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Calcium, the most abundant mineral in the body, is found in some foods, added to others, available as a dietary supplement, and present in some medicines (such as antacids). Calcium is required for muscle contraction, blood vessel expansion and contraction, secretion of hormones and enzymes, and transmitting impulses throughout the nervous system. The body strives to maintain constant concentrations of calcium in blood, muscle, and intercellular fluids, though less than <1% of total body calcium is needed to support these functions.

The remaining 99% of the body's calcium supply is stored in the bones and teeth where it supports their structure. Bone itself undergoes continuous remodeling, with constant resorption and deposition of calcium into new bone. The balance between bone resorption and deposition changes with age. Bone formation exceeds resorption in growing children, whereas in early and middle adulthood both processes are relatively equal. In aging adults, particularly among postmenopausal women, bone breakdown exceeds formation, resulting in bone loss that increases the risk of osteoporosis over time.
Atomic level analysis reveals how two classes of calcium channel blockers produce different effects

Atomic level analysis reveals how two classes of calcium channel blockers produce different effects

An atomic level analysis has revealed how two classes of calcium channel blockers, widely prescribed for heart disease patients, produce separate therapeutic effects through their actions at different sites on the calcium channel molecule. [More]
Prevalence of coronary calcification similar between patients with psoriasis and type 2 diabetes

Prevalence of coronary calcification similar between patients with psoriasis and type 2 diabetes

Assessing coronary artery calcium (CAC) is a measure of the severity of atherosclerosis (clogged arteries) and a cornerstone for screening for risk of future cardiac events. The inflammatory skin condition psoriasis has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. [More]
NYU Lutheran offers many treatment options for kidney stone sufferers

NYU Lutheran offers many treatment options for kidney stone sufferers

Frederick A. Gulmi, MD, chief of urology at NYU Lutheran, cautions anyone who has never had a bout with kidney stones. [More]
Soluble corn fiber can help build and retain calcium in bone during adolescence and post-menopause

Soluble corn fiber can help build and retain calcium in bone during adolescence and post-menopause

Supplementing with soluble corn fiber at two critical times in a woman's life - adolescence and post-menopause - can help build and retain calcium in bone, according to new research from Purdue University. [More]
Neuropsychologist pinpoints risk factors for dementia

Neuropsychologist pinpoints risk factors for dementia

Dementia strikes one in 14 people in the UK over 65, and 47 million people worldwide.Yet scientists are still urgently trying to find why the disease affects some but not others. [More]
New ATA recommendations offer guidance for managing all forms of thyrotoxicosis

New ATA recommendations offer guidance for managing all forms of thyrotoxicosis

New evidence-based recommendations from the American Thyroid Association provide guidance to clinicians in the management of patients with all forms of thyrotoxicosis (excessively high thyroid hormone activity), including hyperthyroidism. [More]
Study uses mathematical models to examine link between water fluoridation and diabetes

Study uses mathematical models to examine link between water fluoridation and diabetes

Water fluoridation prevents dental cavities, which are a costly public health concern. But despite the benefits supplemental water fluoridation remains a controversial subject. [More]
Research opens door to reveal how platelets sense mechanical forces to initiate blood clotting

Research opens door to reveal how platelets sense mechanical forces to initiate blood clotting

Using a unique single-molecule force measurement tool, a research team has developed a clearer understanding of how platelets sense the mechanical forces they encounter during bleeding to initiate the cascading process that leads to blood clotting. [More]
Scientists activate neurons in the mouse brain by injecting virus containing light-sensitive proteins

Scientists activate neurons in the mouse brain by injecting virus containing light-sensitive proteins

Neurons that fire together really do wire together, says a new study in Science, suggesting that the three-pound computer in our heads may be more malleable than we think. [More]
MPFI researchers induce and visualize formation of new synapses in real time in live animals

MPFI researchers induce and visualize formation of new synapses in real time in live animals

The formation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses between neurons during early development gives rise to the neuronal networks that enable sensory and cognitive functions in humans. [More]
Researchers examine different dietary approaches to help improve nutrition for poor in Zambia

Researchers examine different dietary approaches to help improve nutrition for poor in Zambia

Over the past several decades in Zambia, data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations show that there has been a decrease in the per capita consumption of milk, meat, and eggs and an increase in starchy roots, primarily cassava. [More]
Women using contraception containing estrogen may have high vitamin D levels, study shows

Women using contraception containing estrogen may have high vitamin D levels, study shows

Women risk having their vitamin D levels fall when they stop using birth control pills or other contraceptives containing estrogen, according to a new study published in the Endocrine Society's Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. [More]
PolyU researchers discover inadequate intakes of micronutrients among Hong Kong lactating women

PolyU researchers discover inadequate intakes of micronutrients among Hong Kong lactating women

While breastfeeding has become more common across the globe in recent years, lactating women may not be aware of the nutrient adequacy of their breast milk and how their daily diet affects their nutrition intakes. [More]
Study finds older adults who sustain wrist fractures more likely to have poor balance

Study finds older adults who sustain wrist fractures more likely to have poor balance

Elderly patients suffering a low energy wrist (distal radius) fracture are more likely to have difficulties with balance, placing them at risk for future injuries, according to a new study appearing in the July 20, 2016 issue of the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. [More]
Scientists demonstrate synapses between specific neuron types form clusters

Scientists demonstrate synapses between specific neuron types form clusters

The cerebral cortex resembles a vast switchboard. Countless lines carrying information about the environment, for example from the sensory organs, converge in the cerebral cortex. [More]
New SACN guidelines recommend daily 10 micrograms intake of Vitamin D

New SACN guidelines recommend daily 10 micrograms intake of Vitamin D

The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) has published a report advising that anybody aged over one year should have a vitamin D intake of 10 micrograms a day throughout the year. [More]
Researchers identify how sensory nerve receptors work together to transmit itch signals

Researchers identify how sensory nerve receptors work together to transmit itch signals

Researchers have found how sensory nerve cells work together to transmit itch signals from the skin to the spinal cord, where neurons then carry those signals to the brain. Their discovery may help scientists find more effective ways to make itching stop. [More]
Study pinpoints how immune abnormalities in retina may lead to macular degeneration

Study pinpoints how immune abnormalities in retina may lead to macular degeneration

In a study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a University of Wisconsin-Madison research team pinpoints how immune abnormalities beneath the retina result in macular degeneration, a common condition that often causes blindness. [More]
Scientists capture new images of calcium-shuttling molecule linked to aggressive cancers

Scientists capture new images of calcium-shuttling molecule linked to aggressive cancers

Scientists have captured new images of a calcium-shuttling molecule that has been linked to aggressive cancers. The three-dimensional structure could help researchers develop novel therapies and diagnostic tools for diseases that are caused by a malfunction in calcium adsorption. [More]
Japanese researchers suggest link between stimulus response and consciousness

Japanese researchers suggest link between stimulus response and consciousness

Japanese researchers centered at Nagoya University reveal a role for orexin neurons of the hypothalamus when mice respond to painful stimuli, and suggest a link between stimulus response and consciousness. [More]
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