1. Douglas Anderson Douglas Anderson United States says:

    The two pioneers of microscopy were Antoine van Leeuwenhoek, who developed the first microscope and soon after the renowned scientist, Robert Hooke.

    Their microscopes magnified specimens by 10-20 times which allowed them to visualize details of known specimens like lice up close for the first time, but the remarkable discovery was a microscopic world that they didn't know was there.

    Van Leeuwenhoek coined the term animalcules, which represents what we would call bacteria and other protozoa in water that science knew nothing about.

    Both double-lens and single-lens microscopes were developed before Hooke began using the double, which magnified around 20 times, in the early 1660’s and Leeuwenhoek began using the single, which magnified up to 268 times, later in that decade. Galileo and others were the pioneers who preceded Hooke and Leeuwenhoek by several decades. “Animalcules” was used in English long before Leeuwenhoek, who in any case wrote only in Dutch. He called them “dierkens”, little animals. Henry Oldenburg translated “dierkens” as “animalcules” for Philosophical Transactions and poor Leeuwenhoek has been saddled with it ever since.

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