With more than 111 million cases globally and more than 2 million deaths, the current COVID-19 pandemic remains one of the most urgent public health emergencies.
In order to inhibit the spread of the virus while continuing to develop rapid therapeutics, scientists must not only investigate the virus itself but must also be able to comprehend the human body’s immune responses to this novel virus.
This understanding of immunity helps scientists to develop improved diagnostic kits, as well as effective therapies such as vaccines and nanobody therapeutics.
Neutralizing antibodies (Nabs) are an important set of immunoglobulins (IgGs). Nabs are a key part of the body’s adaptive immune response against pathogens, and these antibodies bind to the key epitopes rendering them unable to bind to cell receptors and enter cells.
Nabs generated against the SARS-CoV-2 virus prevent infection by preventing the Spike (S) protein from binding to the ACE2 cellular receptor.
This capability makes Nabs fundamental molecular tools in the development of diagnostic kits and functional ELISA assays for research. They may also serve as a potent therapy for the treatment of COVID-19.
Catalog number: C19SD-N887
The 2019-nCoV Neutralization ELISA Kit is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed for the detection of antibodies or other proteins (molecular) that are capable of blocking the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein and human ACE2 in biological samples or serum.
Many people are familiar with the nucleic acid test that is currently considered the “gold standard” for diagnosis and detection of the new coronavirus.
Nucleic acid testing utilizes polymerase chain reactions to detect certain nucleic acid sequences in the viral genome in order to detect current COVID-19 infections.
This antibody test is a ‘past tense’ test, in the sense that the human body produces IgM or IgG antibodies following infection with the virus. Therefore, testing for these particular antibodies in serum allows users to ascertain whether the subject has been infected with the virus.
Any recessive cases missed by nucleic acid detection have the potential to interfere with the detection of the virus, therefore impacting the spread of the epidemic and hindering prevention and control measures.
Robust antibody testing helps organizations and local health teams determine the true ‘penetration’ of the new coronavirus in the population, a process that is important for properly understanding the virus’s ability to infect.
The presence of neutralizing antibodies can be used to diagnose infection or immunity to the virus. These neutralizing antibodies block the SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein from binding with human ACE2, its entry receptor.
A number of countries have increased their efforts to detect antibodies to 2019-nCoV while also looking to identify individuals already immune to the virus in preparation for the easing of lockdown measures in the future.
SignalChem’s 2019-nCoV Neutralization ELISA Kit is comprised of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed for the detection of antibodies or other proteins (molecular) that are able to block the binding of SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein and human ACE2 in biological samples or serum.
The 2019-nCoV Neutralization ELISA is based on indirect ELISA principles. It utilizes recombinant human ACE2 protein coated onto a 96-well plate. Controls and samples with appropriate dilution are combined with 2019-nCOV S1 protein RBD-HRP before being pipetted into wells.
Target neutralizing antibodies or proteins found in the samples and controls with either fully or partly block binding of the S1 protein RBD-HRP to immobilized ACE2 protein.
After any unbound 2019-nCOV S1 protein RBD-HRP has been washed away, a colorimetric substrate solution (TMB) is pipetted into the wells. Color absorbance is measured at 450 nm, with intensity of color development in the wells being proportional to the amount of target protein being bound.
New variants of the virus are evolving due to rapid mutations occurring in the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome. These virus strains are more infectious due to their rapid transmission rate, as well as mutations induced in the Spike S protein that result in potent binding potential between human ACE2 receptor and RBD.
Scientists based at SignalChem have successfully engineered key recombinant SARS-CoV-2 variants with critical Spike-RBD protein mutations, including N501Y, D614G, and P681H.
The latest generation of neutralization kits has been developed with the original strain of the virus, but current research and development efforts are focused on new neutralization kits that can identify new SARS-CoV-2 mutants.
These new kits are able to identify and quantify neutralizing antibodies that have been generated through immune responses triggered by these new mutating strains.
The kits are designed to speed up and enhance diagnostic kit development, and anti-viral therapeutics development and other scientific research aimed at tackling the ongoing COVID-19 crisis.
Figure 1. Assay workflow explaining the mechanics of the neutralization Kit. Image Credit: SignalChem Biotech Inc.
SignalChem: A global leader in cell signaling
SignalChem is a global leader in protein engineering and cell signaling. The company has been undertaking research into the new coronavirus since the virus was first discovered, with scientists investing time and energy into better understanding the protein interaction map of SARS-CoV-2.
This work will enable them to successfully engineer active recombinant human and SARS-CoV-2 proteins.
SignalChem’s primary goal is to provide researchers across the globe with these key elements of drug discovery research projects.
By leveraging the potential of advanced engineering technology and AI drug development software, the company has already commenced a variety of projects aiming to develop expression systems of key COVID-19 related proteins; for example, hot drug targets including proteases and non-structural proteins (NSPs).
All of these catalytically active proteins can be considered fully functional and ready for use in research projects facilitating the development of drugs targeting against SARS-CoV-2 and other evolving coronavirus infections.
About SignalChem Biotech Inc.
SignalChem is a biotech company focused on the research, development, and production of innovative and high-quality human recombinant cell signaling products.
Throughout the years, Signalchem has capitalized on its core expertise in cellular signaling, molecular biology, and protein biochemistry to generate more than 2,000 functional protein products and has established itself as the leader in the industry to produce highly active human recombinant signaling enzymes, especially protein kinases, disease-related mutant kinases, lipid kinases, epigenetic enzymes, ubiquitination-related enzymes, and neurodegenerative disease-related enzymes and proteins.
SignalChem strives to support scientists in academia, pharma and biotech companies around the world by creating effective research tools to advance the basic research in life sciences and to facilitate the efforts in drug discovery and development.
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