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Abstinence is a voluntary restraint from indulging a desire or appetite for certain bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to abstention from sexual intercourse, alcohol or food. The practice can arise from religious prohibitions or practical considerations.

Controlled drinking more difficult to achieve than total abstinence from alcohol, study shows

People who are seeking treatment for alcohol dependence and whose goal is to quit drinking entirely are more likely to achieve this goal if they are treated by a care provider who advocates total abstinence. [More]
Financial incentives increase abstinence rates among low-income smokers, research shows

Financial incentives increase abstinence rates among low-income smokers, research shows

Paying smokers to quit with payments that increased with the length of abstinence led one third of participants in a study to stop smoking for six months, according to research published today in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology. [More]
UTA researchers find how changing estrogen levels make women more vulnerable to cocaine addiction

UTA researchers find how changing estrogen levels make women more vulnerable to cocaine addiction

Researchers at The University of Texas at Arlington are studying how fluctuating estrogen levels make females increasingly sensitive to the rewarding effects of cocaine and ultimately, vulnerable to cocaine addiction. [More]
Scientists use animal model to gain better understanding of cocaine addiction

Scientists use animal model to gain better understanding of cocaine addiction

Scientists at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center are one step closer to understanding what causes cocaine to be so addictive. The research findings are published in the current issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. [More]
Smoking-related deficits in brain dopamine return to normal after quitting, study reports

Smoking-related deficits in brain dopamine return to normal after quitting, study reports

A new study in Biological Psychiatry reports that smoking-related deficits in brain dopamine, a chemical implicated in reward and addiction, return to normal three months after quitting. [More]
New non-drug approach may help manage pain in individuals receiving addiction treatment

New non-drug approach may help manage pain in individuals receiving addiction treatment

It's a Catch-22 with potentially deadly consequences: People trying to overcome addiction can't get treatment for their pain, because the most powerful pain medicines also carry an addiction risk. [More]
Buprenorphine implants could be effective option to treat adults with opioid dependence

Buprenorphine implants could be effective option to treat adults with opioid dependence

While buprenorphine has long been used to treat adults with opioid dependence, its efficacy can be hindered by lack of adherence to daily, sublingual (beneath the tongue) doses of the medication. [More]
Parental substance use increases health risks among children

Parental substance use increases health risks among children

Children whose parents or caregivers misuse alcohol or use, produce or distribute drugs face an increased risk of medical and behavioral problems. According to a new clinical report by experts at Beth Israel Medical Center and Boston Children's Hospital, pediatricians are in a unique position to assess risk and intervene to protect children. [More]
Study finds dramatic increase in nonmedical use of prescription opioids in the U.S.

Study finds dramatic increase in nonmedical use of prescription opioids in the U.S.

Nonmedical use of prescription opioids more than doubled among adults in the United States from 2001-2002 to 2012-2013, based on a study from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, part of the National Institutes of Health. Nearly 10 million Americans, or 4.1 percent of the adult population, used opioid medications in 2012-2013 a class of drugs that includes OxyContin and Vicodin, without a prescription or not as prescribed (in greater amounts, more often, or longer than prescribed) in the past year. [More]
Alabama physician recommends childbearing-age women to take precautions against Zika virus

Alabama physician recommends childbearing-age women to take precautions against Zika virus

As concerns about the Zika virus rise among women of childbearing age in the United States, Joseph Biggio, M.D., director of the University of Alabama at Birmingham Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, wants those who are pregnant or trying to conceive to take precautions. [More]
Cigarette smoke promotes bacteria colonization, immune invasion

Cigarette smoke promotes bacteria colonization, immune invasion

The mouth is one of the "dirtiest" parts of the body, home to millions of germs. But puffing cigarettes can increase the likelihood that certain bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis will not only set up camp but will build a fortified city in the mouth and fight against the immune system. [More]
First buprenorphine implant for opioid dependence treatment gets FDA approval

First buprenorphine implant for opioid dependence treatment gets FDA approval

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Probuphine, the first buprenorphine implant for the maintenance treatment of opioid dependence. Probuphine is designed to provide a constant, low-level dose of buprenorphine for six months in patients who are already stable on low-to-moderate doses of other forms of buprenorphine, as part of a complete treatment program. [More]
International study shows direct link between continued marijuana use during pregnancy and pre-term birth

International study shows direct link between continued marijuana use during pregnancy and pre-term birth

International research led by the University of Adelaide has for the first time shown a direct link between continued marijuana use during pregnancy and pre-term birth. [More]
Sexual abstinence, marital fidelity programs not effective in reducing HIV risk

Sexual abstinence, marital fidelity programs not effective in reducing HIV risk

The U.S. government has invested $1.4 billion in HIV prevention programs that promote sexual abstinence and marital fidelity, but there is no evidence that these programs have been effective at changing sexual behavior and reducing HIV risk, according to a new Stanford University School of Medicine study. [More]
Exercise may significantly lessen cervical cancer risk in women

Exercise may significantly lessen cervical cancer risk in women

Even 30 minutes of exercise per week has the potential to significantly reduce a woman's risk of developing cervical cancer, according to a study from scientists at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI). The case-control study was recently published in the Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease. [More]
Nicotine metabolism linked with chronic alcohol abuse may contribute to poor smoking cessation rates

Nicotine metabolism linked with chronic alcohol abuse may contribute to poor smoking cessation rates

For smokers who are addicted to alcohol, chronic alcohol abuse may increase the rate of nicotine metabolism and contribute to poor smoking cessation rates. When smokers stop drinking the nicotine metabolism rates decline significantly, according to a study conducted by an international research team led by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. The research was a collaboration of scientists from Roswell Park, the University of California, San Francisco, and the Medical University of Silesia and Center of Addiction Treatment in Poland. [More]
New rat study shows specific genetic factors may contribute to differences in addiction among humans

New rat study shows specific genetic factors may contribute to differences in addiction among humans

Why does one person who tries cocaine get addicted, while another might use it and then leave it alone? Why do some people who kick a drug habit manage to stay clean, while others relapse? And why do some families seem more prone to addiction than others? [More]
Mozambique women who use modern contraceptives more likely to undergo HIV testing

Mozambique women who use modern contraceptives more likely to undergo HIV testing

Women in sub-Saharan Africa who use modern contraceptives are more likely to be tested for HIV than those who do not, according to a study published April 25, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Katherine Center from the University of Arizona and colleagues. [More]

Researchers use heavy and non-heavy drinking levels to evaluate effectiveness of alcohol treatment

One of the challenges in evaluating the effectiveness of alcohol treatment is determining what constitutes a "good" outcome or meaningful improvement. While abstinence at the end of treatment is clearly a good outcome, a focus on abstinence ignores the benefits of patients reducing their drinking to less problematic levels so that they can function better and incur fewer social costs. [More]
Bupropion, varenicline drugs do not increase risk of serious neuropsychiatric adverse events

Bupropion, varenicline drugs do not increase risk of serious neuropsychiatric adverse events

Compared to the nicotine patch and a placebo, the smoking cessation aids varenicline (marketed as Chantix in the U.S.) and bupropion (Zyban) do not show a significant increase in neuropsychiatric adverse events, reports an international team of researchers in a study published online April 22 in the journal The Lancet. [More]
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