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News Medical's "MediKnowledge" series is a selection of articles written by experts who have been invited as recognized leaders in their fields to offer opinion within the confines of his or her area of medical expertise.

  • Immunotherapy: past, present and future

    Immunotherapy: past, present and future

    William Coley is the grandfather of immunotherapy. A surgeon in New York between 1870 and 1910, he developed extracts of streptococcus and another bacterium called Serratia marcescens (known as Coley’s toxins) to treat patients, particularly children, with sarcoma. The responses were spectacular, extending long-term survival rates by as much as 40%. [More]
  • There is hope for those with tinnitus

    There is hope for those with tinnitus

    Having been an audiologist for many years now, often the first comment made by members of the public when discussing tinnitus is “I know there is nothing you can do about it and I just have to learn to live with it”. [More]
  • Sarcomas, latest developments in diagnosis and treatment

    Sarcomas, latest developments in diagnosis and treatment

    Sarcomas are rare tumours of connective tissue, and as a result they can affect any part of the body. These are tumours of fat, nerves, bone, tendons, muscle and skin. They account for about 1% of all adult cancers and approximately 15% of paediatric tumours. In addition to the wide distribution of potential primary sites and the rarity, these are also very heterogeneous tumours with over 80 different histological subtypes. [More]
  • Living with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    Living with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating and fatal lung disease that affects approximately 3 million people worldwide. Despite the condition killing more people every year than some cancers it remains relatively unheard of, frequently misdiagnosed and little understood. [More]
  • The Risks of Prediabetes

    The Risks of Prediabetes

    While many are familiar with type 2 diabetes, few are aware of prediabetes, a serious health condition that affects 86 million Americans (more than one in three adults) and often leads to type 2 diabetes. [More]
  • Hidden signs of heart problems

    Hidden signs of heart problems

    Since 1 in 4 deaths in the UK are related to a heart or circulatory disease, addressing heart health is a concern of national importance. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in men over 50, and an estimated 7 million of us are living with an undiagnosed risk factor – high blood pressure. [More]
  • New Approaches for Fighting Demodex Mites

    New Approaches for Fighting Demodex Mites

    Demodex mites are one of the most challenging problems that ophthalmologists and optometrists face in the routine care of their patients. [More]
  • New tuberculosis technologies: importance of access in the private health sector

    New tuberculosis technologies: importance of access in the private health sector

    Cepheid Inc., produces Xpert MTB/RIF, which is an automated, fast test for TB using molecular diagnostics. Compared to the standard test for TB in developing countries, sputum smear microscopy, it is considerably more accurate. [More]
  • Safety, Not “Sharing,” Must Guide Visitor Policies for Cesarean Surgery

    Safety, Not “Sharing,” Must Guide Visitor Policies for Cesarean Surgery

    Giving birth is one of life’s most exciting events – one that many women want to experience with family members and capture on video. But the desire to share the delivery with others has resulted, in some cases, in a crowded delivery room of supportive (and occasionally fainting) observers. [More]
  • Bedwetting (Nocturnal Enuresis)

    Bedwetting (Nocturnal Enuresis)

    Bedwetting, also known as nocturnal enuresis, is an uncontrollable leakage of urine from the bladder while asleep. For children aged five years and older, bedwetting is abnormal and should not be considered a trivial condition. [More]
  • Does cigarette smoking damage the skin?

    Does cigarette smoking damage the skin?

    Smoking damages nearly every organ in the body. Whilst most people are familiar of its association with lung cancer, stroke and heart disease, it also has profound effects on the body’s largest organ – skin. [More]
  • How safe are ‘black henna’ tattoos?

    How safe are ‘black henna’ tattoos?

    While on holiday, many people opt to have a ‘fun’ temporary henna tattoo applied when they’re on the beach, by the pool or when at a festival. These are often advertised as ‘black henna’ temporary tattoos (BHTT), but there is no such thing as ‘black henna’: true henna extract is orange-red in colour. [More]
  • Nitrous Oxide for Labor:  Choose Wisely

    Nitrous Oxide for Labor: Choose Wisely

    Nitrous oxide has been used for over 100 years to manage pain during medical procedures. In numerous countries in Europe as well as Australia and New Zealand, it is common to use nitrous oxide as an option in laboring women, in order to help them cope with pain. But although nitrous oxide was once available for labor in the United States, its popularity diminished in the 1970s with the advent of the epidural. [More]
  • Occupational Therapy: Your Life by Design

    Occupational Therapy: Your Life by Design

    The role of an occupational therapist is often not fully understood, or is confused with the role of a physical therapist. What’s the differentiator? Cue the “your life by design” approach. [More]
  • Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Dementia with Lewy bodies is now widely recognised as the second most common type of degenerative dementia after Alzheimer disease. [More]
  • Endometriosis: Delayed Diagnosis Impacts Disease Management and Patient Well-Being

    Endometriosis: Delayed Diagnosis Impacts Disease Management and Patient Well-Being

    Endometriosis is a common yet poorly understood illness that affects women of reproductive age and is often under and misdiagnosed. It is believed that endometrial cells that normally line the uterus grow outside the uterus, attaching to the ovaries, fallopian tubes, outer surfaces of the uterus or intestines, and on the lining of the pelvic cavity. [More]
  • Idiopathic Anaphylaxis

    Idiopathic Anaphylaxis

    Anaphylaxis is the most extreme form of severe allergic reactions which can be life threatening and requires emergency medical treatment. It can affect anyone of any age, sex, race and stature. [More]
  • Art as Therapy

    Art as Therapy

    The most common misconception held about art therapy, is that it involves the therapist interpreting the artwork, and deciphering and unravelling the meanings hidden within; on the contrary, it is the creator of the image, not the therapist, who has this pleasure. The role of the therapist is primarily an insightfully enabling one. [More]
  • The Quest for an Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Treatment: Why Progesterone Could Be On Track To Become the First FDA-Approved Therapy

    The Quest for an Acute Traumatic Brain Injury Treatment: Why Progesterone Could Be On Track To Become the First FDA-Approved Therapy

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, contributing to as many as a third of injury-related deaths. When a patient presents to the emergency department with a TBI in isolation or as part of multi-system injury, he or she is stabilized, evaluated and a treatment plan is determined. [More]
  • Global travel and antibiotic resistance

    Global travel and antibiotic resistance

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called antibiotic resistance one of the biggest threats to human health today - and international travel is contributing to the problem.
    [More]
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