Dr Gerald Kolaja established Balboa BioConsulting in 2008. He is an ACVP board certified veterinary pathologist with over 30 years experience in pathology and pharmaceutical development.
The company offers histopathology and safety assessment expertise to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. The strengths of the company include moving compounds from discovery to development and assisting in strategies to study toxicity mechanisms.
Dr Kolaja needed an imaging solution that would take microscopic images of tissue samples to record morphologic changes. The images collected for clients would be a critical part of the review and evaluation process, and become a permanent record of their study results.
The key factors in the selection of a microscopy camera were:
- precise color reproduction
- megapixel resolution
- high-speed preview
Life science researchers, clinical pathologists and industrial technicians count on our exceptional color reproduction, high quality microscopy cameras, complete with user friendly software packages. Select from Lumenera’s cost-effective CMOS cameras, our HD camera with full 1080p60 preview, or our CCD solutions with high dynamic range and outstanding color fidelity.
Precise Color with Hematoxylin and Eosin Staining Method
Dr Kolaja employed the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining method, which is the most commonly used stain in medical diagnosis. The cell nucleus is stained a shade of purple by Hematoxylin, while the remainder of the unstained sample is stained by Eosin.
Connective tissue, cytoplasm and other extra cellular substances acquire a range of pink shades. In contrast, collagen becomes a lighter pastel pink while smooth muscle stains bright pink. Red blood cells strongly absorb Eosin coloring them a dark reddish orange.
This staining method is required for recognizing a number of tissue types and morphologic changes.
It is crucial that colors seen through Dr. Kolaja’s microscope eye piece correspond with those found in the images. Precise color is needed to ensure proper identification and diagnosis. Hence Dr Kolaja relies on Lumenera’s INFINITY2-2 for excellent color reproduction.
The low noise characteristic of the INFINITY2-2 engineered with a 1.4MP CCD image sensor results in crisp color.
Difficult transition of pinks and reds is easily achieved with Lumenera’s specialized color algorithms. Figures 1, 2 and 3 show samples observed under the microscope.
Excellent Sensitivity for Histopathology Stains
Dr Gerald Kolaja used tartrate-resistant acidic phosphate (TRAP) staining techniques to produce images of bone-resorbing cells for clients that are looking for a compound with the least adverse effect.
The technique enabled him to produce a series of compounds that helped him compare results for future studies. Figures 4, 5 and 6 show TRAP staining and toluidine blue staining.
Dr Kolaja required that the images be enlarged for viewing specific areas of interest. Pixilation is a potential issue he could face that may occur when the image is magnified to such a degree that the individual pixels become visible.
One can use anti-aliasing techniques in imaging software packages to smooth this effect, however, this can produce blurriness in the image and does not completely remove the pixilation. On magnification, it was required that the image retained its consistency. Enlarged images show clear edges without pixilation effects.
Dr. Kolaja made use of the INFINITY2-2 to produce clear, well-contrasted images for his clients. He had no concerns about extremely low light signals being produced by the samples.
Typically, images tend to be noisy and preview frame rates are reduced to a point where noticeable lag occurs. Lumenera’s INFINITY2-2 microscopy camera offers a higher dynamic range resulting in smooth clear images and fast preview speeds.
Live video preview allows for real-time focus of his samples while the auto exposure and white balance efficiently capture his optimal image.
With 12fps at full 1616 x 1216 resolution, and higher frame rates through binning and ROI, the INFINITY2-2 offers an excellent image quality. A Sony ICX274 progressive scan CCD sensor provides excellent sensitivity with a selectable 8 or 12-bit digital output.
Ease of Use
Similar to the complete line of Lumenera cameras there is no need of a framegrabber. The USB 2.0 digital interface guarantees a simple plug-and-play installation with a proven stable set of USB camera drivers to offer consistency, reliability, long-term operation, and no down time combined with a Mac environment, leaving Gerald to focus on his pathology services.
Lumenera’s INFINITY2-2 offers critical imaging characteristics for pathologists, color fidelity, excellent sensitivity, high resolution and a wide dynamic range. Balboa BioConsulting relies on Lumenera’s INFINITY digital microscopy camera for its pathology services. It is possible to master difficult color transitions with Lumenera’s specialized color algorithms.
Lumenera Corporation, a division of Roper Industries, headquartered in Ottawa, Canada, is a leading developer and manufacturer of high performance digital cameras and custom imaging solutions. Lumenera cameras are used worldwide in a diverse range of industrial, scientific and security applications.
Lumenera solutions provide unique combinations of speed, resolution and sensitivity in order to satisfy the most demanding digital imaging requirements. Lumenera customers achieve the benefit of superior price to performance ratios and faster time to market with the company's commitment to high quality, cost effective product solutions.
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