Cronologia del fentanil

Il fentanil in primo luogo è stato preparato e sviluppato stato dal Dott. Paul Janssen nel 1959 nell'ambito di un brevetto tenuto dalla sua società Janssen Pharmaceutica.

Come analgesico potente che è quasi morfina di tempi del hundrend una più forte poi, l'uso di fentanil come un analgesico e un anestetico sono stati adottati rapidamente nella regolazione medica. Negli anni 60, l'agente è stato presentato come anestetico endovenoso nell'ambito della marca Sublimaze.

A seguito della popolarità di Sublimaze, gli analoghi di fentanil sono stati sviluppati e Sufentanil, Alfentanil, Lofentanil e Remifentanil inclusi.

Da ora alla metà del 1990 la s la toppa del fentanil è stata sviluppata, in grado di consegnare la droga ad un paziente transdermally. La toppa di Duragesic ha potuto essere indossata sull'interfaccia ed era utile nella gestione di dolore cronico ritenuta dai pazienti con cancro, per esempio. La toppa è stata fatta di un gel inerte dell'alcool infuso con le dosi predeterminate di fentanil. La droga è rilasciata dalla toppa nei grassi corporei, dove entra lentamente nella circolazione sanguigna oltre i due o tre giorni, quindi dalla fornitura del sollievo di dolore a lungo termine. Le toppe di Duragesic hanno subito parecchi test clinici, dopo di che sono state presentate e diffuso state nella pratica clinica.

Dopo, altre unità della consegna sono sviluppato state con gli esempi compreso le compresse orali di Fentora e la lecca-lecca di Actiq. Questi preparati orali hanno contenuto il citrato del fentanil misto con i riporti. Actiq ha fornito il sollievo rapido agente di dolore dell'innovazione nelle vittime a lungo termine di dolore. Ulteriori prodotti del fentanil hanno incluso una losanga effervescente e uno spruzzo orale. Malgrado i vari modi differenti di consegna che sono stati introdotti, le toppe transcutanee dell'interfaccia rimangono il modulo più ampiamente usato della consegna del fentanil.

Più recentemente, un altro prodotto del fentanil che è stato approvato dal food and drug administration degli Stati Uniti (FDA) per dolore dell'innovazione è Onsolis. Qui, una pellicola solubile di fentanil su un disco può essere collocata nella bocca ed essere assorbita, che evita la possibilità di inalazione o di schiacciare.

Sorgenti

  1. http://rcp.nshealth.ca/sites/default/files/clinical-practice-guidelines/fentanyl.pdf
  2. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM162427.pdf
  3. http://www.nps.org.au/publications/health-professional/nps-radar/2006/august-2006/fentanyl-patches
  4. http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/datasheet/f/Fentanylinj.pdf

Further Reading

Last Updated: Feb 26, 2019

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.

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Comments

  1. Sherri Macdonald Sherri Macdonald Canada says:

    Congradulations on creating the drug that's now the most highly abused and killing thousands.   Was it worth it.

    • Chuck Winter Chuck Winter Belgium says:

      As of the 1960’s fentanyl has been essential in hospital settings in surgeries: it helped many patients survive, providing comfort. Even now, in the newer formulations, it helps terminal patients and chronic pain patients. It is a strong opioid, never meant to become available on the market, it has always been strongly regulated. However, criminals will be criminals... And China is infamous for illegally copying and producing anything for profit, without the least consideration for patents. The pirate economy and black market generates billions of dollars, untouched by Trump’s tariffs...

      • Russell Barton Russell Barton United States says:

        Into the hands of those that use unregulated opioids that are sold on the street in which our government can’t control, and never will,  and it’s our sister’s and brother’s, fathers and mother’s, innocent people who are dying by the hundreds of thousands every year, and are the real victims of the war on drugs, which our government has inflicted on its own people. It may not be known to most, but there has been a history of political agendas that deliberately let people who are physically dependent on opioids such as heroin, die, as if they were the real enemy of the war on drugs, As an example, and fact, the F.B.I. had tampered with illegal alcohol distribution lines during the alcohol prohibition during the 1920’s, by adding deadly chemical compounds to alcohol so people would get sick, go blind, and even die from drinking it. Just so that society would once and for all, demonize alcohol, and past political big shots think that by imprisoning street dealers and users alike will fix the problem! It’s the governments order for society to demonize something that they don’t like, but at the start, it wasn’t government that wanted narcotics outlawed, and there wasn’t any kind of social movements against narcotics. It was greed that started this prohibition movement, with the passing of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914; one year after the federal government passed an income tax with the 16th amendment, which by all means was unconstitutional. Illegal or controlled narcotics are a big business for our government, as long as these highly addictive substances remain illegal. The government controls its own monopoly, and gets paid handsomely with corporate taxes paid by the pharmaceutical companies, and the more money these drug companies make, the more money the government pockets. So now you may know why drug prices are so outrageously high. These companies also receives hundreds of millions of dollars by the government for drug research and development. So there shouldn’t be any excuse for these drug companies to impose high drug prices. Did you know there is over 65 synthetic opioids? Drugs like heroin but are hundreds even thousands of times poor potent. Before there was narcotic prohibition, there was never a real social problem with drugs, and crimes that are usually associated with drug addiction today, like theft, robbery, burglary, was non-existent then. It was actually the law that created the crime in this instance. Most of Americans that are found dead from an apparent heroin over-doses, were actually deaths caused from fentanyl that was added to the heroin without the users knowledge.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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