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Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically tied and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.
Scientists unveil reasons why NSAIDs, pain killers may increase heart disease risk

Scientists unveil reasons why NSAIDs, pain killers may increase heart disease risk

Researchers have known for more than a decade that the risk of heart disease and stroke increases when people take pain relievers like ibuprofen and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, or NSAIDs. Now, scientists from the University of California, Davis, have uncovered some of the reasons why these drugs can harm heart tissue. [More]
CMGH study offers insight into future interventions for Crohn's disease, chronic pancreatitis

CMGH study offers insight into future interventions for Crohn's disease, chronic pancreatitis

Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology is committed to publishing impactful digestive biology research covering a broad spectrum of themes in GI, hepatology and pancreatology. We wanted to share two new CMGH articles, which both offer important insight into future interventions for chronic conditions. [More]
Female hormones may be responsible for decreased risk of kidney failure in women than men

Female hormones may be responsible for decreased risk of kidney failure in women than men

Female hormones may play a role in women's decreased risk of developing kidney failure relative to men, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. The findings may be helpful for future attempts at safeguarding women's and men's kidney health in sex-specific ways. [More]
Researchers explore changes in Parkinson's-affected cells at different stages of the disease

Researchers explore changes in Parkinson's-affected cells at different stages of the disease

It's an unsettling thought: You could be walking around for 20 years developing Parkinson's disease and not even know it. [More]
Studies on role of vitamin A in heart health have drawn opposite conclusions

Studies on role of vitamin A in heart health have drawn opposite conclusions

Vitamin A is involved in many bodily processes, including vision and skin health, but its role in the heart is unclear. While vitamin A is critical for heart development of embryos—vitamin A deficiency during pregnancy leads to an abnormal heart and prenatal death—studies on vitamin A's role in heart health have drawn opposite conclusions. [More]
Key gene changes reveal four previously unknown conditions within schizophrenia

Key gene changes reveal four previously unknown conditions within schizophrenia

Changes in key genes clearly define four previously unknown conditions within the umbrella diagnosis of schizophrenia, according to a study led by researchers from NYU Langone Medical Center published online April 28 in EBioMedicine, a Lancet journal. Cases associated with changes in each of the four genes were different from each other in terms of symptoms, intelligence level and other disease features. [More]
Clinicians describe placement of first implantable hemodynamic monitor in single ventricle Fontan anatomy

Clinicians describe placement of first implantable hemodynamic monitor in single ventricle Fontan anatomy

While the Fontan procedure has improved the short- and mid-term outcomes for patients born with single ventricle anatomy, long-term complications of Fontan circulation include heart failure. These complications are thought to be secondary to elevated central venous pressure, chronic venous congestion and low cardiac output. [More]
Daily chocolate consumption may improve cardio-metabolic health

Daily chocolate consumption may improve cardio-metabolic health

A new study published in the British Journal of Nutrition appears to back up the adage that a little of what you fancy does you good. [More]
Cubresa's new NuPET scanner enables simultaneous PET/MRI in existing third-party MRI systems

Cubresa's new NuPET scanner enables simultaneous PET/MRI in existing third-party MRI systems

A compact PET scanner called NuPET has been commercially released for simultaneous preclinical PET (Positron Emission Tomography) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) in existing third-party MRI systems. [More]
Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

Role of microRNAs in range of physiological activities

A group including scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) has been awarded a grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health to study the role of microRNAs in a range of physiological activities, including memory, sleep, synapse function and movement. [More]
Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles increases bacterial infection of HeLa cells

Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles increases bacterial infection of HeLa cells

When human cells are exposed to titanium dioxide without the presence of UV light from the sun, the risk for bacterial infection more than doubles. This finding by a Stony Brook University-led research team, published early online in the Journal of Nanobiotechnology, raises concerns about exposure to titanium dioxide, a nanoparticle commonly used in millions of products worldwide ranging from cosmetics to toothpaste, gum, food coloring, and medicines. [More]
PANDHUB project develops ways of reducing pandemic risk in transport hubs

PANDHUB project develops ways of reducing pandemic risk in transport hubs

Transport plays a major role in the spread of transmissible diseases. PANDHUB, a project coordinated by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, develops ways of reducing the risk of pandemics and managing other high-threat pathogen incidents in transport hubs. [More]
Study reveals new function for CACNA1C gene in psychiatric diseases

Study reveals new function for CACNA1C gene in psychiatric diseases

A new study shows the death of newborn brain cells may be linked to a genetic risk factor for five major psychiatric diseases, and at the same time shows a compound currently being developed for use in humans may have therapeutic value for these diseases by preventing the cells from dying. [More]
New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetically inherited cause of intellectual disability in humans. New research shows how the hormone insulin -- usually associated with diabetes -- is involved in the daily activity patterns and cognitive deficits in the fruitfly model of FXS, according to a new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania published online this month in Molecular Psychiatry in advance of the print issue. [More]
Study reveals how visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance, inflammation

Study reveals how visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance, inflammation

Researchers have long-known that visceral fat - the kind that wraps around the internal organs - is more dangerous than subcutaneous fat that lies just under the skin around the belly, thighs and rear. But how visceral fat contributes to insulin resistance and inflammation has remained unknown. [More]
Fructose common in western diet can damage brain genes

Fructose common in western diet can damage brain genes

A range of diseases -- from diabetes to cardiovascular disease, and from Alzheimer's disease to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder -- are linked to changes to genes in the brain. A new study by UCLA life scientists has found that hundreds of those genes can be damaged by fructose, a sugar that's common in the Western diet, in a way that could lead to those diseases. [More]
Microtubules affect mechanics of beating heart, study finds

Microtubules affect mechanics of beating heart, study finds

On top of the meaning and mystery that humans heap on the heart, it is first and foremost, a muscle. And one that beats about once a second for a person's entire life, with no rest. Given its vital importance, it's ironic researchers have only recently made direct observations of its subcellular parts in motion. [More]
Endurance running training increases bone density

Endurance running training increases bone density

Spanish researchers have analysed the effect of endurance running training on the stiffness index, a variable that is directly related to bone quality. The results confirm that the greater the race distance that is trained, the better; this can be used, therefore, to prevent the progressive decline in bone mineral density that occurs with age. [More]
UNC scientists develop new optogenetic tool to study function of different proteins

UNC scientists develop new optogenetic tool to study function of different proteins

Scientists at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine have developed a way to embed light-responsive switches into proteins so that researchers can use lasers to manipulate protein movement and activity within living cells and animals. [More]
New Lullaby Trust-funded study could prevent sudden, unexpected deaths of babies and children

New Lullaby Trust-funded study could prevent sudden, unexpected deaths of babies and children

An innovative new study funded by The Lullaby Trust is being launched, which could have profound implications for preventing the sudden and unexpected deaths of babies and children. [More]
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