnt know what to do . Then i started to act of course unsuccessfully . Still today now i am 50 years old no marriage or no friends still suffering in loneliness depression

      • Ven Vara Ven Vara Oman says:

        I feel guilty that i never was a good son to my mother more of rebellious . two times i run away from my family . My mother could not help me for this problem  but she loved me . Now i cry everyday that I was not a good son for her

      • Patricia Schaefer Patricia Schaefer United States says:

        Kit,

        Even though your comment was posted a long time ago, I felt I had to respond. i'm very moved by what you have written. I recently started a relationship with a MTF transgender person.  She is a wonderful, smart, kind and beautiful person and she gave up quite a bit later in life to transition.  She lost a career in finance, and moved locations, but in the end, it was worth it to her to save her life.  I can't claim to know or really fully understand her transition.  But I admit that, and do the best I can to love and support her, even if at times I wonder at this complex thing we both grapple.  My point is that there is hope, and a loving full relationship, both emotional and sexual, with someone who loves you is not a dream. It is not impossible.  I have never felt closer to anyone than I do her and I admire her courage.  I  truly hope you find love and happiness, and the intimate joy of being known by another. You have my best. Thank you for your insightful comments.

    • Lee Kidd Lee Kidd United States says:

      Most transgender children know their true gender by age two, according to my doctors and multiple documentaries I've seen. I knew by at least age 5 and it was a huge issue for me my entire life, especially during grade school through high school. It has caused numerous health problems in my adult life because I didn't have the support and correct info. that I needed. The American Psychiatric Association no longer considers being transgender or transexual a mental disorder or illness.

    • Steven Stone Steven Stone United States says:

      Another Christian bigot promoting faux science by the other Chrisitan bigot named "Dr McHugh" who has been discredited by all medical and psychological consensus? I find it fascinating how trolls so suspiciously interested in this subject seem to crawl their way to every legitimate scientific journal/research in order to disseminate false information on the subject.
      Seek help from a qualified psychologist because your well known behavior is pathological

      • Todd Reinerio Todd Reinerio United States says:

        When one uses terms like "Chrisitan bigot" (which you misspelled), "trolls" and other such terms, you reveal your own inner hate and bigotry. The average person could give two craps until there becomes such time as to be forced to endure the constant barrage of 'you have to accept me" or "you have to like it" or, much like you just did, ad hom attacks they are forced to choose a stance. Considering that less than 1% of the total population has this condition, it should have special rights considerations since as most state, actual cause is unknown.

        • Lilly Faye Crowson Lilly Faye Crowson United States says:

          Since I am a Christian I will not use "such terms". But you cannot speak about what you don't know about. When you have walked a mile in my shoes, then you may comment on how I feel.
          Blessings and peace...

      • Linda White Linda White United States says:

        Not a mental disease

  3. Junie Aiko Junie Aiko Australia says:

    From what I've gathered, the genitalia is “decided” on the first 9 weeks of pregnancy, while the brain only starts developing after about the 9th weeks. By default, w/o testosterone all fetuses starts off as a “female”. For a male baby, any hormonal changes or imbalance may disrupt the brain to develop properly into "male" even if the genitalia has already been formed completely into male (and if the genitalia development is disrupted, this results in intersex characteristic too). And thus, the physically-male baby is born with a mental map of its physical body (akin to how some amputees may experience “phantom limbs” perhaps?), psychology and emotion of a female with a physical body of a male from since they were young. If this is true, a similar mechanism would also exist for FTM Transsexual men, but this may also perhaps explains why there are more MTF Transsexuals than FTM Transsexuals. No doubt what I've proposed isn't proven, but it is palpable IMO -- considering our understanding of how babies are developing in the mother's womb (that is, if I am not mistaken).

    Philosophically speaking, the mind dictates “who we are” and not our body. Transsexualism is an inter-sex condition of a brain, and the lack of immediate physical sign does not discount the horrible suffering these individuals experienced with their physical birth defects.

  4. Jodiee Hart Jodiee Hart United Kingdom says:

    It's not a disease. It's not catchable!

    • madcapper6 . madcapper6 . United States says:

      Catchable you mean as in, contagious?  Lou Gehrig's disease or MS isn't "catchable" neither but they are still diseases.

    • Rachael Claiborne Rachael Claiborne United States says:

      The main point of replacing "gender identity disorder" with gender dysphoria in the DSM-5 was to end the very type of stigma expressed in your comment. Nowhere in the DSM-5 does is say that gender nonconformity is a disease or mental illness. Gender dysphoria refers to the significant stress caused by the discrepancy between one's gender assigned at birth and the gender to which that person identifies. When the level of stress is significant enough to impair normal social and emotional functioning, a diagnosis of gender dysphoria is suitable. Science has yet to produce definitive evidence as to the cause (if any exist) so to declare GD as a choice is pure conjecture and should be dismissed as such.

  5. Ven Vara Ven Vara Oman says:

    I have question . Does pregnant lady's thinking about baby's sex has impact on GID ? My mother expected to get a girl baby . I am transgender silent transgender

    • Dianne Colbert Dianne Colbert Australia says:

      I have heard of children who have gender dysphoria as a result of parents saying "I wish you were a (opposite sex)."  Things that happen while in the parents womb can impact a child - so if your mum talked to you as a girl etc it is possible that this caused gender dysphoria.

  6. Elisa Brogan Elisa Brogan Australia says:

    interested. would like to know if carrying twins ( separate sacs), one male,one female affects the surviving Female twin's gender. My daughter is the surviving twin, lost the male twin close to 12 weeks of pregnancy. She has been undergoing traits of gender dysphoria since the start of early puberty. Curious to whether that relates to the male twin ( hormones,chromosomes, etc)

  7. Dianne Colbert Dianne Colbert Australia says:

    There is no scientific evidence for gender ideology.  Feelings are not facts.  One of the 10 common thinking distortions that causes mental distress is "mistaking feelings for facts."  A lot of evidence shows that there are psychological causes for gender dysphoria - you can't treat a psychological problem with a physical solution.  Imagine if people who have panic attacks - they really FEEL like they are having a heart attack - were given heart surgery.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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