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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Boosting intrinsic growth programs can enhance axon regeneration of injured neurons

Boosting intrinsic growth programs can enhance axon regeneration of injured neurons

Damage to axons in the central nervous system (CNS) typically results in permanent functional deficits. Boosting intrinsic growth programs can dramatically augment the axon regeneration of injured neurons. If injured neurons can regenerate sufficient number of axons, the CNS may recover and overcome such functional deficits. [More]
NOF provides evidence-based guidance to help children and adolescents attain optimal bone health

NOF provides evidence-based guidance to help children and adolescents attain optimal bone health

The National Osteoporosis Foundation today released a position statement providing evidence-based guidance and a national implementation strategy to help children and adolescents achieve optimal bone health, or what is known as "peak bone mass," early in life. [More]
Muscle protein titin plays vital role in Frank-Starling mechanism

Muscle protein titin plays vital role in Frank-Starling mechanism

Researchers at Illinois Institute of Technology and Loyola University have discovered new clues in the 100-year-old mystery of the Frank-Starling law of the heart: What makes the heart contract more strongly at longer lengths given the same level of calcium activation? [More]
Older people could be at greater risk for negative consequences of consuming high-salt diet

Older people could be at greater risk for negative consequences of consuming high-salt diet

Aging is associated with a number of changes that cause the body to function less efficiently, including the way the body controls water and sodium levels. Research has shown that as humans and animals age, they are less able to regulate sodium and water retention, urine concentration and thirst compared to their younger counterparts. [More]
Some heart disease drugs, antibiotics show promising perspectives in treating cancers

Some heart disease drugs, antibiotics show promising perspectives in treating cancers

North American researchers have identified drugs that showed promising perspectives in treating cancers, according to a recent study published in Cancer Research. [More]
High-speed acquisition of multi-wavelength fluorescence images: an interview with Jeremy Graham, Cairn Research

High-speed acquisition of multi-wavelength fluorescence images: an interview with Jeremy Graham, Cairn Research

On-chip Electron Multiplication is now a mature technology, which has allowed manufacturers to build cameras that are both fast and sensitive; ideal for live cell fluorescence imaging. [More]
Incidence and severity emerging CVD risk factors may differ between genders

Incidence and severity emerging CVD risk factors may differ between genders

The incidence and severity of both traditional and emerging cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors as well as the response to treatment may differ between genders. In this narrative review, several emerging CVD risk factors (i.e. inflammatory and haemostatic markers, endothelial dysfunction, homocysteine, lipid disorders, microalbuminuria/proteinuria, coronary artery calcium score, arterial stiffness, periodontitis, inflammatory bowel syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, impaired glucose metabolism, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) are discussed in the context of gender differences. [More]
CMU joins $12 million research project to reverse-engineer the brain's secret algorithms

CMU joins $12 million research project to reverse-engineer the brain's secret algorithms

Carnegie Mellon University is embarking on a five-year, $12 million research effort to reverse-engineer the brain, seeking to unlock the secrets of neural circuitry and the brain's learning methods. Researchers will use these insights to make computers think more like humans. [More]
Discovery could lead to new leukaemia therapies

Discovery could lead to new leukaemia therapies

Human blood cells have olfactory receptors that respond to Sandalore. This could provide a starting point for new leukaemia therapies, as researchers from Bochum report in in the journal "Cell Death Discovery". [More]
Newcastle University scientists use seaweed extract to develop 'Stem-gell' bandage for wound healing

Newcastle University scientists use seaweed extract to develop 'Stem-gell' bandage for wound healing

Publishing in STEM CELLS Translational Medicine Professor Che Connon and Dr Stephen Swioklo describe the low-cost seaweed solution. [More]
Halaven (eribulin mesylate) approved for treatment of liposarcoma

Halaven (eribulin mesylate) approved for treatment of liposarcoma

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Halaven (eribulin mesylate), a type of chemotherapy, for the treatment of liposarcoma (a specific type of soft tissue sarcoma) that cannot be removed by surgery (unresectable) or is advanced (metastatic). This treatment is approved for patients who received prior chemotherapy that contained an anthracycline drug. [More]
Parathyroid hormone may mediate antihypertensive fracture risk

Parathyroid hormone may mediate antihypertensive fracture risk

Parathyroid hormone levels may be elevated by use of some antihypertensive agents but reduced by others, analysis of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis suggests. [More]
Researchers explore ways to use light to combat cancer

Researchers explore ways to use light to combat cancer

Immunotherapy is one of the hottest emerging areas of cancer research. After all, using the body's own cells to fight cancer can be more effective and less invasive than flooding the entire system with toxic chemicals. [More]
Study finds possibility of targeting Orai3 as novel treatment for obesity-related inflammation

Study finds possibility of targeting Orai3 as novel treatment for obesity-related inflammation

A new study by a team of Rosalind Franklin University researchers headed by Carl White, PhD, assistant professor of physiology and biophysics, has discovered that the degree of chronic inflammation caused by obesity is highly dependent on levels of the signaling molecule, hydrogen sulfide, which alters the activity of a calcium channel, Orai3. [More]
Aged Garlic Extract beneficial for preventing heart disease

Aged Garlic Extract beneficial for preventing heart disease

The supplement Aged Garlic Extract can reverse the buildup of deadly plaque in arteries and help prevent the progression of heart disease, according to a new study scheduled for publication in the Journal of Nutrition. [More]
Bradycardia does not increase cardiovascular disease risk

Bradycardia does not increase cardiovascular disease risk

Bradycardia - a slower than normal heartbeat - does not increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, according to a study conducted by researchers at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. The study is published in the Jan.19 online edition of the Journal of American Medical Association Internal Medicine. [More]
Researchers identify protein structure linked to pain and heat perception

Researchers identify protein structure linked to pain and heat perception

Touch a hot stove, and your fingers will recoil in pain because your skin carries tiny temperature sensors that detect heat and send a message to your brain saying, "Ouch! That's hot! Let go!" [More]
New method helps generate cardiac cells for heart disease studies, drug discovery

New method helps generate cardiac cells for heart disease studies, drug discovery

For a team of Vanderbilt investigators trying to generate heart muscle cells from stem cells, a piece of broken equipment turned out to be a good thing. [More]
Findings offer potential new therapeutic target to boost strength of heart muscle contractions

Findings offer potential new therapeutic target to boost strength of heart muscle contractions

Researchers at UT Southwestern Medical Center have identified a previously unrecognized small protein in cells of the human heart that plays a key role in heart muscle contraction. The protein is made from an RNA that was previously believed to be a blank or non-coding RNA, suggesting there may be many other small 'non-coding' segments that play important biological roles. [More]
Standardized treatment approach makes outpatient thyroid surgery a safe option for elderly patients

Standardized treatment approach makes outpatient thyroid surgery a safe option for elderly patients

A standardized treatment approach that starts with good screening and ends with patients going home to well-prepared caregivers, means outpatient thyroid surgery is safe for the vast majority of patients, including the elderly and super-elderly, physician-scientists say. [More]
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