Microbiology - Phylogenies of Pathogenic Microorganisms
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#ALT# Cleaning and disinfecting input devices in healthcare, food and beverage production, and more

Machinery in hygiene-critical facilities like health care and food production, for example, may be exposed to bacteria and other pathogens whose spread could prove disastrous to human health and well-being.

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   Phylogenies of Pathogenic MicroorganismsPhylogenies of Pathogenic Microorganisms
Phylogenies show how organisms are related to each other by placing them in an ordered map of them and their relatives. These can be done on a large scale, such as the tree of life, or on a smaller scale, such as showing all the species of Mycobacterium bacteria. When done on microorganisms, phylogenies can provide valuable insight into how diseases evolve, spread, and adapt to their hosts.
   Can you Treat a Food Allergy by Altering the Gut Microbiome?Can you Treat a Food Allergy by Altering the Gut Microbiome?
Food allergy refers to an abnormal immune reaction to harmless proteins in food (referred to as allergens) that repeatedly occurs on exposure to the proteins and causes mild to severe symptoms, ranging from an itchy mouth through to the life-threatening allergic reaction anaphylaxis.
 Scientists solve 3D structure of vaccinia virus RNA polymerase
Scientists solve 3D structure of vaccinia virus RNA polymeraseFor viruses to multiply, they usually need the support of the cells they infect. In many cases, only in their host's nucleus can they find the machines, enzymes and building blocks with which they can multiply their genetic material before infecting other cells.
 Parasites could have originated from transmissable cancers
Parasites could have originated from transmissable cancersResearchers have presented a controversial new theory suggesting that transmissible cancers could eventually evolve into their own multicellular species. Until fairly recently, parasites called myxosporeans were thought to be offshoots of the eukaryotic line that is not plant, animal or fungi. However, in 1995, researchers Mark Siddall and colleagues posited that myxosporeans are actually unusual types of cnidarians – a group that includes corals and jellyfish. Since then, genetic research has generated evidence to support that idea.
 Mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance captured on video for the first time
Mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance captured on video for the first timeIn a world-first, scientists have established the cause of antibiotic-resistance in bacteria, capturing video footage showing that bacteria have the ability to change their form in order to avoid detection by antibiotics. This contradicts existing beliefs around how bacteria can survive without a cell wall. Known as L-form switching, this ability to evade antibiotics poses a significant threat to global health.
 Scientists modify a toxic protein to create a biosensor
Scientists modify a toxic protein to create a biosensorSome types of bacteria kill other cells by releasing proteins called “pore-forming toxins” (PFTs) that create holes in the cell membrane. The PFTs bind to the cell membrane and burrow into, creating a tube-like channel or pore. Once enough holes have been punched into the cell membrane by these toxins, the target cell destroys itself.