DNA News and Research RSS Feed - DNA News and Research

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA).

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached to a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat like a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs and the sugar and phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strand of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to have an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.
Early epigenetic changes could open way for new preventative strategies for ovarian cancer

Early epigenetic changes could open way for new preventative strategies for ovarian cancer

Research revealing early changes at epigenetic level points to possible new prevention strategies for ovarian cancer. The discovery of early changes in the cells of the Fallopian tubes of women carrying the BRCA genetic mutation could open the way for new preventative strategies for ovarian cancer, reducing the need for invasive surgery, according to research published today in science journal Nature Communications. [More]
Researchers find genetic mutations linked to increased risk factor for PTSD

Researchers find genetic mutations linked to increased risk factor for PTSD

In the largest study of DNA samples from service members with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), researchers have identified genetic mutations that may be associated with an increased risk factor for PTSD. [More]
Rare mutation may reduce risk of developing arteriosclerosis by 34%

Rare mutation may reduce risk of developing arteriosclerosis by 34%

According to new international research, just less than one per cent of the population is naturally protected against developing chronic coronary artery diseases. [More]
Study shows endoscopist knowledge of positive Cologuard result may enhance colonoscopy quality

Study shows endoscopist knowledge of positive Cologuard result may enhance colonoscopy quality

An endoscopist's knowledge of a positive Cologuard test improves colonoscopy performance, according to a poster presentation at last week's Digestive Disease Week conference. [More]
Researchers identify mutations that may stimulate early cancer growth in precancerous colorectal tissue

Researchers identify mutations that may stimulate early cancer growth in precancerous colorectal tissue

Researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have discovered mutations that may fuel early cancer growth in precancerous colorectal tissue from high-risk patients. [More]
Epigenetic modification of Igfbp2 gene may increase risk of obesity and fatty liver

Epigenetic modification of Igfbp2 gene may increase risk of obesity and fatty liver

Scientists of the German Center for Diabetes Research led by the German Institute of Human Nutrition have shown in a mouse model that the epigenetic modification of the Igfbp2 gene observed in the young animal precedes a fatty liver in the adult animal later in life. [More]
Changes in intestinal microbiota linked to primary sclerosing cholangitis

Changes in intestinal microbiota linked to primary sclerosing cholangitis

Primary sclerosing cholangitis, also known as PSC, is a liver disease with no effective medical treatment. Liver transplantation is the only proven long-term treatment of PSC, although only a fraction of individuals with PSC will ultimately require it. [More]
Chromatrap announces new 96-well high throughput purification plate for production of ultra-pure DNA

Chromatrap announces new 96-well high throughput purification plate for production of ultra-pure DNA

Chromatrap has announced a new 96-well high throughput purification plate for production of ultra-pure DNA. [More]
Could a new test improve bowel cancer screening uptake? An interview with Professor Halloran

Could a new test improve bowel cancer screening uptake? An interview with Professor Halloran

The most recent complete data for England (2014/15) shows an average uptake of the guaiac Faecal Occult Blood Tests (gFOBT) from those invited by the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) of 58.22%. [More]
Diet experiments on Lynch syndrome mouse model may help in early detection of colon cancer

Diet experiments on Lynch syndrome mouse model may help in early detection of colon cancer

Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western world, mainly because it is usually diagnosed too late. Finding ways to identify those people who are at increased risk of developing colon cancer is therefore crucial, a researcher will tell the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics today. [More]
CSU researchers develop colorful potatoes that are high in antioxidants, rich in nutrients

CSU researchers develop colorful potatoes that are high in antioxidants, rich in nutrients

Purple potatoes might not be the first thing that comes to mind when trying to increase vitamin, mineral and antioxidant intake. However, a group of researchers from Colorado State University have recently developed potato varieties that satisfy these nutritional needs and could act as a preventive measure to several diseases. [More]
LIGR-Seq tool opens door to developing new understanding of ncRNA function

LIGR-Seq tool opens door to developing new understanding of ncRNA function

What used to be dismissed by many as "junk DNA" is back with a vengeance as growing data points to the importance of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) -- genome's messages that do not code for proteins -- in development and disease. [More]
AstraZeneca, MedImmune to provide update on extensive oncology pipeline at ASCO 2016

AstraZeneca, MedImmune to provide update on extensive oncology pipeline at ASCO 2016

AstraZeneca and its global biologics research and development arm, MedImmune, will provide an update on their extensive oncology pipeline at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology in Chicago, USA, on 3-7 June 2016. [More]
Study assesses utility of tumor cfDNA as predictor of therapeutic response to immunotherapy

Study assesses utility of tumor cfDNA as predictor of therapeutic response to immunotherapy

Chronix Biomedical, Inc., a developer of blood-based molecular diagnostics, today announces positive data from a blinded proof of concept clinical study, assessing the utility of tumor cell-free DNA as a predictor of therapeutic response to immunotherapy after the first cycle of treatment in eight different types of cancer. [More]
Brandeis scientists find new way for genetically identifying cell types in mouse brain

Brandeis scientists find new way for genetically identifying cell types in mouse brain

The complexity of the human brain depends upon the many thousands of individual types of nerve cells it contains. Even the much simpler mouse brain probably contains 10,000 or more different neuronal cell types. [More]
Radiation-immunotherapy combination can help treat melanoma

Radiation-immunotherapy combination can help treat melanoma

Combining radiation treatments with a new generation of immunotherapies is showing promise as a one-two-punch against melanoma, Loyola Medicine researchers report in a review article. [More]
Microglia plays vital role in reducing effects of cocaine in the brain

Microglia plays vital role in reducing effects of cocaine in the brain

A type of brain cell known as microglia plays a key role in reducing the effects of cocaine in the brain, according to a major study by a team from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre in Montreal. [More]
Gene editing technology helps excise segment of HIV-1 DNA from genomes of living animals

Gene editing technology helps excise segment of HIV-1 DNA from genomes of living animals

Using gene editing technology, researchers at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University have, for the first time, successfully excised a segment of HIV-1 DNA - the virus responsible for AIDS - from the genomes of living animals. [More]
UCL researchers identify four genes that drive shape of human noses

UCL researchers identify four genes that drive shape of human noses

Genes that drive the shape of human noses have been identified by a UCL-led study. The four genes mainly affect the width and 'pointiness' of noses which vary greatly between different populations. The new information adds to our understanding of how the human face evolved and may help contribute to forensic DNA technologies that build visual profiles based on an individual's genetic makeup. [More]
Nanoparticle-based gene therapy may hold promise for patients with asthma

Nanoparticle-based gene therapy may hold promise for patients with asthma

A new study has demonstrated a way to deliver a nanoparticle-based gene therapy, in order to repair lungs damaged by chronic allergic asthma and to reduce inflammation that causes asthma attacks. [More]
Advertisement
Advertisement