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Researchers trace origins of early abnormal brain overgrowth in ASD

Researchers trace origins of early abnormal brain overgrowth in ASD

Further underscoring the prenatal origins of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine describe for the first time how abnormal gene activity in cell cycle networks that are known to control brain cell production may underlie abnormal early brain growth in the disorder. [More]
Air evacuations may pose significant added risk to patients with traumatic brain injury

Air evacuations may pose significant added risk to patients with traumatic brain injury

Over the past 15 years, more than 330,000 U.S. soldiers have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is one of the leading causes of death and disability connected to the country's recent conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq. Many of these patients were evacuated by air from these countries to Europe and the U.S. for further treatment. In general, these patients were flown quickly to hospitals outside the battle zone, where more extensive treatment was available. [More]
Researchers find lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids in people with bipolar disorder

Researchers find lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids in people with bipolar disorder

People with bipolar disorder have lower levels of certain omega-3 fatty acids that cross the blood-brain barrier compared to those who do not, according to researchers from Penn State College of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. The finding could have implications for dietary interventions for the disorder. [More]
Slower aging reduces degeneration related to Parkinson's disease

Slower aging reduces degeneration related to Parkinson's disease

Humans have long sought to reduce the effects of aging. Now, there may be another reason to continue searching for ways to slow the clock--preventing Parkinson's disease. [More]
Study sheds light on mechanism of neuronal activity

Study sheds light on mechanism of neuronal activity

Neurons communicate by passing electrical messages, known as action potentials, between each other. Each neuron has a highly specialized structural region, the axon initial segment (AIS), whose primary role is in the generation and sending of these messages. [More]
Insulin plays a much stronger role in regulating release of dopamine

Insulin plays a much stronger role in regulating release of dopamine

Insulin, the hormone essential to all mammals for controlling blood sugar levels and a feeling of being full after eating, plays a much stronger role than previously known in regulating release of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain's reward and pleasure centers, new studies by researchers at NYU Langone Medical Center show. [More]
Love hormone may enhance pleasure of social interactions, UCI study finds

Love hormone may enhance pleasure of social interactions, UCI study finds

The hormone oxytocin, which has been associated with interpersonal bonding, may enhance the pleasure of social interactions by stimulating production of marijuana-like neurotransmitters in the brain, according to a University of California, Irvine study. [More]
Breakthrough research suggests that female sex hormone may save lives on the battlefield

Breakthrough research suggests that female sex hormone may save lives on the battlefield

Breakthrough research suggests a female sex hormone may be the key to saving lives on the battlefield, where between 2001 and 2011 more than 80 percent of potentially preventable U.S. war injury deaths resulted from blood loss. [More]
Researchers develop methodology to monitor changes in DNA methylation patterns in individual cells

Researchers develop methodology to monitor changes in DNA methylation patterns in individual cells

Whitehead Institute researchers have developed a methodology to monitor changes in DNA methylation over time in individual cells. [More]
Disrupting specific signaling pathway in the brain can cause overeating of high fat foods

Disrupting specific signaling pathway in the brain can cause overeating of high fat foods

Defective signaling in the brain can cause overeating of high fat foods in mice, leading to obesity, according to one of the first research articles published in the new open access journal Heliyon. [More]
USF study shows spleen may be a new target for treating stroke-induced chronic inflammation

USF study shows spleen may be a new target for treating stroke-induced chronic inflammation

Stroke injures the brain, but a new University of South Florida study indicates an abdominal organ that plays a vital role in immune function, the spleen, may be a target for treating stroke-induced chronic inflammation leading to further brain cell death. [More]
Diabetes may be linked to buildup of brain tangles associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Diabetes may be linked to buildup of brain tangles associated with Alzheimer’s disease

Diabetes may be linked to the buildup of tangles or tau in the brain, separate from Alzheimer's disease, according to a new study published in the September 2, 2015, online version of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology. [More]
Common gene mutation may cause brain damage associated with ALS and FTD

Common gene mutation may cause brain damage associated with ALS and FTD

Johns Hopkins researchers say they have discovered some of the first steps in how a very common gene mutation causes the brain damage associated with both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [More]
Two proteins that help cells eliminate trash may contribute to development of Parkinson's disease

Two proteins that help cells eliminate trash may contribute to development of Parkinson's disease

Two proteins that share the ability to help cells deal with their trash appear to need each other to do their jobs and when they don't connect, it appears to contribute to development of Parkinson's disease, scientists report. [More]
Nuclear process in the brain may play critical role in health and disease

Nuclear process in the brain may play critical role in health and disease

Every brain cell has a nucleus, or a central command station. Scientists have shown that the passage of molecules through the nucleus of a star-shaped brain cell, called an astrocyte, may play a critical role in health and disease. [More]
New blood test could help diagnose severity of traumatic brain injury

New blood test could help diagnose severity of traumatic brain injury

A new blood test could help emergency room doctors quickly diagnose traumatic brain injury and determine its severity. [More]
New findings point toward potential blood test to detect schizophrenia

New findings point toward potential blood test to detect schizophrenia

High blood levels of a growth factor known to enable new blood vessel development and brain cell protection correlate with a smaller size of brain areas key to complex thought, emotion and behavior in patients with schizophrenia, researchers report in the journal Molecular Psychiatry. [More]
Cognizin citicoline shows promise in patients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence

Cognizin citicoline shows promise in patients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence

The results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial showed that Cognizin citicoline (Jarrow Formulas) was effective at reducing cocaine use, based on urine drug screens, in patients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence. The study, published in the American Journal of Psychiatry in Advance, included a total of 130 outpatients with bipolar I disorder and cocaine dependence, who received either Cognizin citicoline or placebo add-on therapy for 12 weeks. [More]
Changes in key biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease during midlife may help predict future dementia risk

Changes in key biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease during midlife may help predict future dementia risk

Studying brain scans and cerebrospinal fluid of healthy adults, scientists have shown that changes in key biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease during midlife may help identify those who will develop dementia years later, according to new research. [More]
LSD1 enzyme turns off genes needed to maintain cancer stem cell properties in glioblastoma

LSD1 enzyme turns off genes needed to maintain cancer stem cell properties in glioblastoma

Cancer's ability to grow unchecked is often attributed to cancer stem cells, a small fraction of cancer cells that have the capacity to grow and multiply indefinitely. How cancer stem cells retain this property while the bulk of a tumor's cells do not remains largely unknown. Using human tumor samples and mouse models, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Moores Cancer Center discovered that cancer stem cell properties are determined by epigenetic changes -- chemical modifications cells use to control which genes are turned on or off. [More]
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