News Medical's "Thought Leaders" series is a selection of articles written by national and international experts and trusted advisers in health and medicine. All the articles are written by experts who have been invited as recognised leaders in their fields to provide a "state of the art" contribution.
Energy balance between energy intake and expenditure in our bodies is important for maintaining energy homeostasis to keep our bodies functioning properly. The appetite determines how much we eat, the energy intake, by communication between the brain and body.
There is allergic contact dermatitis, which is mediated through an immune mechanism, this means that the person is specifically allergic to what they have come in to contact with their skin. Their body has had to go through a process whereby they have...
Antimicrobial resistance happens when bugs, like bacteria, fungi or viruses, change, or evolve, when they’re exposed to drugs, like antibiotics, antifungals, or antivirals. Bugs that develop antimicrobial resistance are sometimes referred to as ‘superbugs’.
When choosing a sunscreen, you must first consider what you will be doing when wearing it, for example if you're running, the sunscreen you choose must be able to withstand sweating.
The number of cases of childhood diarrhea, and its mortality toll of 500,000 per year, has not changed. Now, however, we can explain ~90% of the cases to specific pathogens. We can assign responsibility.
Stroke is the epidemic disease of the twenty-first century and the second most frequent cause of death in 2011, accounting for 11% of all deaths worldwide. Stroke is also the second most important cause of permanent disability and...
IPF (Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis) is a difficult disease to diagnose. Many patients will experience many visits to the doctor and some may even be told they have a different respiratory condition before they finally get the correct diagnosis that...
As well as presenting with high blood glucose, diabetic patients have chronic low-grade inflammation, which can be measured by a range of inflammatory markers such as so-called high-sensitive CRP, TNFa and IL-6 as well as a full blood cell count.
Macrophages are frontline cells in our immune system. They detect microbial invaders and also tissue injury and then mount an appropriate response needed to clear the infection and repair the damaged tissue.
Acne develops due to an interplay between genetic factors (so people often have a family history) and hormonal factors that can increase the size and activity of the sebaceous or oil gland.
The new Phenome Centre Birmingham is an eight-million-pound research facility that has been funded by the Medical Research Council, by the University of Birmingham, and by four industry partners, namely, Beckman Coulter, Bruker, ThermoFisher Scientific and Waters. It is a clinical phenotyping centre.
I think innovation is one of those rather slippery terms that means different things to different people. First of all, I would make a distinction between innovations that are essentially about a new, physical product and innovations that are more to do with services or processes.
Nontuberculous mycobacteria are part of a group of bacteria called mycobacteria. The non-tuberculous mycobacteria are, as the name suggests, mycobacteria that are not tuberculosis. They're also not leprosy, but they are the other members of the bacteria group termed mycobacteria.
The research was presented by pharmacists from the Calvary Public Hospital in Canberra, who looked at conversations that took place in selected parenting groups on Facebook.
Lynch syndrome is an inherited condition which causes about 1,100 cases of bowel cancer and 1,000 other cancers annually in the UK. It is caused by a fault in the mismatch repair gene (MMR) which usually works to prevent cancer.
The first thing that is important to stress is that this is an area that we actually know very little about. What we generally think, rather than know, is that NTM has a lot in common with pulmonary tuberculosis.
IDPs are proteins that contain stretches of amino-acid sequence that are flexible and do not comprise stable structure in isolation. This is in contrast with a more traditional view of proteins as largely occupying a stable native structure that correlates with functions such as enzyme activity or binding.
The majority of patients in neonatal intensive care units are premature babies, who often have infectious (congenital pneumonia) or noninfectious (tachypnea, infant respiratory distress syndrome) respiratory pathologies.
Brain plasticity is the phenomenon by which the brain can rewire and reorganize itself in response to changing stimulus input. Brain plasticity is at play when one is learning new information (at school) or learning a new language...
Nanoparticles enter the organism in a number of ways. In most cases through inhalation and ingestion. When inhaled, the majority of them are expelled with the next breath. When ingested, most of them are gotten rid of through feces.