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DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.
Study sheds light on how extra chromosome 21 upsets equilibrium of entire genome in Down syndrome

Study sheds light on how extra chromosome 21 upsets equilibrium of entire genome in Down syndrome

Occurring in about one per eight hundred births, Down syndrome - or trisomy 21 - is the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability. It results from a chromosomal abnormality where cells of affected individuals contain a third copy of chromosome 21 (1% of the human genome). [More]
Researchers discover new marker derived from human umbilical cord blood

Researchers discover new marker derived from human umbilical cord blood

The development of stem cell therapies to cure a variety of diseases depends on the ability to characterize stem cell populations based on cell surface markers. [More]

Global hemophilia market to grow at 6.07% CAGR by 2018

Research and Markets has announced the addition of the "Global Hemophilia Market 2014-2018" report to their offering. [More]
B1/Cdk1 protein which plays key role in cell division also boosts power of mitochondrial activity

B1/Cdk1 protein which plays key role in cell division also boosts power of mitochondrial activity

​An international team led by researchers at UC Davis has shown that the cyclin B1/Cdk1 protein complex, which plays a key role in cell division, also boosts the mitochondrial activity to power that process. [More]

ARCA biopharma announces genetic screening of first patient in GENETIC-AF Phase 2B/3 clinical trial

ARCA biopharma, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company developing genetically targeted therapies for cardiovascular diseases, today announced that the first patient has been genetically screened in GENETIC-AF, its Phase 2B/3 adaptive design clinical trial. [More]
Targeted Medical Pharma signs agreement with Lebanon based company, ATL

Targeted Medical Pharma signs agreement with Lebanon based company, ATL

Targeted Medical Pharma, today announced the completion of an agreement between Analytical Testing Laboratories (ATL), a Lebanon based company that specializes in drug testing services and inborn errors of metabolism, for the exclusive distribution of the company's amino acid based products to physicians and pharmacies throughout the Middle East. [More]

John Hopkins researchers create novel optical imaging equipment for use on SARRP research platform

Researchers from John Hopkins University have created an innovative piece of optical imaging equipment for use on-board the Xstrahl Small Animal Radiation Research Platform. [More]
Research sheds new light on the development of HPV-associated cancer

Research sheds new light on the development of HPV-associated cancer

It's long been known that certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause cancer. Now, researchers at The Ohio State University have determined a new way that HPV might spark cancer development - by disrupting the human DNA sequence with repeating loops when the virus is inserted into host-cell DNA as it replicates. [More]
Study shows R9-caPep compound blocks PCNA actions in neuroblastoma cells

Study shows R9-caPep compound blocks PCNA actions in neuroblastoma cells

Neuroblastoma is one of the deadliest childhood cancers, accounting for 15 percent of pediatric cancer deaths. For patients with high-risk neuroblastomas, the five-year survival rate is 40 to 50 percent even with the most rigorous treatments available today. [More]
New mouse study indicates that mutant protein in muscle cells is responsible for SBMA

New mouse study indicates that mutant protein in muscle cells is responsible for SBMA

Sometimes known as Kennedy's disease, spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a rare inherited neuromuscular disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness and atrophy. [More]
Viewpoints: Obamacare dilemma -- some people dislike the law but embrace its provisions; are health costs falling?

Viewpoints: Obamacare dilemma -- some people dislike the law but embrace its provisions; are health costs falling?

Polls have consistently shown that even though the public opposes Obamacare, people like some of its most significant provisions. That's particularly true of the requirement that insurers ignore preexisting conditions when signing up customers for coverage. [More]

Optimal use of combination therapy achieves best treatment outcomes in patients with CHB

Three new studies presented today at the International Liver CongressTM 2014 have helped clarify the optimal use of combination therapy with peginterferon and nucleoside analogues (NUCs) to achieve the best treatment outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). [More]
Protein expression predicts postop NSCLC recurrence, survival

Protein expression predicts postop NSCLC recurrence, survival

US-based researchers have identified a panel of 12 proteins that may help predict overall survival and the risk of recurrence in patients treated with surgery for non-small-cell lung cancer. [More]
Daylight Medical releases SKY 6Xi disinfection technology for mobile devices

Daylight Medical releases SKY 6Xi disinfection technology for mobile devices

Daylight Medical, manufacturer and provider of innovative medical products, is pleased to announce its rollout of SKY 6Xi, disinfection technology for mobile devices. SKY 6Xi uses high intensity (254 nanometer wavelength) ultraviolet light in the "C" spectrum (UVC) at close proximity to thoroughly disinfect a mobile device. The unique power of SKY reduces the risk that Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are transmitted to patients while improving safety for healthcare workers. [More]
New blood test accurately detects presence of breast cancer and monitors response to treatment

New blood test accurately detects presence of breast cancer and monitors response to treatment

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators report they have designed a blood test that accurately detects the presence of advanced breast cancer and also holds promise for precisely monitoring response to cancer treatment. [More]

New technique of single-cell genomic analysis to reverse tissue engineering

Consider the marvel of the embryo. It begins as a glob of identical cells that change shape and function as they multiply to become the cells of our lungs, muscles, nerves and all the other specialized tissues of the body. [More]

Johns Hopkins designs blood test that accurately detects presence of advanced breast cancer

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center investigators report they have designed a blood test that accurately detects the presence of advanced breast cancer and also holds promise for precisely monitoring response to cancer treatment. [More]

Engineers develop tools to efficiently analyze living cells

For more than a decade Chang Lu, associate professor of chemical engineering at Virginia Tech, has worked on the development of tools to efficiently analyze living cells. The long-term goal is to gain a better understanding of a range of diseases. [More]

Three-gene test may aid earlier lung cancer detection

Methylation of three genes may help with the early diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer, research suggests. [More]
Lipid-based protein delivery system efficiently transports proteins into living cells

Lipid-based protein delivery system efficiently transports proteins into living cells

BioPORTER® Protein Delivery Reagent from AMSBIO is a unique lipid formulation that allows direct translocation of proteins into living cells. [More]