News-Medical.Net warmly welcomes all users, potential contributors, suppliers and experts to its Web site.


News-Medical.Net aims to segment, profile and distribute medical news to the widest possible audience of potential beneficiaries worldwide and to provide a forum for ideas, debate and learning, and to facilitate interaction between all parts of the medical health sciences community worldwide.

The News-Medical.Net team hopes that you find the Web site relevant, useful, and stimulating. It is important to News-Medical.Net that copyright and other laws, and principles of intellectual integrity are observed. News-Medical.Net also hopes that any business conducted independently between parties as a result of introduction through the Web site is conducted professionally, courteously, ethically, and in compliance with the laws that apply to them in their part of the world.

News-Medical.Net looks to Users to help keep the standards high. If you see a contribution that you believe may breach the copyright of another person, or may be using the ideas of others without proper acknowledgment, please contact us.

The forum is intended to be open by nature. Participants are likely to come from the hundreds of millions who comprise the diverse worldwide internet community, including industry professionals, academics, technical journalists, students, government officials and amateur enthusiasts.

Given the forum's open nature, News-Medical.Net has been advised that it can only remain viable if all risk (except as specifically required by law) remains with Participants and other third parties.

Terms and Conditions

Therefore, News-Medical.Net requires all Participants to accept the terms and conditions of this Web site as a precondition of their participation. Use of this Web site in any way or capacity constitutes acceptance of these terms and conditions.

Some News-Medical.Net health/medical information is not attributed to an author.

This Web site is owned and operated by Pty Limited (ACN 092 434 529) trading as AZoNetwork of Suite 24 MVB, 90 Mona Vale Road, Mona Vale, Sydney, NSW, Australia ( Please send any e-mail enquiries to


a) News-Medical is committed to protecting the privacy of all Participants and to keeping secure personal information that Participants provide to News-Medical (Personal Information). News-Medical is also committed to fully observing the privacy laws of Australia as they stand from time to time. Unless otherwise compelled by law, News-Medical shall restrict access to Personal Information to such News-Medical officers, employees, agents, contractors and advisers who are properly authorised by News-Medical in good faith. Authorisation of such persons shall only extend to legitimate internal purposes of News-Medical.

(b) By way of exception to this requirement and subject to relevant Australian laws:

(i) News-Medical may from time to time disclose part or all of the Personal Information supplied to News-Medical by a User to third parties, including third parties who may wish to offer goods and services to the User, but News-Medical may only disclose any such Personal Information to such third parties with the prior consent of the relevant User. News-Medical may seek such consent from Users from time to time.(ii) As part of registration processes, Contributors and Experts can expect to be asked for certain Personal Information, including contact details, qualifications, and employment details. Disclosure of any such Personal Information by a Contributor or Expert to News-Medical in any registration process shall be deemed to be a grant of permission by the relevant person to News-Medical to publish any such Personal Information on the Website. News-Medical will use reasonable endeavours to ensure all Personal Information published on the Website in respect of a Contributor or Expert is correct, but accepts no liability for any errors in that regard. If Contributors or Experts identify any errors in respect of their Personal Information on the Website, News-Medical would appreciate prompt notification and will use reasonable endeavours to promptly make necessary corrections.

(iii) If News-Medical disposes any part of its undertaking to a third party where such disposal necessitates any transferee having need in good faith to access to News-Medical's records of Participants' Personal Information, then nothing in these Terms and Conditions prevents News-Medical giving the relevant transferee access to such Personal Information for the purpose of carrying on the relevant undertaking.

Becoming a Participant

Users may become such by use of the Site or by any registration procedures shown on the Website, including acceptance of these terms and conditions.

Persons wishing to become Contributors are warmly invited to submit material for consideration to be included as Content for the Website. To ensure the highest editorial standards, News-Medical.Net may from time to time request information from persons submitting material, and reserves the right to reject any submitted material.

Comments / Forum


Our forum is moderated on an hourly basis. The moderators and administrators are staff members of News-Medical.Net. They use the following aliases: Editors

The moderators and forum members are not regarded as health professionals.


The information provided on this forum is designed to support, not replace, the direct relationship between patients and health professionals.


We remind you that any message can be read, used, reproduced and cited by all. You do not have the option to delete your messages. However, under exceptional circumstances, you can contact the moderators to do so. The references you provide for your posts cannot be deleted. Thus, please take care regarding the information that you post.


The moderators and members should conduct themselves at all times with respect and honesty.

By using our forums, you agree to post information that is true and correct to the best of your knowledge and is of your personal experience. If the information you post is not personal experience, we request you to provide sources (references, links, etc..) whenever it is relevant and possible.

You are not allowed to post advertisements, whether in the form of text links or banners, for example.

The moderators reserve the right to delete any messages deemed inappropriate without notifying the author. In cases of abuse, the moderators reserve the right to ban a member of the forum. In both instances, an explanation will be provided if user requests.

Last date of modification: 31th October 2012

Editorial Team

April Cashin-Garbutt, BA Hons (Cantab), Editor-in-Chief
Dr. A Mandal, MD (Pharmacology), Assistant Professor, Editor
J. Scanlon - Technical

Funding Sources

News-Medical.Net is solely funded by 'on-site' advertising.

Advertising Policy

To further our mission of making reliable medical information available to the public, we accept advertising and sponsorship under strict guidelines. We will refuse any advertisement that we believe is incompatible with our mission. The presence of an ad on our site does not imply endorsement of the advertised company or product. Advertisers and sponsors must not make unsubstantiated health claims or suggest that News-Medical.Net has endorsed a product. Advertising served "in house" is not targeted to individual users but may be placed on the site adjacent to content related to advertiser or sponsor interest. Our website hosts advertisement banners and sponsored links. Advertisement is distinguished by the word "Advertisement" or "Ads by Google". Advertising served by Google and Third Party solutions may be targetted to an individual (see below). Our website hosts Google sponsored ads and links. We do not control Google ads content and our editorial content is free of any commercial influence.

This site displays advertising served in-house, advertising served by Google* as part of the Adsense publishing network and advertising by third-party vendors.

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We use third-party advertising companies to serve ads when you visit our website. These companies may use information (not including your name, address, email address, or telephone number) about your visits to this and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to you. If you would like more information about this practice and to know your choices about not having this information used by these companies, click here.'

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Third Party Advertising Vendors

The following third parties are supported:

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News-Medical.Net contains articles on many medical topics; however no warranty whatsoever is made that any of the articles are accurate. There is absolutely no assurance that any statement contained or cited in an article touching on medical matters is true, correct, precise, or up-to-date. The overwhelming majority of such articles are written, in part or in whole, by non-professionals. Even if a statement made about medicine is accurate, it may not apply to you or your symptoms.


Contact us by any of the following routes:

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United Kingdom

AZoNetwork UK Ltd., Fence House, Fence Ave,
Macclesfield, Cheshire SK10 1LT, UK

t: +44 (0)1625 615111
f: +44 (0)1625 610938

AZoNetwork UK Office


Suite 24, 90 Mona Vale Rd
NSW 2102

Tel: +61 (0)2 9999-0070
Fax: +61 (0)2 9999-0071

AZoNetwork Australian Office