Researching p53’s Influence on Cellular Pathways

p53 is a cell cycle regulating gene which plays a role in tumor suppression. The gene is known to behave as both a transcription factor and an inhibitor depending on cell conditions.

In this article we describe the different cell response to p53 and tools to analyze the proteins involved in p53 mechanisms. These include:

  • DNA repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Cell cycle arrest
  • Senescence
  • Apoptosis

Shows cellular responses mediated by p53 and the protein targets involved. Adapted from doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2014.00285.

Figure 1: Shows cellular responses mediated by p53 and the protein targets involved. Adapted from doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2014.00285.

DNA Repair

In the presence of low stress conditions p53 can activate p53R2 and Gadd45 to help maintain gene stability.

The below table shows tools Abcam provide to research the role p53 responsive proteins play in DNA repair and increasing genomic stability.

Target Antibody Inhibitor Protein
p21 Anti-p21 antibody [EPR362] Sorafenib Recombinant Human p21 protein
CDK1 Anti-CDK1 antibody [EPR165] Ro 3306 Recombinant human CDK1 + CCNB1 protein
CDK2 Anti-Cdk2 antibody [E304] SC 221409 Recombinant human CDK2 + CCNE1 protein
CDK3 Anti-Cdk3 antibody pan kinase: 10Z-Hymenialdisine Recombinant Human Cdk3 protein
CDK4 Anti-Cdk4 antibody [EPR4513-32-7] Fascaplysin Recombinant Human Cdk4 protein
CDK6 Anti-Cdk6 antibody [EPR4515] PD0332991 Recombinant human CDK6 + CCND1 protein
14-3-3σ Anti-14-3-3 sigma antibody [EPR5873(2)] - Recombinant Human 14-3-3 sigma protein

Angiogenesis

By inhibiting the production of some genes, and promoting the production of others, p53 can inhibit the formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis). p53 is known to inhibit the production of VEGF, which promotes angiogenesis, and to promote the production of the anti-angiogenic factors BAI1 and Tsp1.

The below table shows tools Abcam provide to research the role p53 responsive proteins play in angiogenesis suppression.

Target Antibody Protein Inhibitor
Gadd45 Anti-GADD45A antibody Recombinant Human GADD45A protein SP600125
Anti-GADD45B antibody Recombinant Human GADD45B protein
p53R2 Anti-p53R2 antibody [EPR8816] Recombinant Human p53R2 protein

Cell Cycle Arrest

The progression of the cell cycle can be held back, i.e. arrested, via multiple p53 pathways. These include regulating the transcriptional expression of 14-3-3σ and Gadd45, and upregulating p21 an inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases.

The below table shows tools Abcam provide to research the role p53 responsive proteins play in cell cycle arrest.

Target Antibody Inhibitor Protein Kit
VEGF Mouse monoclonal [VG-1] to VEGFA VEGF R2: ZM306416 hydrochloride Recombinant human VEGF 165A protein (Biotin) Human VEGF ELISA Kit
Tsp1 Anti-Thrombos-pondin antibody [A6.1] LSKL (coming soon) Natural Human Thrombos-pondin protein Human Thrombos-pondin 1 ELISA Kit
BAI1 Anti-BAI1 antibody - Human BAI1 associated protein 2 isoform 3 peptide -

Senescence

When exposed to high stress levels p53 can promote senescence (biological aging) rather than apoptosis. This pathway is believed to involve plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and p21.

The below table shows tools Abcam provide to research the role p53 responsive proteins play in senescence.

Target Antibody Protein Kit Inhibitor
DR5 Anti-DR5 antibody [EPR1659(2)] Recombinant Human DR5 protein Human DR5 ELISA Kit (CD262) Bioymifi
Fas Anti-Fas antibody [EPR5700] Recombinant Human Fas Ligand protein Human Fas Ligand ELISA Kit (APTL) -
Bcl-2 Anti-Bcl-2 antibody [E17] Recombinant Human Bcl-2 protein Human Bcl-2 ELISA Kit Venetoclax ABT -199
Bax Anti-Bax antibody [E63] Recombinant Human Bax protein Human Bax ELISA Kit BAM7

Apoptosis

The intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis (cell death) pathways are both stimulated by p53 via several different signals.

The intrinsic pathway is mostly mediated by the Bcl-2 protein family which initiates cell death using an ‘execution cascade’ involving caspase. The extrinsic pathway also uses a caspase cascade, though in this instance the cascade is initiated by interactions with ‘death receptors’.

The below table shows tools Abcam provide to research the role p53 responsive proteins play in apoptosis.

Antibody Inhibitor Protein Kit
PAI-1 Anti-PAI1 antibody [EPR17795] Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 Recombinant human PAI1 protein Human PAI1 ELISA Kit

About Abcam

Abcam is a global life sciences company providing highly validated antibodies and other binders and assays to the research and clinical communities to help advance the understanding of biology and causes of disease.

Abcam’s mission is to serve life scientists to help them achieve their mission faster by listening to their needs, continuously innovating and improving and by giving them the tools, data and experience they want. Abcam’s ambition is to become the most influential life science company for researchers worldwide.


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Last updated: Apr 29, 2019 at 10:25 AM

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