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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Study to understand how brain detects errors caused by unexpected sensory events

Study to understand how brain detects errors caused by unexpected sensory events

University of Pennsylvania researchers have made another advance in understanding how the brain detects errors caused by unexpected sensory events. [More]
Ortho-oncology team successfully adapts shoulder surgical aid

Ortho-oncology team successfully adapts shoulder surgical aid

An ortho-oncology team at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Norris Cotton Cancer Center successfully adapted a shoulder surgical aid (the Spider Limb Positioner) to conduct a left hip disarticulation on a melanoma patient as described in a case report published online in Medical Devices. [More]
Endo International introduces topical testosterone gel, FORTESTA Gel

Endo International introduces topical testosterone gel, FORTESTA Gel

Endo International plc announced today that it has introduced the first and only generic 2% topical testosterone gel, an authorized generic of FORTESTA® Gel (testosterone gel) CIII. [More]
Liver injury caused by herbals and dietary supplements increases 20% in U.S. study group

Liver injury caused by herbals and dietary supplements increases 20% in U.S. study group

New research shows that liver injury caused by herbals and dietary supplements increased from 7% to 20% in a U.S. study group over a ten-year period. [More]
Neuroscientist discovers new mechanism that can reverse chronic pain

Neuroscientist discovers new mechanism that can reverse chronic pain

It's in the brain where we perceive the unpleasant sensations of pain, and researchers have long been examining how calcium channels in the brain and peripheral nervous system contribute to the development of chronic pain conditions. [More]
Researchers examine risk of MCI and diabetes mellitus type 2 in middle-aged people

Researchers examine risk of MCI and diabetes mellitus type 2 in middle-aged people

In a large population-based study of randomly selected participants in Germany, researchers found that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) occurred twice more often in individuals diagnosed with diabetes mellitus type 2. [More]
Hyperproteic diets could be beneficial for bones

Hyperproteic diets could be beneficial for bones

This research, conducted at the University of Granada, also reveals that soy protein supplements are better than those with whey, since they improve calcium content in bones by as much as seven per cent. This research has been published in the journal Food & Function [More]
Flow through pain-sensing molecule helps worms adapt to pain

Flow through pain-sensing molecule helps worms adapt to pain

When you accidentally touch a hot oven, you rapidly pull your hand away. Although scientists know the basic neural circuits involved in sensing and responding to such painful stimuli, they are still sorting out the molecular players. [More]
Study suggests that energy drinks can cause heart problems

Study suggests that energy drinks can cause heart problems

Energy drinks can cause heart problems according to research presented at ESC Congress 2014 today by Professor Milou-Daniel Drici from France. [More]
New research suggests that tomato-rich diet can lower prostate cancer risk

New research suggests that tomato-rich diet can lower prostate cancer risk

Men who eat over 10 portions a week of tomatoes have an 18 per cent lower risk of developing prostate cancer, new research suggests. [More]
Authors emphasize benefits of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone health

Authors emphasize benefits of calcium and vitamin D supplements on bone health

Calcium and vitamin D are essential to keeping bones strong, dense and healthy as we age, as well as preventing bone loss, osteporosis, and skeletal fractures. [More]
New mouse model to open door to research on epilepsy, Alzheimer's

New mouse model to open door to research on epilepsy, Alzheimer's

University of Utah scientists have developed a genetically engineered line of mice that is expected to open the door to new research on epilepsy, Alzheimer's and other diseases. [More]
Calcium buildup in coronary arteries of chronic kidney disease patients indicates heart disease risk

Calcium buildup in coronary arteries of chronic kidney disease patients indicates heart disease risk

Calcium buildup in the coronary arteries of chronic kidney disease patients may be a strong indicator of heart disease risk, according to a new study in the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (JASN). [More]
Researchers reveal important clue for treating absence seizures

Researchers reveal important clue for treating absence seizures

A group of Korean researchers have succeeded in revealing a principle mechanism of a neural network in the human brain, which will provide an important clue to potential treatments for absence seizures. [More]
Insulin can protect cells of pancreas from acute pancreatitis

Insulin can protect cells of pancreas from acute pancreatitis

Scientists from The University of Manchester have discovered that insulin can protect the cells of the pancreas from acute pancreatitis - a disease for which there is currently no treatment. [More]
Amgen’s AMG 416 Phase 3 placebo-controlled study meets primary and secondary endpoints

Amgen’s AMG 416 Phase 3 placebo-controlled study meets primary and secondary endpoints

Amgen (NASDAQ: AMGN) today announced that a second placebo-controlled Phase 3 study evaluating AMG 416 for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), receiving hemodialysis, met its primary and all secondary endpoints. [More]
Enzyme therapy may prevent skeletal abnormalities associated with neurofibromatosis type-1

Enzyme therapy may prevent skeletal abnormalities associated with neurofibromatosis type-1

An enzyme therapy may prevent skeletal abnormalities associated with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type-1, Vanderbilt investigators have discovered. [More]
HDAC inhibitors may also be effective against kidney stones

HDAC inhibitors may also be effective against kidney stones

Anyone who has suffered from kidney stones is keenly aware of the lack of drugs to treat the condition, which often causes excruciating pain. [More]
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics encourages parents to stock up on healthy breakfasts for kids

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics encourages parents to stock up on healthy breakfasts for kids

The back-to-school movement is in full swing. As parents scour stores for the year's school supplies, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics encourages them to stock up on healthy breakfast foods, too. [More]
Study identifies novel gene that controls nerve conduction velocity linked with MS

Study identifies novel gene that controls nerve conduction velocity linked with MS

A new study published in The American Journal of Pathology identifies a novel gene that controls nerve conduction velocity. [More]