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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Research finding could inspire new ideas for treating type 2 oculocutaneous albinism

Research finding could inspire new ideas for treating type 2 oculocutaneous albinism

Newly published research provides the first demonstration of how a genetic mutation associated with a common form of albinism leads to the lack of melanin pigments that characterizes the condition. [More]
Scientists find new signal pathway that plays vital role in learning, processing of sensory input

Scientists find new signal pathway that plays vital role in learning, processing of sensory input

Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany have discovered a new signal pathway in the brain that plays an important role in learning and the processing of sensory input. It was already known that distinct glial cells receive information from neurons. [More]
Umbilical cord clamping influences resistance to oxidative stress in newborns

Umbilical cord clamping influences resistance to oxidative stress in newborns

A study conducted by University of Granada scientists (from the Physiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology Departments) and from the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada) has demonstrated that delaying the cutting of the umbilical cord in newborns by two minutes leads to a better development of the baby during the first days of life. [More]
Maintaining weight loss over long term can be a major challenge

Maintaining weight loss over long term can be a major challenge

A new report combining perspectives from a range of obesity experts identifies genetic, epigenetic and neuro-hormonal differences between individuals as one of the key challenges associated with weight loss and long-term weight control. [More]
IRCM researchers uncover mechanism that regulates dopamine levels in the brain

IRCM researchers uncover mechanism that regulates dopamine levels in the brain

Researchers in Montréal led by Jacques Drouin, D.Sc., uncovered a mechanism regulating dopamine levels in the brain by working on a mouse model of late onset Parkinson's disease. [More]
MSU researchers find possible way to boost healthy cell production in cancer patients during chemo

MSU researchers find possible way to boost healthy cell production in cancer patients during chemo

Michigan State University scientists are closer to discovering a possible way to boost healthy cell production in cancer patients as they receive chemotherapy. By adding thymine - a natural building block found in DNA - into normal cells, they found it stimulated gene production and caused them to multiply. [More]
Study: Long-term endurance training alters epigenetic pattern in the human skeletal muscle

Study: Long-term endurance training alters epigenetic pattern in the human skeletal muscle

A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows that long-term endurance training in a stable way alters the epigenetic pattern in the human skeletal muscle. The research team behind the study, which is being published in the journal Epigenetics, also found strong links between these altered epigenetic patterns and the activity in genes controlling improved metabolism and inflammation. [More]
UT Southwestern biophysicist named recipient of 2015 Edith and Peter O'Donnell Award in Science

UT Southwestern biophysicist named recipient of 2015 Edith and Peter O'Donnell Award in Science

The Academy of Medicine, Engineering and Science of Texas has selected Dr. Yuh Min Chook, Professor of Pharmacology and of Biophysics at UT Southwestern Medical Center, as the recipient of the 2015 Edith and Peter O'Donnell Award in Science. [More]
Low doses of fluoxetine could hold key to preventing PMS symptoms

Low doses of fluoxetine could hold key to preventing PMS symptoms

Low doses of fluoxetine - better known as the anti-depressant Prozac - could hold the key to preventing PMS symptoms, an international team of researchers has found. [More]
Study reveals how elite Kenyan athletes succeed in long-distance races

Study reveals how elite Kenyan athletes succeed in long-distance races

The Journal of Applied Physiology has published an article by Jordan Santos-Concejero of the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences of the University of the Basque Country, and entitled `Maintained cerebral oxygenation during maximal self-paced exercise in elite Kenyan runners'. This is a pioneering study in the world of the physiology of exercise, given that it describes for the first time that elite Kenyan athletes have greater brain oxygenation during periods of maximum physical effort, and which contributes to their success in long-distance races. [More]
Scientists seek to improve stem cell transplant outcomes using DNA sequencing, mathematical modeling

Scientists seek to improve stem cell transplant outcomes using DNA sequencing, mathematical modeling

Is the human immune system similar to the weather, a seemingly random yet dynamical system that can be modeled based on past conditions to predict future states? Scientists at VCU Massey Cancer Center's award-winning Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Program believe it is, and they recently published several studies that support the possibility of using next-generation DNA sequencing and mathematical modeling to not only understand the variability observed in clinical outcomes of stem cell transplantation, but also to provide a theoretical framework to make transplantation a possibility for more patients who do not have a related donor. [More]
New chemical compound shows promise in restoring function lost to spinal cord injury

New chemical compound shows promise in restoring function lost to spinal cord injury

Case Western Reserve scientists have developed a new chemical compound that shows extraordinary promise in restoring function lost to spinal cord injury. The compound, which the researchers dubbed intracellular sigma peptide (ISP), allowed paralyzed muscles to activate in more than 80 percent of the animals tested. [More]
Researchers identify biochemical mechanism that could lead to 'chemo brain'

Researchers identify biochemical mechanism that could lead to 'chemo brain'

UNC School of Medicine researchers have found for the first time a biochemical mechanism that could be a cause of "chemo brain" - the neurological side effects such as memory loss, confusion, difficulty thinking, and trouble concentrating that many cancer patients experience while on chemotherapy to treat tumors in other parts of the body. [More]
Organovo, Yale collaborate to develop bioprinted tissues for surgical transplantation research

Organovo, Yale collaborate to develop bioprinted tissues for surgical transplantation research

Organovo Holdings, Inc., a three-dimensional biology company focused on delivering breakthrough 3D bioprinting technology, and Yale School of Medicine, Department of Surgery have formed a collaboration to develop bioprinted tissues for surgical transplantation research, made possible by a generous gift from the Methuselah Foundation. [More]
Blue light can knock circadian rhythms off-kilter, study finds

Blue light can knock circadian rhythms off-kilter, study finds

A study funded by the National Institutes of Health is unraveling the mystery of how blue light from residential and commercial lighting, electronic devices, outdoor lights and billboards can throw off-kilter the natural body clock of humans, plants and animals, leading to disease. [More]
University of Chicago collaborates with NCI to set up Genomic Data Commons

University of Chicago collaborates with NCI to set up Genomic Data Commons

The University of Chicago is collaborating with the National Cancer Institute to establish the nation's most comprehensive computational facility that stores and harmonizes cancer genomic data generated through NCI-funded research programs. [More]
Monash Vision Group moves a step closer to Bionic Eye clinical trials

Monash Vision Group moves a step closer to Bionic Eye clinical trials

The Monash Vision Groupmoves a step closer to clinical trials of its Bionic Eye, thanks to landmark donations from two respected business leaders. [More]
Variations in movement patterns indicate severity of autism spectrum disorder

Variations in movement patterns indicate severity of autism spectrum disorder

Imperceptible variations in movement patterns among individuals with autism spectrum disorder are important indicators of the severity of the disorder in children and adults, according to a report presented at the 2014 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in November. [More]

Physiologists use new method to identify two odorant receptors in live mice

A group of physiologists led by University of Kentucky's Tim McClintock have identified the receptors activated by two odors using a new method that tracks responses to smells in live mice. [More]
New approach can prevent chronic marijuana use, relieve mood, anxiety disorders

New approach can prevent chronic marijuana use, relieve mood, anxiety disorders

Replenishing the supply of a molecule that normally activates cannabinoid receptors in the brain could relieve mood and anxiety disorders and enable some people to quit using marijuana, a Vanderbilt University study suggests. [More]