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In anatomy, a ganglion (plural ''ganglia'') is a biological tissue mass, most commonly a mass of nerve cell bodies. Cells found in a ganglion are called ganglion cells, though this term is also sometimes used to refer specifically to retinal ganglion cells.
IUPUI's Jason Meyer awarded $1.8 million NIH grant to explore how glaucoma develops in stem cells

IUPUI's Jason Meyer awarded $1.8 million NIH grant to explore how glaucoma develops in stem cells

Jason Meyer, Ph.D., assistant professor of biology in the School of Science at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, has received a National Institutes of Health grant to study how glaucoma develops in stem cells created from skin cells genetically predisposed to the disease. [More]
Understanding the pattern of cellular changes that lead to retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma

Understanding the pattern of cellular changes that lead to retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma

Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, usually stems from elevated eye pressure, which in turn damages and destroys specialized neurons in the eye known as retinal ganglion cells. To better understand these cellular changes and how they influence the progression and severity of glaucoma, researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Shiley Eye Institute turned to a mouse model of the disease. [More]
New research sheds light on the role of Sox10 protein in Hirschsprung's disease patients

New research sheds light on the role of Sox10 protein in Hirschsprung's disease patients

Defects in the protein Sox10, a transcription factor that regulates gene expression, may play a role in the development of post-operative GI dysfunction in Hirschsprung's disease patients, according to new research published in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the new basic science journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. [More]
Researchers find way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss

Researchers find way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss

Researchers from Weill Cornell Medical College and the Gladstone Institutes have found a way to prevent noise-induced hearing loss in a mouse using a simple chemical compound that is a precursor to vitamin B3. This discovery has important implications not only for preventing hearing loss, but also potentially for treating some aging-related conditions that are linked to the same protein. [More]
Researchers unravel separate biological responses of the eye to blue light

Researchers unravel separate biological responses of the eye to blue light

Blue light can both set the mood and set in motion important biological responses. Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's School of Medicine and School of Arts and Sciences have teased apart the separate biological responses of the human eye to blue light, revealing an unexpected contest for control. [More]
LaVision BioTec report on users of light sheet microscopy in the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis

LaVision BioTec report on users of light sheet microscopy in the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis

LaVison BioTec, developers of advanced microscopy solutions for the life sciences, report on users of their Ultramicroscope Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscope system to aid the research of the Miami Project to Cure Paralysis under the supervision of Professor Vance Lemmon, the Walter G. Ross Distinguished Chair in Developmental Neuroscience & Professor of Neurological Surgery at the University of Miami. [More]

Pitt researchers awarded $1.25 million DOD grant to establish whole-eye transplantation program

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine researchers have been awarded $1.25 million from the U.S. Department of Defense to fund two projects that aim to establish the groundwork for the nation's first whole-eye transplantation program. [More]
UT Arlington scientists explore how fluid flow could play significant role in neuronal growth

UT Arlington scientists explore how fluid flow could play significant role in neuronal growth

A University of Texas at Arlington team exploring how neuron growth can be controlled in the lab and, possibly, in the human body has published a new paper in Nature Scientific Reports on how fluid flow could play a significant role. [More]
DNA testing for congenital cataracts can accurately diagnose diseases linked to childhood blindness

DNA testing for congenital cataracts can accurately diagnose diseases linked to childhood blindness

Researchers in the United Kingdom have demonstrated that advanced DNA testing for congenital cataracts can quickly and accurately diagnose a number of rare diseases marked by childhood blindness, according to a study published online today in Ophthalmology, the journal of the American Academy of Ophthalmology. [More]
Doctors test device designed to 'turn off' cluster headaches

Doctors test device designed to 'turn off' cluster headaches

For those suffering excruciating pain from cluster headaches, relief may soon be available from an investigational device being studied in a national multicenter clinical trial. Recently, doctors at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center performed the first surgery in the United States to insert a neurostimulator to provide relief from cluster headaches, which are more painful than migraines. [More]
Scientists study how artificial light influences biological clock

Scientists study how artificial light influences biological clock

Researchers at Inserm, led by Claude Gronfier (Inserm Unit 846: Stem Cell and Brain Institute), have, for the first time, conducted a study under real conditions on the body clocks of members of the international polar research station Concordia. [More]
BrightFocus offers grants to 55 scientists for Alzheimer's disease and vision research

BrightFocus offers grants to 55 scientists for Alzheimer's disease and vision research

BrightFocus Foundation, a nonprofit organization funding cutting-edge, innovative research on Alzheimer's disease and the vision diseases of glaucoma and macular degeneration, today announced the recipients of new research grant awards, offered to 55 scientists in 19 U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and five foreign countries. [More]
Dental pulp stem cells can protect retinal ganglion cells from death following injury

Dental pulp stem cells can protect retinal ganglion cells from death following injury

Researchers at the University of Birmingham, UK, led by Dr. Ben Scheven, Dr. Wendy Leadbeater and Ben Mead have discovered that stem cells isolated from the teeth, termed dental pulp stem cells (DPSC), can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from death following injury and promote regeneration of their axons along the optic nerve. [More]
Alternative disposal process in optic nerve cells has implications for neurodegenerative diseases

Alternative disposal process in optic nerve cells has implications for neurodegenerative diseases

Biologists have long considered cells to function like self-cleaning ovens, chewing up and recycling their own worn out parts as needed. [More]
New study on transmitophagy process may help treat diverse disorders

New study on transmitophagy process may help treat diverse disorders

It's broadly assumed that cells degrade and recycle their own old or damaged organelles, but researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Kennedy Krieger Institute have discovered that some neurons transfer unwanted mitochondria - the tiny power plants inside cells - to supporting glial cells called astrocytes for disposal. [More]
Researchers take step toward restoring natural, high-fidelity vision to blind people

Researchers take step toward restoring natural, high-fidelity vision to blind people

In laboratory tests, researchers have used electrical stimulation of retinal cells to produce the same patterns of activity that occur when the retina sees a moving object. Although more work remains, this is a step toward restoring natural, high-fidelity vision to blind people, the researchers say. [More]
Researchers discover atypical type of retina cell that plays more critical role in vision

Researchers discover atypical type of retina cell that plays more critical role in vision

A type of retina cell plays a more critical role in vision than previously known, a team led by Johns Hopkins University researchers has discovered. [More]
Retinal measurements associated with Parkinson’s disease duration

Retinal measurements associated with Parkinson’s disease duration

The inner retinal layers in the eyes of patients with Parkinson’s disease are thinner than those of healthy people’s eyes, except for the inner nuclear layer, which is thicker, show the results of a prospective study involving the latest optical coherence tomography methods. [More]
Researchers identify possible mechanism for re-growing damaged nerve fibres in central nervous system

Researchers identify possible mechanism for re-growing damaged nerve fibres in central nervous system

A new discovery suggests it could one day be possible to chemically reprogram and repair damaged nerves after spinal cord injury or brain trauma. [More]
Photoreactive compounds open new routes to treatment of neurological diseases

Photoreactive compounds open new routes to treatment of neurological diseases

Photoreactive compounds developed by scientists of Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) in Munich directly modulate nerve-cell function, and open new routes to the treatment of neurological diseases, including chronic pain and certain types of visual impairment. [More]