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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
New research shows male seahorse pregnancies are similar to human pregnancies

New research shows male seahorse pregnancies are similar to human pregnancies

Their pregnancies are carried by the males but, when it comes to breeding, seahorses have more in common with humans than previously thought, new research from the University of Sydney reveals. [More]
Gene transfer therapy not beneficial for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

Gene transfer therapy not beneficial for heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction

Gene transfer therapy aimed at correcting an enzyme abnormality involved in myocardial contraction and relaxation did not improve outcomes in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction, results of the CUPID 2 study show. [More]
BCM injection does not prevent cardiac remodeling in heart attack patients

BCM injection does not prevent cardiac remodeling in heart attack patients

An investigational material known Bioabsorbable Cardiac Matrix (BCM) that is injected through the coronary artery to prevent cardiac remodelling in heart attack patients had no significant effect compared to a saline placebo, according to results of the PRESERVATION I trial. [More]
Researchers discover that vitamin D may play significant role in preventing AMD among women

Researchers discover that vitamin D may play significant role in preventing AMD among women

Vitamin D has been studied extensively in relation to bone health as well as cancer. Now, a team led by a researcher at the University at Buffalo has discovered that vitamin D may play a significant role in eye health, specifically in the possible prevention of age-related macular degeneration, or AMD, among women who are more genetically prone to developing the sight-damaging disease. [More]
Most American schools implement healthy practices to meet federal school meal standards

Most American schools implement healthy practices to meet federal school meal standards

Most schools in the U.S. are implementing healthy practices to help meet federal school meal standards by offering whole grains, more fruits and vegetables, and reducing sodium content, according to data published today in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. [More]
Novel technique may lead to therapies for pain relief in individuals with intractable pain

Novel technique may lead to therapies for pain relief in individuals with intractable pain

A team of scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) has developed a novel technique using tiny gold rods to target pain receptors. [More]
New iPS cell model provides clear drug target for treatment of DMD

New iPS cell model provides clear drug target for treatment of DMD

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscular disease that shows symptoms in early childhood and causes progressive atrophy and eventual death. There is little in terms of treatment, partly because of poor understanding of how DMD develops, although it is known that abnormal expression of the protein dystrophin is at fault. [More]
Scientists map 3-D atomic structure of protein complex that controls neurotransmitter release from brain cells

Scientists map 3-D atomic structure of protein complex that controls neurotransmitter release from brain cells

Scientists have revealed never-before-seen details of how our brain sends rapid-fire messages between its cells. They mapped the 3-D atomic structure of a two-part protein complex that controls the release of signaling chemicals, called neurotransmitters, from brain cells. Understanding how cells release those signals in less than one-thousandth of a second could help launch a new wave of research on drugs for treating brain disorders. [More]
3D protein structure reveals new drug targets for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases

3D protein structure reveals new drug targets for cancer, neurodegenerative diseases

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of enzymes that controls the activity of other proteins in a cell by attaching chemical tags. That simple act helps determine cell survival or death. [More]
Depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety and anger in RA patients linked to atherosclerosis

Depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety and anger in RA patients linked to atherosclerosis

New research reveals that depressive symptoms, stress, anxiety, and anger and lack of social support in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were linked to atherosclerosis--a build-up of fatty deposits in the arteries that contributes to cardiovascular disease. The study published in Arthritis Care & Research, a journal of the American College of Rheumatology, suggests that screening and treatment of psychosocial symptoms may curb the cardiovascular disease burden in RA patients. [More]
New research could help develop precision medicine for primary aldosteronism

New research could help develop precision medicine for primary aldosteronism

Each of your kidneys wears a little yellow cap that helps keep your blood pressure in check, and much more. But in some people, it starts running amok, pumping out a hormone that sends blood pressure sky-high. [More]
Non-invasive diagnostic imaging can rule out CAD in about 50% of women with atypical chest pain

Non-invasive diagnostic imaging can rule out CAD in about 50% of women with atypical chest pain

Non-invasive diagnostic imaging can rule out coronary artery disease (CAD) in about 50% of women with atypical chest pain who are at relatively low risk for CAD, while exposing them to only a modest dose of radiation. [More]
Johns Hopkins and Mayo Clinic cardiologists suggest upgrades to controversial heart disease prevention guidelines

Johns Hopkins and Mayo Clinic cardiologists suggest upgrades to controversial heart disease prevention guidelines

Acknowledging key strengths and "lessons learned," preventive cardiologists from Johns Hopkins and Mayo Clinic have developed a short list of suggested upgrades to the controversial heart disease prevention guidelines issued jointly in 2013 by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. [More]
Testosterone administration not associated with atherosclerosis progression among older men

Testosterone administration not associated with atherosclerosis progression among older men

Among older men with low testosterone levels, testosterone administration for 3 years compared with placebo did not result in a significant difference in the rates of change in atherosclerosis (thickening and hardening of artery walls), nor was it associated with improved overall sexual function or health-related quality of life, according to a study in the August 11 issue of JAMA. [More]
TEAAM trial finds that testosterone has no effect on atherosclerosis progression

TEAAM trial finds that testosterone has no effect on atherosclerosis progression

Testosterone sales have grown rapidly over the last decade, but few studies have examined the long-term effects of taking testosterone on cardiovascular health and other important outcomes. This week, investigators from Brigham and Women's Hospital report the results of the Testosterone's Effects on Atherosclerosis Progression in Aging Men (TEAAM) trial in the Journal of the American Medical Association. [More]
New Johns Hopkins study shows hepatitis C infection may spell heart trouble

New Johns Hopkins study shows hepatitis C infection may spell heart trouble

People infected with the hepatitis C virus are at risk for liver damage, but the results of a new Johns Hopkins study now show the infection may also spell heart trouble. [More]
Orlando Health Heart Institute first in Central Florida to use CoreValve Evolut R System to replace heart valves

Orlando Health Heart Institute first in Central Florida to use CoreValve Evolut R System to replace heart valves

Leading edge heart valve technology is helping improve patient outcomes and giving doctors greater accuracy when implanting replacement valves. Interventional cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons at the Orlando Health Heart Institute are the first in Central Florida to use the newly approved recapturable, self-expanding CoreValve Evolut R System. [More]
Researchers explore key factors to improve astronauts’ nutrition needs during space missions

Researchers explore key factors to improve astronauts’ nutrition needs during space missions

Centuries ago, ships often sailed with crews numbering in the hundreds returning with tens. Cause of death: Scurvy - a severe depletion of Vitamin C. [More]
Study provides mechanism for EDNRB gene's role in adaptation to life at high altitudes

Study provides mechanism for EDNRB gene's role in adaptation to life at high altitudes

Ethiopians have lived at high altitudes for thousands of years, providing a natural experiment for studying human adaptations to low oxygen, a condition known as hypoxia. One factor that may enable Ethiopians to tolerate high altitudes and hypoxia is the endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) gene. [More]
Commonly prescribed drug also lowers blood pressure when combined with diuretic

Commonly prescribed drug also lowers blood pressure when combined with diuretic

With the growth of electronic medical records, research utilizing data from a large number of patients, known as big data studies, can provide important information which may be unattainable via clinical trials which tend to be costly, time-consuming and involve fewer patients. [More]
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