Phytocannabinoids

Phytocannabinoids é os cannabinoids que ocorrem naturalmente na planta do cannabis. Os cannabinoids clássicos são formados com o decarboxylation de seus 2 ácidos carboxylic respectivos (2-COOH), um processo que seja catalisado pelas condições do calor, as claras ou as alcalinas.

Estes cannabinoids são abundantes na resina viscoso que é produzida por estruturas glandulares na planta do cannabis chamada trichomes. Esta resina é igualmente rica nos terpenos, que são responsáveis para o cheiro característico da planta do cannabis. Os phytocannabinoids são na maior parte insolúveis na água mas são solúveis no álcool e a gordura e outros solventes orgânicos não-polares. Em circunstâncias alcalinas, podem formar sais solúveis em água do phenolate, sendo essencialmente fenóis.

Sobre de 480 compostos diferentes actuais na planta do cannabis, somente ao redor 66 foram identificados como os cannabinoids o mais conhecido destes compostos são os delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), o ingrediente psychoactive principal na planta. Outros cannabinoids comuns incluem o cannabidiol (CBD) e o canabinol (CBN).

Classes de cannabinoids

Os cannabinoids são separados nas subclasses que incluem:

  • Cannabigerols (CBG)
  • Cannabichromenes (CBC)
  • Cannabidiols (CBD)
  • Tetrahydrocannabinols (THC)
  • Canabinol (CBN)
  • Cannabinodiol (CBDL)
  • Cannabicyclol (CBL)
  • Cannabielsoin (CBE)
  • Cannabitriol (CBT)
  • Cannabivarin (CBV)
  • Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
  • Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
  • Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
  • Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
  • Éter Monoethyl de Cannabigerol (CBGM)

Destes, THC é o componente psychoactive principal na planta. Este composto reduz a percepção de dor no cérebro e é igualmente neuroprotective. THC tem uma afinidade similar para os receptors CB1 e CB2.

Cannabidiol (CBD), por outro lado, não é psychoactive e foi encontrado para actuar como um antagonista do receptor CB1. O CBN é eficaz em aliviar convulsões ou apreensões, ansiedade, náusea e mudanças inflamatórios. Cannabigerol não é igualmente psychoactive e não actua como um antagonista do receptor CB1.

Fontes

  1. http://www.rollersports.org/public/pagein/File/FACT%20SHEET%20-%20Cannabinoids.pdf
  2. http://adai.uw.edu/marijuana/factsheets/cannabinoids.pdf
  3. http://www.currentpsychiatry.com/pdf/1009/1009CP_Pierre.pdf
  4. http://www.i-gap.info/app/dokumente/Pharmacology%20of%20Cannabinoids.pdf
  5. http://www.aerzteblatt.de/pdf/DI/109/29/m495.pdf

Further Reading

Last Updated: Feb 26, 2019

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Written by

Dr. Ananya Mandal

Dr. Ananya Mandal is a doctor by profession, lecturer by vocation and a medical writer by passion. She specialized in Clinical Pharmacology after her bachelor's (MBBS). For her, health communication is not just writing complicated reviews for professionals but making medical knowledge understandable and available to the general public as well.

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Comments

  1. Rich Pea Rich Pea United States says:

    There are now 85 cannabinoids that have been isolated, and the majority have anti-proliferating effects on cancerous cell growth. In other words they cure cancer!

  2. Andrew Dussault Andrew Dussault United States says:

    There is a TYPO under the list of cannabinoids; second paragraph, where it states Cannabidiol as 'CBN'......lol

  3. Donna Evans Donna Evans Canada says:

    Dr Mandal mistakenly states:

    "Phytocannabinoids are cannabinoids that occur naturally in the cannabis plant".  

    This implies that phytocannabinoids cannot be found in plants outside the cannabis species.

    The most relevant phytocannabinoid identified to date - in terms of therapeutic actions in the body - is found in many plants, including the essential oil of the cannabis plant.  It is called: beta-caryophyllene.

    At the time of posting this comment, beta-caryophyllene is the only known selective agonist of the CB2 receptor and does not produce psychoactive effects.  By the way, CBD (cannabidiol) is a weak agonist of both CB1 and CB2 and science increasingly believes that CBD's therapeutic actions are not via the cannabinoid receptors.

  4. Rob Mooneyhan Rob Mooneyhan United States says:

    Do Phytocannabinoids contain THC or is it more on the level of CBDs?

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of News-Medical.Net.
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