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Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to abstention from sexual intercourse, alcohol or food. The practice can arise from religious prohibitions or practical considerations.
Nicotine metabolism linked with chronic alcohol abuse may contribute to poor smoking cessation rates

Nicotine metabolism linked with chronic alcohol abuse may contribute to poor smoking cessation rates

For smokers who are addicted to alcohol, chronic alcohol abuse may increase the rate of nicotine metabolism and contribute to poor smoking cessation rates. When smokers stop drinking the nicotine metabolism rates decline significantly, according to a study conducted by an international research team led by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. The research was a collaboration of scientists from Roswell Park, the University of California, San Francisco, and the Medical University of Silesia and Center of Addiction Treatment in Poland. [More]
New rat study shows specific genetic factors may contribute to differences in addiction among humans

New rat study shows specific genetic factors may contribute to differences in addiction among humans

Why does one person who tries cocaine get addicted, while another might use it and then leave it alone? Why do some people who kick a drug habit manage to stay clean, while others relapse? And why do some families seem more prone to addiction than others? [More]
Mozambique women who use modern contraceptives more likely to undergo HIV testing

Mozambique women who use modern contraceptives more likely to undergo HIV testing

Women in sub-Saharan Africa who use modern contraceptives are more likely to be tested for HIV than those who do not, according to a study published April 25, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Katherine Center from the University of Arizona and colleagues. [More]

Researchers use heavy and non-heavy drinking levels to evaluate effectiveness of alcohol treatment

One of the challenges in evaluating the effectiveness of alcohol treatment is determining what constitutes a "good" outcome or meaningful improvement. While abstinence at the end of treatment is clearly a good outcome, a focus on abstinence ignores the benefits of patients reducing their drinking to less problematic levels so that they can function better and incur fewer social costs. [More]
Bupropion, varenicline drugs do not increase risk of serious neuropsychiatric adverse events

Bupropion, varenicline drugs do not increase risk of serious neuropsychiatric adverse events

Compared to the nicotine patch and a placebo, the smoking cessation aids varenicline (marketed as Chantix in the U.S.) and bupropion (Zyban) do not show a significant increase in neuropsychiatric adverse events, reports an international team of researchers in a study published online April 22 in the journal The Lancet. [More]
Study reveals best ways to reduce substance use among African Americans

Study reveals best ways to reduce substance use among African Americans

Cocaine use has increased substantially among African Americans in some of the most underserved areas of the United States. Interventions designed to increase connection to and support from non-drug using family and friends, with access to employment, the faith community, and education, are the best ways to reduce substance use among African Americans and other minorities in low-income, resource-poor communities, concludes a study led by a medical anthropologist at the University of California, Riverside. [More]
Heavy marijuana use may lead to lower dopamine release in the brain

Heavy marijuana use may lead to lower dopamine release in the brain

In a recent study, researchers found evidence of a compromised dopamine system in heavy users of marijuana. Lower dopamine release was found in the striatum - a region of the brain that is involved in working memory, impulsive behavior, and attention. Previous studies have shown that addiction to other drugs of abuse, such as cocaine and heroin, have similar effects on dopamine release, but such evidence for cannabis was missing until now. [More]
Twitter-based smoking cessation programs twice as successful as traditional methods in helping smokers quit

Twitter-based smoking cessation programs twice as successful as traditional methods in helping smokers quit

A new study by researchers from UC Irvine and Stanford University found subjects in one of the first real-time, fully automated, Twitter-based smoking intervention programs - Tweet2Quit -- were twice as successful at kicking the habit as those using traditional methods. The new findings were recently published online in Tobacco Control, an international peer reviewed journal. The print version of the research is forthcoming. [More]
Lancet experts call for evidence-based approach to drug policy

Lancet experts call for evidence-based approach to drug policy

Fifty years of drug policies aimed at restricting and criminalizing drug use and minor possession have had serious detrimental effects on the health, wellbeing and human rights of drug users and the wider public, according to a major new report by The Lancet and Johns Hopkins University in the US [More]
Immediate treatment can benefit cannabis users who experience withdrawal symptoms

Immediate treatment can benefit cannabis users who experience withdrawal symptoms

Heavy users of cannabis who experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness and cravings when they quit are likely to use again sooner than their peers, a new study finds. [More]
Exercise helps smokers with high-anxiety sensitivity kick the habit

Exercise helps smokers with high-anxiety sensitivity kick the habit

Exercise helps smokers with a high risk for cessation failure due to emotional distress finally kick the habit, according to psychologists at The University of Texas at Austin. [More]
Findings may help states optimize tobacco cessation, cancer control programs

Findings may help states optimize tobacco cessation, cancer control programs

A new analysis indicates that states' Web-based and phone-based tobacco cessation programs can help people quit smoking, but certain personal characteristics may lead individuals to prefer one type of program over the other. [More]
Vanderbilt study offers a glimmer of hope to alcoholics suffering from depression

Vanderbilt study offers a glimmer of hope to alcoholics suffering from depression

A study by researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center is offering a glimmer of hope to alcoholics who find it hard to remain sober because their abstinence is hounded by stubborn, difficult-to-treat depression. [More]
Buprenorphine superior to methadone in reducing duration of treatment for babies born in drug withdrawal

Buprenorphine superior to methadone in reducing duration of treatment for babies born in drug withdrawal

A study of two opioids used to wean babies born in withdrawal from drugs their mothers have taken shows that buprenorphine is superior to methadone in reducing duration of treatment and length of hospital stay. [More]
Brief manualized treatment helps people with problematic caffeine use lower caffeine consumption

Brief manualized treatment helps people with problematic caffeine use lower caffeine consumption

Engaging in brief, cognitive-behavioral therapy is an effective treatment for helping people with problematic caffeine use lower their caffeine consumption, according to a new study coauthored by Laura M. Juliano, Ph.D., a professor of psychology at American University. [More]
People with psychosis and addiction disorder may respond better to disorder-specific treatment

People with psychosis and addiction disorder may respond better to disorder-specific treatment

People with psychosis often develop an addiction disorder: almost one in two patients with schizophrenia are affected once during their lifetime. Patients with a dual diagnosis mostly have a poorer prognosis, and their disorder often becomes chronic. [More]
New computer-based modeling may help improve outcomes for babies with neonatal abstinence syndrome

New computer-based modeling may help improve outcomes for babies with neonatal abstinence syndrome

Computer-based modeling is helping to further reduce length of hospital stay and duration of treatment with opioids that are used therapeutically to wean babies born in withdrawal from drugs their mothers have taken. This condition is known as neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). [More]
Researchers one step closer to finding effective drug for alcohol dependence

Researchers one step closer to finding effective drug for alcohol dependence

Researchers at Karolinska Institutet and the Sahlgrenska Academy in Sweden might be one step closer to finding an effective drug for alcohol dependence. In two separate studies, they show that the so-called dopamine stabilizer OSU6162 can reduce the craving for alcohol in alcohol dependent people and normalises the level of dopamine in the brain reward system of rats that have consumed alcohol over a long period of time. [More]
Smoking cessation medication 46% effective in women

Smoking cessation medication 46% effective in women

The most effective prescription drug used to quit smoking initially helps women more than men, according to a Yale School of Medicine study. The study, published Oct. 7 by the journal Nicotine and Tobacco Research, found that varenicline, marketed as Chantix, was more effective earlier in women, and equally effective in women and men after one year. [More]
Type 2 diabetes risk grows with active and passive smoking

Type 2 diabetes risk grows with active and passive smoking

A meta-analysis of 88 studies covering nearly 6 million people published in The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology shows that both active and passive smoking are linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, while the risk in those who quit smoking decreases as time elapses since their last cigarette. [More]
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