Biochemistry - Consistency vs. Biocompatibility in Cell Cultures
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#ALT# Ensuring 100% Accuracy in Antibody Protein Sequencing

Antibody protein sequencing needs to accurately deduce every single amino acid present in the primary sequence. Even a single amino acid error in the primary sequence may have a damaging impact on the final antibody structure. Isoleucine and leucine which have the same molecular weight, which can mean that cannot be distinguished using standard mass spectrometry methods. W-ion based isoleucine leucine determination (WILD) is a new technique to determine these differences on a large scale with 100% accuracy.

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    KeysightConsistency vs. Biocompatibility in Cell Cultures
 
For recreating the complexities which cells encounter in real-life tissues, 3D cell culture is now widely recognized as a superior alternative to traditional 2D models. Cells are present in the body in an extracellular matrix (ECM), which consists of a complex 3D architecture. In order to adapt to their surrounding environment, cells respond to chemical and physical cues which have crucial implications for cellular function.
 
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   Analytical Techniques used in Human BiomonitoringAnalytical Techniques used in Human Biomonitoring
 
There has been a surge in the presence of pollutants and contaminants in the environment. Thus, efforts are being made to develop techniques that can measure the presence of these molecules within the body, in a process known as human biomonitoring.
 
 Researchers use structural biology techniques to understand how lipids bind proteins
 
Researchers use structural biology techniques to understand how lipids bind proteinsNormal cells have a complex system of checks and balances that regulate cell division. In cancer, the balance is tipped in favor of cell proliferation. This imbalance arises from increased levels or activity of oncoproteins (proteins that promote cell growth) or decreased levels or activity of tumor suppressors (proteins that limit cell growth).
 
 
 How to Reduce the Oxidation of Therapeutic Proteins
 
How to Reduce the Oxidation of Therapeutic ProteinsOxidants, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), are known to induce damage to therapeutic proteins. Although cells and tissues usually have antioxidant systems to combat ROS and maintain the balance between formation and neutralization of ROS, in some cases this delicate balance may be perturbed, leading to physiological and molecular damage to proteins. In these cases, methods need to employed to reduce the likelihood of damage.
 
 
 Importance of Differentiating Between Leucine and Isoleucine
 
Importance of Differentiating Between Leucine and IsoleucineAs the name might suggest, isoleucine is, in fact, an isomer of leucine. This means that both amino acids have the same molecular formula but differ in structure. Importantly, the two isomers interact differently with other amino acids within mammalian cells. Hence, being able to identify and differentiate between leucine and isoleucine is essential.
 
 
 Using EC-MS to Study Neurotransmission
 
Using EC-MS to Study NeurotransmissionCombining electrochemistry with mass spectrometry (EC-MS) provides a powerful method to determine the products and intermediates of electrochemical reactions. Apart from understanding the mechanism of various redox reactions, it can also be used for other applications, including the study of neurotransmission.
 
 
 What is Microdialysis?
 
What is Microdialysis?Microdialysis is a valuable tool in neuroscience that can be used to investigate and learn about complex brain functions through the collection of small-molecular-weight substances from the extracellular fluid or interstitial space.