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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Applying quantitative microscopy to live cells

Applying quantitative microscopy to live cells

Microscopy's got a long history. It was developed about 350 years ago for scientists to visualize things they could discern, but not describe. The two pioneers of microscopy were Antoine van Leeuwenhoek, who developed the first microscope and soon after the renowned scientist, Robert Hooke. [More]
Tiny, glowing crystals could be powerful new tool to detect and clean contaminated water sources

Tiny, glowing crystals could be powerful new tool to detect and clean contaminated water sources

Tiny, glowing crystals designed to detect and capture heavy-metal toxins such as lead and mercury could prove to be a powerful new tool in locating and cleaning up contaminated water sources. [More]
Study shows cost-effective email messages can help improve calcium intake in Canadians

Study shows cost-effective email messages can help improve calcium intake in Canadians

UBC researchers have demonstrated that simple, cost-effective email messages can help improve the health habits of Canadians. [More]
Neuroscientists identify new regulator of immune system

Neuroscientists identify new regulator of immune system

Cells of the immune system can distinguish between protein molecules that are "self" and "non-self". ­For example, if we are exposed to pathogens such as bacteria or viruses that carry foreign molecules on their surface, the body reacts with an immune response. [More]
Research provides insights into how molecular adaptations can lead to differential circadian timing

Research provides insights into how molecular adaptations can lead to differential circadian timing

The non-biting marine midge Clunio marinus lives along Europe's tide-shapen coasts, where precise timing is of existential importance: Reproduction and oviposition must occur when the tide is at its lowest. [More]
Vitamin D supplements do not prevent disease in the majority, says study

Vitamin D supplements do not prevent disease in the majority, says study

Current evidence does not support that vitamin D supplementation does anything to help prevent disease among the majority of people, according to a new study published in the British Medical Journal (BMJ). [More]
Brident Dental provides tips to help keep mouth and gums healthy during festive season

Brident Dental provides tips to help keep mouth and gums healthy during festive season

Thanksgiving arrives this week, signaling the start of a cherished holiday season filled with both giving and receiving. [More]
FASEB announces winners of 2016 BioArt competition

FASEB announces winners of 2016 BioArt competition

The Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology is pleased to announce the winners of the fifth annual BioArt competition. [More]
Adolescent obesity may lead to irreparable bone damage

Adolescent obesity may lead to irreparable bone damage

Teenagers who are obese may be doing irreparable damage to their bones, according to a new study being presented next week at the annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America. [More]
Drugs used to treat acid reflux and ulcers may increase risk of developing kidney stones and CKD

Drugs used to treat acid reflux and ulcers may increase risk of developing kidney stones and CKD

Certain medications commonly used to treat heartburn, acid reflux, and ulcers can have damaging effects on the kidneys. [More]
Study shows menopausal hormone therapy can improve bone mass and structure

Study shows menopausal hormone therapy can improve bone mass and structure

Women who undergo hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes can not only increase bone mass, but also can improve bone structure, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
T cell channel could be potential new target for treating head and neck cancers

T cell channel could be potential new target for treating head and neck cancers

Researchers at the University of Cincinnati have discovered that an ion channel, active within T cells (white blood cells), could be targeted to reduce the growth of head and neck cancers. [More]
Research shows CRAC channel inhibitors decrease lesion size, brain hemorrhage, and neurological deficits in TBI model

Research shows CRAC channel inhibitors decrease lesion size, brain hemorrhage, and neurological deficits in TBI model

Researchers from the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center and UCSF, and CalciMedica, Inc., are presenting a poster at the 46th annual Society for Neuroscience meeting in San Diego describing the use of calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC) channel inhibitors in traumatic brain injury (TBI). [More]
Underground disturbances linked to fracking could be harbingers of eventual water-quality problems

Underground disturbances linked to fracking could be harbingers of eventual water-quality problems

A new study has found heightened concentrations of some common substances in drinking water near sites where hydraulic fracturing has taken place. [More]
PET/CT imaging can effectively measure coronary artery calcification for assessing heart attack risk

PET/CT imaging can effectively measure coronary artery calcification for assessing heart attack risk

Many people who experience chest pain but don't have a heart attack breathe a big sigh of relief when a stress test comes back negative for blockages in their blood vessels. [More]
Researchers identify mechanism of how circadian clocks in neurons encode daily rhythms of excitability

Researchers identify mechanism of how circadian clocks in neurons encode daily rhythms of excitability

Molecular clocks in cells throughout the body control many physiologic changes in a 24-hour day/night circadian rhythm -- among them the timing of sleep and wakefulness. [More]
MGH researchers find following healthy lifestyle can mitigate genetic risk of heart disease

MGH researchers find following healthy lifestyle can mitigate genetic risk of heart disease

It is well known that following a healthy lifestyle -- not smoking, avoiding excess weight and getting regular exercise - can reduce the risk of heart disease. [More]
Research to assess safety and effectiveness of stem cells as potential treatment for heart failure

Research to assess safety and effectiveness of stem cells as potential treatment for heart failure

Stem cells are being tested at the Medical University of South Carolina as a possible treatment for heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction, or HFpEF. The condition causes severe disability and kills half its victims within five years. [More]
Scientists discover sensor that may regulate tension in blood vessels

Scientists discover sensor that may regulate tension in blood vessels

Physical forces like blood pressure and the shear stress of flowing blood are important parameters for the tension of blood vessels. [More]
Collapse of MAM is common pathological hallmark to certain inherited forms of ALS

Collapse of MAM is common pathological hallmark to certain inherited forms of ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset, fetal neurodegenerative disease that selectively affects motor neurons. [More]
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