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A hormone is a chemical released by one or more cells that affects cells in other parts of the organism. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another.
Hsp90 inhibitors could be effective in treating drug-resistant prostate cancers

Hsp90 inhibitors could be effective in treating drug-resistant prostate cancers

Men with aggressive prostate cancer that has stopped responding to conventional treatment could potentially benefit from a new class of cancer drug designed to overcome drug resistance, a new study suggests. [More]
Female hormones may be responsible for decreased risk of kidney failure in women than men

Female hormones may be responsible for decreased risk of kidney failure in women than men

Female hormones may play a role in women's decreased risk of developing kidney failure relative to men, according to a study appearing in an upcoming issue of the Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. The findings may be helpful for future attempts at safeguarding women's and men's kidney health in sex-specific ways. [More]
UW-Madison researchers develop quick, saliva-based test for measuring fertility hormone levels

UW-Madison researchers develop quick, saliva-based test for measuring fertility hormone levels

Doubts about their ability to become pregnant affect as many as 25 percent of American women, and solving that problem is the basic business plan for BluDiagnostics. Although the startup company was born in the University of Wisconsin-Madison Biochemistry Department, co-founder Katie Brenner says the idea came directly from her own difficulty with conception. [More]
Study helps discover new treatments for type 2 diabetes in men with low testosterone

Study helps discover new treatments for type 2 diabetes in men with low testosterone

Doctors have long known that men with low testosterone are at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes. For the first time, researchers have identified how testosterone helps men regulate blood sugar by triggering key signaling mechanisms in islets, clusters of cells within the pancreas that produce insulin. The findings, co-authored by Tulane University researchers, are published in the journal [More]
Changes in the brain make people prone to alcoholism

Changes in the brain make people prone to alcoholism

The brain tissue of persons with alcohol dependence shows a variety of changes compared to non-alcoholic control persons. All alcoholics' brains share some characteristics, but some are exclusive to the brain tissue of anxiety-prone type 1 alcoholics or impulsive type 2 alcoholics, according to a recent study from the University of Eastern Finland. [More]
Probiotic supplements may help treat post-menopausal osteoporosis

Probiotic supplements may help treat post-menopausal osteoporosis

Probiotic supplements protected female mice from the loss of bone density that occurs after having their ovaries removed, researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and Georgia State University have shown. [More]
New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

New fruit fly model study reveals metabolic pathway that can be targeted to treat FXS patients

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common genetically inherited cause of intellectual disability in humans. New research shows how the hormone insulin -- usually associated with diabetes -- is involved in the daily activity patterns and cognitive deficits in the fruitfly model of FXS, according to a new study from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania published online this month in Molecular Psychiatry in advance of the print issue. [More]
Derivatives of female sex hormones can influence natural melanin production, study suggests

Derivatives of female sex hormones can influence natural melanin production, study suggests

When skin cells responsible for pigmentation are exposed to estrogen or progesterone, the cells respond by adjusting their melanin production, resulting in either skin darkening or lightening. Although pregnant women often experience alterations in skin pigmentation, the reason for the changes has long puzzled physicians. [More]
International researchers make crucial discovery on formation, growth of blood vessels

International researchers make crucial discovery on formation, growth of blood vessels

As blood vessels grow, the cells that compose them must make a choice between forming side-branches or expanding the vessel surface and increasing its diameter. Now Prof. Holger Gerhardt at the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC) in the Helmholtz Association and his international research teams have made a crucial disovery about this process: the cells can behave as a collective, moving in the same direction together. [More]
Endocrine Society urges physicians to increase screening for primary aldosteronism

Endocrine Society urges physicians to increase screening for primary aldosteronism

The Endocrine Society today issued a Clinical Practice Guideline calling on physicians to ramp up screening for primary aldosteronism, a common cause of high blood pressure. [More]
Innovations in pre-clinical MRI: an interview with Priv. Doz. Dr. Dominik von Elverfeldt

Innovations in pre-clinical MRI: an interview with Priv. Doz. Dr. Dominik von Elverfeldt

To me the most exciting aspect of pre-clinical imaging is its broad range, from very basic science up to applied science. You deal with a range of disciplines including biology, chemistry, physics, biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology and of course medicine, as the aim is the translation of research to humans. [More]
Soy peptides, isoflavones can be more effective antimicrobial agent

Soy peptides, isoflavones can be more effective antimicrobial agent

Soy isoflavones and peptides may inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens that cause food-borne illnesses, according to a new study from University of Guelph researchers. [More]
Researchers gain new insights into female pelvis development

Researchers gain new insights into female pelvis development

Women have wider hips than men because their pelves must allow for the birth of large-brained babies. Nevertheless, many female pelves are still not wide enough, which can result in difficult births. Traditionally, the human pelvis has been considered an evolutionary compromise between birthing and walking upright; a wider pelvis would compromise efficient bipedal locomotion. But this hypothesis has now been called into question: According to new studies, wide hips do not reduce locomotor efficiency. [More]
Modulation of estrobolome may help lower breast cancer risk

Modulation of estrobolome may help lower breast cancer risk

Investigating disparities in the composition of the estrobolome, the gut bacterial genes capable of metabolizing estrogens in both healthy individuals and in women diagnosed with estrogen-driven breast cancer may lead to the development of microbiome-based biomarkers that could help mitigate the risk of certain cancers, according to a review paper published April 22 in the JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. [More]
Testosterone may lead to greater heart attack risk in men than women

Testosterone may lead to greater heart attack risk in men than women

Testosterone might be involved in explaining why men have a greater risk of heart attacks than women of similar age, according to a study funded by the British Heart Foundation and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council. The findings, published in the journal Scientific Reports, could lead to new therapies to help reduce heart attack risk. [More]
High fructose consumption during pregnancy may increase risk factors for heart disease in children

High fructose consumption during pregnancy may increase risk factors for heart disease in children

The negative health effects of consuming large amounts of fructose could impact several generations, according to researchers at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. [More]
Adding CYP24A1 inhibitors may improve antitumor activity of vitamin D

Adding CYP24A1 inhibitors may improve antitumor activity of vitamin D

Roswell Park Cancer Institute research on the most potent form of vitamin D, commonly called calcitriol, offers new insights into approaches that may enhance the antitumor activity of this much-studied human hormone. [More]
Small piece of detoxified E. coli wall makes mice lose natural sweet tooth, study finds

Small piece of detoxified E. coli wall makes mice lose natural sweet tooth, study finds

Putting just a tiny piece of the wall of detoxified E. coli into their gut make mice lose their natural sweet tooth, researchers report. [More]
New drug combination before surgery may improve outcomes in breast cancer patients

New drug combination before surgery may improve outcomes in breast cancer patients

Results from the I-SPY 2 trial show that giving patients with HER2-positive invasive breast cancer a combination of the drugs trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) and pertuzumab before surgery was more beneficial than the combination of paclitaxel plus trastuzumab. [More]
Delay in radiation therapy increases chances of DCIS recurrence in women

Delay in radiation therapy increases chances of DCIS recurrence in women

Delaying radiation therapy too long after surgery significantly increases the risk of recurrent tumors in women treated for very early, or what is referred to as "stage 0," breast cancer, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. [More]
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