How to Choose Markers for Immature Neurons and Intermediate Progenitors

Below is a guide detailing how to choose markers for immature neurons and intermediate progenitors.

A radial glia cell is produced when radial glia divide asymmetrically. Along with the single radial glia cell, one intermediate progenitor cell (IPC) is also produced. Post-mitotic immature neurons are a type of the IPC whose final destination is the nervous system, where they integrate into the neuronal network.

Intermediate Progenitors

TBR2

The expression of this transcription factor marks the transition from radial glia to intermediate progenitors.

MASH1 (Ascl1)

This transcription factor is crucial for the differentiation of neurons. It is important to note that it can also label active neural stem cells.

Immature Neurons

Doublecortin

A phosphoprotein that is associated with microtubule. It also promotes neurite extension and cell migration.

Beta III tubulin

The expression of this class of tubulin is limited to neurons and is used to label immature neurons.

NeuroD1

Neuronal development is promoted by the NeuroD1.

TBR1

The expression of this transcription factor marks the transition from intermediate progenitors to post-mitotic neurons.

Stathmin 1

A cytoplasmic phosphoprotein that is a part of the cytoskeletal regulation.

References and Further Reading

  • Atweh, C. The Role of Stathmin in the Regulation of the Cell Cycle. J.Cell.Biochem 93, (2004).
  • Englund, C. et al. Pax6, Tbr2, and Tbr1 Are Expressed Sequentially by Radial Glia, Intermediate Progenitor Cells, and post-mitotic Neurons in Developing Neocortex. J. Neurosci. 25, 247–251 (2005).
  • Katsetos, C. D. et al. Class III beta-tubulin isotype (beta III) in the adrenal medulla: I. Localization in the developing human adrenal medulla. Anat. Rec. 250, 335–43 (1998).
  • Kim, E. J., Ables, J. L., Dickel, L. K., Eisch, A. J. & Johnson, J. E. Ascl1 (Mash1) Defines Cells with Long-Term Neurogenic Potential in Subgranular and Subventricular Zones in Adult Mouse Brain. (2011).
  • Kwak, M. et al. Effects of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury and Hypothermic Neuroprotection on Neural Progenitor Cells in the Mouse Hippocampus. Dev. Neurosci. 37, 428–439 (2015).
  • Martí-Mengual, U., Varea, E., Crespo, C., Blasco-Ibáñez, J. M. & Nacher, J. Cells expressing markers of immature neurons in the amygdala of adult humans. Eur. J. Neurosci. 37, 10–22 (2013).
  • Menezes, J. R. & Luskin, M. B. Expression of neuron-specific tubulin defines a novel population in the proliferative layers of the developing telencephalon. J. Neurosci. 14, 5399–5416 (1994).
  • Pollen, A. A. et al. Molecular Identity of Human Outer Radial Glia during Cortical Development. Cell 163, 55–67 (2015).
  • Shin, J. et al. Single-Cell RNA-Seq with Waterfall Reveals Molecular Cascades underlying Adult Neurogenesis. Cell Stem Cell 17, 360–372 (2015).

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Last updated: Apr 25, 2019 at 9:42 AM

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