História do Fentanyl

O Fentanyl primeiramente foi preparado e desenvolvido pelo Dr. Paul Janssen em 1959 sob uma patente guardarada por sua empresa Janssen Pharmaceutica.

Como um analgésico poderoso que seja quase uma morfina mais forte dos tempos do hundrend então, o uso do fentanyl como um apaziguador e um anestésico de dor foram adotados rapidamente no ajuste médico. Nos anos 60, o agente foi introduzido como um anestésico intravenoso sob a marca Sublimaze.

Depois da popularidade de Sublimaze, os analogues do fentanyl foram desenvolvidos e Sufentanil, Alfentanil, Lofentanil e Remifentanil incluídos.

Em meados de 1990 s a correcção de programa do fentanyl foi desenvolvido, que poderia entregar a droga a um paciente transdermally. A correcção de programa de Duragesic podia ser vestida na pele e era útil na gestão da dor crônica sentida por pacientes com cancro, por exemplo. A correcção de programa foi feita de um gel inerte do álcool infundido com as doses predeterminadas do fentanyl. A droga é liberada pela correcção de programa nas gorduras corporais, onde se move lentamente na circulação sanguínea sobre dois ou três dias, conseqüentemente de fornecer o alívio das dores a longo prazo. As correcções de programa de Duragesic submeteram-se a diversos ensaios clínicos, depois do qual foram introduzidas e popularizadas na prática clínica.

Em seguida, outros dispositivos da entrega foram desenvolvidos com os exemplos que incluem as tabuletas orais de Fentora e o pirulito de Actiq. Estas preparações orais contiveram o citrato do fentanyl misturado com os enchimentos. Actiq forneceu o relevo deactuação da dor da descoberta em sofredores a longo prazo da dor. Uns produtos mais adicionais do fentanyl incluíram uma pastilha efervescente e um pulverizador oral. Apesar dos vários modos diferentes de entrega que foram introduzidos, as correcções de programa transdermal da pele permanecem o formulário o mais amplamente utilizado da entrega do fentanyl.

Mais recentemente, um outro produto do fentanyl que seja aprovado pela Agência de Medicamentos e Alimentos dos E.U. (FDA) para a dor da descoberta é Onsolis. Aqui, um filme solúvel do fentanyl em um disco pode ser colocado na boca e ser absorvido, que evita a possibilidade de inalação ou de esmagamento.

Fontes

  1. http://rcp.nshealth.ca/sites/default/files/clinical-practice-guidelines/fentanyl.pdf
  2. http://www.fda.gov/downloads/Drugs/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/Guidances/UCM162427.pdf
  3. http://www.nps.org.au/publications/health-professional/nps-radar/2006/august-2006/fentanyl-patches
  4. http://www.medsafe.govt.nz/profs/datasheet/f/Fentanylinj.pdf

Further Reading

Last Updated: Feb 26, 2019

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.

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Comments

  1. Sherri Macdonald Sherri Macdonald Canada says:

    Congradulations on creating the drug that's now the most highly abused and killing thousands.   Was it worth it.

    • Chuck Winter Chuck Winter Belgium says:

      As of the 1960’s fentanyl has been essential in hospital settings in surgeries: it helped many patients survive, providing comfort. Even now, in the newer formulations, it helps terminal patients and chronic pain patients. It is a strong opioid, never meant to become available on the market, it has always been strongly regulated. However, criminals will be criminals... And China is infamous for illegally copying and producing anything for profit, without the least consideration for patents. The pirate economy and black market generates billions of dollars, untouched by Trump’s tariffs...

      • Russell Barton Russell Barton United States says:

        Into the hands of those that use unregulated opioids that are sold on the street in which our government can’t control, and never will,  and it’s our sister’s and brother’s, fathers and mother’s, innocent people who are dying by the hundreds of thousands every year, and are the real victims of the war on drugs, which our government has inflicted on its own people. It may not be known to most, but there has been a history of political agendas that deliberately let people who are physically dependent on opioids such as heroin, die, as if they were the real enemy of the war on drugs, As an example, and fact, the F.B.I. had tampered with illegal alcohol distribution lines during the alcohol prohibition during the 1920’s, by adding deadly chemical compounds to alcohol so people would get sick, go blind, and even die from drinking it. Just so that society would once and for all, demonize alcohol, and past political big shots think that by imprisoning street dealers and users alike will fix the problem! It’s the governments order for society to demonize something that they don’t like, but at the start, it wasn’t government that wanted narcotics outlawed, and there wasn’t any kind of social movements against narcotics. It was greed that started this prohibition movement, with the passing of the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act of 1914; one year after the federal government passed an income tax with the 16th amendment, which by all means was unconstitutional. Illegal or controlled narcotics are a big business for our government, as long as these highly addictive substances remain illegal. The government controls its own monopoly, and gets paid handsomely with corporate taxes paid by the pharmaceutical companies, and the more money these drug companies make, the more money the government pockets. So now you may know why drug prices are so outrageously high. These companies also receives hundreds of millions of dollars by the government for drug research and development. So there shouldn’t be any excuse for these drug companies to impose high drug prices. Did you know there is over 65 synthetic opioids? Drugs like heroin but are hundreds even thousands of times poor potent. Before there was narcotic prohibition, there was never a real social problem with drugs, and crimes that are usually associated with drug addiction today, like theft, robbery, burglary, was non-existent then. It was actually the law that created the crime in this instance. Most of Americans that are found dead from an apparent heroin over-doses, were actually deaths caused from fentanyl that was added to the heroin without the users knowledge.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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