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DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.
Scientists identify developmental on-off switch for Streptomyces

Scientists identify developmental on-off switch for Streptomyces

Scientists have identified the developmental on-off switch for Streptomyces, a group of soil microbes that produce more than two-thirds of the world's naturally derived antibiotic medicines. [More]
BloodCenter's Erythroid Chimerism test available to monitor transplanted SCD patients

BloodCenter's Erythroid Chimerism test available to monitor transplanted SCD patients

BloodCenter of Wisconsin's Diagnostic Laboratories today announced the availability of an innovative Erythroid Chimerism test to monitor erythroid lineage chimerism in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. [More]
Report on Co-development Terms & Agreements in Pharma, Biotech and Diagnostics

Report on Co-development Terms & Agreements in Pharma, Biotech and Diagnostics

The Co-development Terms and Agreements in Pharma, Biotech and Diagnostics report provides comprehensive understanding and unprecedented access to the co-development deals and agreements entered into by the worlds leading life science companies. [More]
Advanced statistical approach evaluates gene-environmental interactions that contribute to disease

Advanced statistical approach evaluates gene-environmental interactions that contribute to disease

Dartmouth cancer researchers developed and tested an advanced statistical model to evaluate the genetic and environmental interactions that contribute to disease as published yesterday in Human Genetics. [More]
New research suggests that tomato-rich diet can lower prostate cancer risk

New research suggests that tomato-rich diet can lower prostate cancer risk

Men who eat over 10 portions a week of tomatoes have an 18 per cent lower risk of developing prostate cancer, new research suggests. [More]
Researchers help to gain greater insight into biological clock that sets pace for daily life

Researchers help to gain greater insight into biological clock that sets pace for daily life

Casey Diekman, assistant professor of mathematical sciences at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), is helping to gain greater insight into the biological clock that sets the pace for daily life. [More]
Genetic changes in patients with Crohn's disease could hold clues to fighting illness

Genetic changes in patients with Crohn's disease could hold clues to fighting illness

Genetic changes that occur in patients with the bowel condition Crohn's disease could hold clues to fighting the illness. [More]
Scientists find that DNA repair drug could help treat leukaemia, other cancers

Scientists find that DNA repair drug could help treat leukaemia, other cancers

A team of scientists led by Research Associate Professor Motomi Osato and Professor Yoshiaki Ito from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore at the National University of Singapore found that a drug originally designed for killing a limited type of cancer cells with DNA repair defects could potentially be used to treat leukaemia and other cancers. [More]
ZO Skin Health reveals two new ZO Medical formulations to address hyperpigmentation

ZO Skin Health reveals two new ZO Medical formulations to address hyperpigmentation

ZO Skin Health, Inc. is excited to reveal two new products developed by Zein Obagi, MD to further enhance the ZO Skin Health Circle continuum of care – ZO Medical C-Bright 10% Vitamin C Serum and ZO Medical Brightalive Non-Retinol Skin Brightener. [More]
Researchers report that predominant CA-MRSA strain migrated from sub-Saharan Africa

Researchers report that predominant CA-MRSA strain migrated from sub-Saharan Africa

The predominant strain of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infecting people in Europe, the Middle East and northern Africa derived from a single sub-Saharan ancestor, a team of international researchers reported this week in mBio-, the online open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology. [More]
Drug to kill limited type of cancer cells with DNA repair defects could treat leukaemia

Drug to kill limited type of cancer cells with DNA repair defects could treat leukaemia

A team of scientists led by Research Associate Professor Motomi Osato and Professor Yoshiaki Ito from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) found that a drug originally designed for killing a limited type of cancer cells with DNA repair defects could potentially be used to treat leukaemia and other cancers. [More]
Acromegaly and antisense therapy: an interview with Mark Diamond, CEO Antisense Therapeutics

Acromegaly and antisense therapy: an interview with Mark Diamond, CEO Antisense Therapeutics

Acromegaly is a chronic, life-threatening disease triggered by a benign tumour of the pituitary gland causing excessive growth hormone release. Oversupply of growth hormone stimulates liver, fat and kidney cells to produce excess levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor I (IGFI), which causes abnormal growth of the bones of the hands, face and feet and bodily organs. [More]
Researchers find why certain glioblastomas become drug resistance

Researchers find why certain glioblastomas become drug resistance

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have found one of the keys to why certain glioblastomas - the primary form of a deadly brain cancer - are resistant to drug therapy. [More]
Researchers develop new integrated approach to pinpoint genetic "drivers" of cancer

Researchers develop new integrated approach to pinpoint genetic "drivers" of cancer

UNC Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers have developed a new integrated approach to pinpoint the genetic "drivers" of cancer, uncovering eight genes that could be viable for targeted breast cancer therapy. [More]
Statistical genetic analysis can detect aggressiveness of lymphoma

Statistical genetic analysis can detect aggressiveness of lymphoma

Each year, more than one thousand Norwegians develop lymphoma. A statistical genetic analysis can detect when the disease will be aggressive. Thereby, treatment can be initiated in time. [More]
Study finds a host of new clues on gene-environment interactions in Crohn's disease

Study finds a host of new clues on gene-environment interactions in Crohn's disease

A new study finds a wide range of epigenetic changes-alterations in DNA across the genome that may be related to key environmental exposures-in children with Crohn's disease (CD), reports Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, official journal of the Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. [More]
SeraCare Life Sciences announces launch of new ACCURUN 501 C. difficile Control

SeraCare Life Sciences announces launch of new ACCURUN 501 C. difficile Control

SeraCare Life Sciences, a provider of high-quality biological materials that help optimize diagnostic performance, reliability and repeatability across the IVD lifecycle, today announced the launch of its new ACCURUN 501 C. difficile Control – the company's first molecular control product targeting hospital acquired infections. [More]
FDA approves ViiV Healthcare's Triumeq tablets for treatment of HIV-1 infection

FDA approves ViiV Healthcare's Triumeq tablets for treatment of HIV-1 infection

ViiV Healthcare announced today that the US Food and Drug Administration has approved Triumeq (abacavir 600mg, dolutegravir 50mg and lamivudine 300mg) tablets for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. [More]
Fungal infections that sicken HIV/AIDS patients grow on trees

Fungal infections that sicken HIV/AIDS patients grow on trees

Researchers have pinpointed the environmental source of fungal infections that have been sickening HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California for decades. It literally grows on trees. [More]
DNA testing for congenital cataracts can accurately diagnose diseases linked to childhood blindness

DNA testing for congenital cataracts can accurately diagnose diseases linked to childhood blindness

Researchers in the United Kingdom have demonstrated that advanced DNA testing for congenital cataracts can quickly and accurately diagnose a number of rare diseases marked by childhood blindness, according to a study published online today in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. [More]