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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Ultrasound settings can change beat frequency of cardiac cells

Ultrasound settings can change beat frequency of cardiac cells

Ultrasound—the technology used for sonograms and examining the heart—can increase the rate at which heart cells beat, researchers from Drexel University report. [More]
New research shows how fat controls energy levels in the brain

New research shows how fat controls energy levels in the brain

An enzyme secreted by the body's fat tissue controls energy levels in the brain, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The findings, in mice, underscore a role for the body's fat tissue in controlling the brain's response to food scarcity, and suggest there is an optimal amount of body fat for maximizing health and longevity. [More]
Calorie restriction can improve muscle metabolism during middle age

Calorie restriction can improve muscle metabolism during middle age

Calorie restriction has long been studied as a way to extend lifespan in animals. It has been associated with the ability to reduce the risks of cardiovascular and other diseases and to improve overall health. [More]
ATA guidelines provide recommendations for managing thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in children

ATA guidelines provide recommendations for managing thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer in children

Previous guidelines from the American Thyroid Association for evaluating and managing thyroid nodules and thyroid cancers targeted adults. Recognizing the potential differences in clinical presentation and long-term outcomes, and the potential risks of overly aggressive therapy in pediatric patients with thyroid cancer, an ATA Task Force developed management guidelines for children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), which are published in Thyroid, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers and the official journal of the American Thyroid Association. [More]
Blocking Slit2 protein prevents blood vessel development that causes vasoproliferative ocular diseases

Blocking Slit2 protein prevents blood vessel development that causes vasoproliferative ocular diseases

Vasoproliferative ocular diseases are responsible for sight loss in millions of people in the industrialised countries. Many patients do not currently respond to the treatment offered, which targets a specific factor, VEGF. A team of Inserm researchers at the Vision Institute (Inserm/CNRS/Pierre and Marie Curie University), in association with a team from the Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, have demonstrated in an animal model that blocking another protein, Slit2, prevents the pathological blood vessel development that causes these diseases. [More]
Neuroscientists identify novel brain circuitry that increases anxiety during nicotine withdrawal

Neuroscientists identify novel brain circuitry that increases anxiety during nicotine withdrawal

In a promising breakthrough for smokers who are trying to quit, neuroscientists at the University of Massachusetts Medical School and The Scripps Research Institute have identified circuitry in the brain responsible for the increased anxiety commonly experienced during withdrawal from nicotine addiction. [More]
New class of drugs targeting blood glucose level could benefit individuals with type 2 diabetes

New class of drugs targeting blood glucose level could benefit individuals with type 2 diabetes

Individuals with type 2 diabetes, who are resistant to insulin, have an excess blood glucose level, which they are now trying to reduce using a new class of diabetes drugs known as the gliflozins. [More]
UC Davis assistant professor wins Hartwell Foundation award to explore treatment for juvenile diabetes

UC Davis assistant professor wins Hartwell Foundation award to explore treatment for juvenile diabetes

UC Davis Assistant Professor Mark Huising is a recipient of The Hartwell Foundation 2014 Individual Biomedical Research Award to support his early-stage research toward a cure for juvenile diabetes. Diabetes affects 10 percent of the entire United States population, including approximately a million children. Remarkably, 40 children every day receive the diagnosis of diabetes. [More]
Montefiore and Einstein researchers to present new findings on neurological disorders at AAN 2015

Montefiore and Einstein researchers to present new findings on neurological disorders at AAN 2015

Researchers from Montefiore Health System and Albert Einstein College of Medicine will present new findings on how to effectively treat migraine, and forecast the onset of pain in a number of neurological conditions including dementia in older adults. [More]
Two Louisville heart physicians to host symposium on cardiovascular disease in women

Two Louisville heart physicians to host symposium on cardiovascular disease in women

Two of Louisville's leading heart physicians will host a one-day symposium designed to provide the community, physicians, nurses and health professionals up-to-date information on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease in women. [More]
Global changes in cancer cells' epigenome may determine disease progression

Global changes in cancer cells' epigenome may determine disease progression

Genomic studies have illuminated the ways in which malfunctioning genes can drive cancer growth while stunting the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy and other treatments. But new findings from Weill Cornell Medical College investigators indicate that these genes are only partly to blame for why treatment that was at one point effective ultimately fails for about 40 percent of patients diagnosed with the most common form of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. [More]
New UM SOM study reveals why thiazide drugs not effective in some patients

New UM SOM study reveals why thiazide drugs not effective in some patients

Every year, more than 120 million prescriptions are written worldwide for thiazide drugs, a group of salt-lowering medicines used to treat high blood pressure. These drugs are often work very well, and over decades have saved hundreds of thousands of lives. [More]
University of Washington receives PPMD grant to continue analysis of spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin

University of Washington receives PPMD grant to continue analysis of spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin

Parent Project Muscular Dystrophy, a nonprofit organization leading the fight to end Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Duchenne) awarded University of Washington a $148,000 grant to continue the functional analysis of spectrin-like repeats in dystrophin. [More]
Colour of light influences how the brain clock measures time of day

Colour of light influences how the brain clock measures time of day

Research by scientists at The University of Manchester has revealed that the colour of light has a major impact on how the brain clock measures time of day and on how the animals' physiology and behavior adjust accordingly. The study, for the first time, provides a neuronal mechanism for how our internal clock can measure changes in light colour that accompany dawn and dusk. [More]
Study points to potential therapeutic targets to halt tumor cell movement

Study points to potential therapeutic targets to halt tumor cell movement

Tumor cells become lethal when they spread. Blocking this process can be a powerful way to stop cancer. Historically, scientists thought that tumor cells migrated by brute force, actively pushing through whatever tissue was in their way, but recent evidence has shown that tumor cells may be more methodical. And in a new study, Cornell University researchers report that tumor cells take advantage of already-cleared paths to migrate unimpeded [More]
Zinc deficiency can activate Hedgehog signaling pathway

Zinc deficiency can activate Hedgehog signaling pathway

Zinc deficiency - long associated with numerous diseases, e.g. autism, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancers - can lead to activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, a biomolecular pathway that plays essential roles in developing organisms and in diseases, according to new research at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. [More]
Robert B. Kiningham receives Founders' Award at 2015 AMSSM Annual Meeting

Robert B. Kiningham receives Founders' Award at 2015 AMSSM Annual Meeting

Robert B. Kiningham, MD, was awarded the Founders' Award at the 24th American Medical Society for Sports Medicine Annual Meeting in Hollywood, Fla. The award is bestowed when AMSSM leadership determines that a member exemplifies the best that a sports medicine physician can be and do. [More]
Autophagy: A new approach to fighting tuberculosis

Autophagy: A new approach to fighting tuberculosis

A new approach to combatting tuberculosis would take advantage of a complex, natural process called autophagy that the human body uses to recycle nutrients, remove damaged cell components, eliminate invading bacteria, and respond to inflammation. [More]
Novel findings may hold promise for children, adults with mitochondrial disorders

Novel findings may hold promise for children, adults with mitochondrial disorders

Rooted in malfunctions in the tiny power plants that energize our cells, mitochondrial disorders are notoriously complex and variable, with few effective treatments. Now, novel findings in microscopic worms may hold great promise for children and adults with mitochondrial disorders [More]
Portions of female reproductive tract likely to be infected by HIV, shows study

Portions of female reproductive tract likely to be infected by HIV, shows study

A Dartmouth study led by Charles Wira, PhD, with first author Marta Rodriguez-Garcia, MD, PhD, found that some portions of the female reproductive tract (FRT) are more likely to be infected by HIV, particularly the ectocervix compared to the endometrium. [More]
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